Structural crack Non structural crack

Incorrect design Internal induced stress in
Faulty construction building material

Non Structural Crack
Penetration of moisture through crack
Weathering action
Result in corrosion of reinforcement
Structure become unsafe (structural crack)

CLASSIFICATION OF CRACKS (BASED ON WIDTH) Type Width Thin < 1 mm Medium 1-2 mm Wide > 2 mm .

COMMON SIGHT OF CRACK Vertical Straight Uniform Horizontal Toothed throughout Diagonal Stepped Narrow at one Map pattern end and gradually widening at the Random other .

Mortar 2. Masonry. Concrete. Weak in tension/shear 3. Causing tension/shear crack .INTERNAL STRESS IN BUILDING COMPONENT Compressive Tensile Shear Building material 1.

PRESENT TREND IN CONSTRUCTION Modern Structure -Tall. thin wall -Designed for higher stress -Constructed at fast pace More crack prone . slender.




CAUSE OF CRACKS IN BUILDINGS Moisture change Thermal variation Elastic deformation Creep Chemical reaction Foundation movement and settlement of soil Vegetation .

MOISTURE MOVEMENT Reversible Movement -Material expands on absorbing moisture content -Shrinks on drying Irreversible movement . Material undergo some irreversible movement due to initial moisture change .

TYPES AND CAUSES OF CRACKS IN CONCRETE Before hardening Drying -Plastic shrinkage -Settlement shrinkage -Bleeding -Delayed curing .

Constructional -Formwork movement -Excess vibration -Subgrade settlement -Finishing Early frost damage .

After hardening Unsound material Long term drying shrinkage Thermal Moisture movement Biological Structural design deficiencies Chemical Corrosion of reinforcement .

PLASTIC SHRINKAGE CRACKS Concrete surface loses water faster than the bleeding action brings it to top Quick drying of concrete at the surface results in shrinkage Concrete at the plastic state can not resist tension Crack Depth 5 to 10 cm. width 3 mm Once developed difficult to rectify .

MEASURE TO REDUCE PLASTIC CRACK Moisture the sub grade and form work Erect the temporary wind breaker Erect the temporary roof to protect green concrete from hot sun Reduce the time between placing & finishing In case of delay in finishing cover the concrete with polythene .

no crack occurs Obstruction to uniform settlement creates voids/cracks (Reinforcement/Aggregate) Settlement crack (common in deep beam) . SETTLEMENT SHRINKAGE If concrete is free to settle uniformly.

MEASURE Pouring of concrete in layers with proper compaction Revibration. if possible .

BLEEDING Upward movement of water when concrete settle downs Internal bleeding -Bleeding water trapped below reinforcement & aggregate .Affects bonds between reinforcement and concrete -Interface. prone to micro cracking -Weak link in concrete -Further loading propagate cracking .

. External Bleeding -Upward movement of water emerged at top surface -After evaporation : surface – Porous and abrasion resistance very little.

Downward movement of coarse aggregate -Upward movement of fine particles (cement and water) Top surface -Presence of fine materials develops crack and craziness (Craziness: occurrence of closely spaced crack at surface) . GENERAL OBSERVATIONS Mason floats concrete when bleeding water still standing. Results .

DELAYED CURING Common practice -Delayed curing -Interruption in continuous curing -Curing not done for required period Major cause for shrinkage Minimum 7 to 10 days curing required .

Exhibits high shrinkage crack . CONSTRUCTIONAL EFFECTS Crack/Deformation of plastic concrete (After Compaction) -Lack of rigidity of formwork (Remains unnoticed) -Use of high consistency concrete (present trend) : Pumping requirement. Use of superplasticizer -Avoid segregation by proper vibration Segregated Concrete Mix.









analogous to human system. H2S. The rate of decay varies depending upon the material and its environment. The human system cannot endure Temp above 50C or below 20C Pressures above or below our atmospheres Presence of harmful gases such as CO. inhibitors. engineering materials also require protection like coatings. inspection and re-furnishing. maintenance. . alloy addition. design procedures. Thus. and H2.Virtually no practical and engineering material is stable.

Corrosion is the disintegration of an engineered material into its constituent atom due to chemical reactions with its surroundings. this means electrochemical oxidation of metals in reaction with an oxidant such as O2. . In the most common use of the word.

EFFECTS OF CORROSION Reduces Strength Life time is reduced Metallic properties are lost Wastage of metal .

IMPORTANCE OF CORROSION DATA  5 mpy Good corrosion resistant material  5 to 50 mpy Low corrosion resistant material  50 mpy Unsuitable as constructional material .



Examples of such an approach are the development of corrosion-resistant alloys. . ACTIVE CORROSION PROTECTION The aim of active corrosion protection is to influence the reactions which proceed during corrosion. . it being possible to control not only the package contents and the corrosive agent but also the reaction itself in such a manner that corrosion is avoided.

PERMANENT CORROSION PROTECTION The purpose of permanent corrosion protection methods is mainly to provide protection at the place of use. biotic & chemical factors are relatively slight in this situation. The stresses presented by climatic. in factories shed are protected from extreme variations in temperature. . For example. which is frequently the cause of condensation.

Areas with moist soils will have more foundation settlement than dry areas. the structure will shift according to the empty spaces the water left. This can cause damage to the structure. Whether the soil is moist or dry is central to predicting the amount of settlement to expect in a given foundation. . the more shift. FOUNDATION SETTLEMENT Foundation settlement is the shifting of the foundation (and the structure built upon it) into the soil. The more water. The idea is that as water is squeezed out from the soil.

(Important for Inorganic clays) Secondary Consolidation: Occurs at constant effective stress with volume change due to rearrangement of particles. (Important for Organic soils) 42 . hence volume change. SETTLEMENT Immediate or Elastic Settlement: Occurs immediately after the construction. This is computed using elasticity theory (Important for Granular soil) Primary Consolidation: Due to gradual dissipation of pore pressure induced by external loading and consequently expulsion of water from the soil mass.







immediate settlement is relatively easy to predict and measure. but is merely caused by the weight of the structure. Predominates in cohesion less soils and unsaturated clay Immediate settlement analysis are used for all fine-grained soils including silts and clays with a degree of saturation < 90% and for all coarse grained soils with large co-efficient of permeability (say above 10. In many cases.Immediate Settlement or elastic Settlement Immediate settlement concerns the initial pressure on the soil under and surrounding the foundation. It has nothing to do with water displacement. It is "immediate" because it occurs during and right after construction. TYPES OF FOUNDATION SETTLEMENT 1. as the shift slowly continues over time. given the nature of the soil. Immediate settlement takes place as the load is applied or within a time period of about 7 days.2 m/s) . Damage usually occurs only in the long term. In terms of building foundations. foundations are constructed with the ability to withstand a certain amount of shift without damage.

The principal settlements for most projects occur in 3 to 10 years. 2. Expulsion of moisture from the soil usually is a long-term process. Consolidation settlement is the settling of a foundation. This. Dominates in saturated/nearly saturated fine grained soils where consolidation theory applies. thus compressing it. Here we are interested to estimate both consolidation settlement and how long a time it will take or most of the settlement to occur. is an extreme case. due to pressure exerted by the structure and squeezes out the water content of the soil. however. . The lean is caused by consolidation settlement being greater on one side. The leaning tower of Pisa in Italy has been undergoing consolidation settlement for over 700 years. Consolidation is the more worrisome form of settlement because it is difficult to predict over months or years. Consolidation settlements are time dependent and take months to years to develop. over time.Consolidation Consolidation settlement is distinguished from immediate settlement both by the duration of the settlement and by displacement of water.

. Every few years some form of restoration is performed to ensure that the tower does not become unstable or collapse.The Leaning Tower of Pisa is the bell tower of the Cathedral. Several engineers have proposed plans to “straighten” the tower. locals do not want the tower to be straightened. with its 800+ years of “leaning” history. sponge-like saturated clay soil on which the foundation of the tower rests. The softer area within this strata has settled more causing the tilt. Its construction was commenced in 1173 and contiued haltingly over a period of 200 years! The tower began “leaning” soon after construction began in 1173. However. The inclination of the tower is attributed to the non-uniform.

Primary and Secondary Consolidation Consolidation settlement has two components. Secondary consolidation occurs immediately after primary. Primary consolidation is the most significant and potentially harmful of the two. and the latter deals with the elastic settlement after all movable water has been squeezed out of the soil. and takes far less time to complete. from weeks to years. Primary consolidation takes quite a bit of time. . 3. and all movable water has been moved. secondary kicks in. Once primary has been completed. Secondary consolidation is the quicker result of primary consolidation. The former deals explicitly with the settlement caused by soil moisture displacement. primary and secondary.

the structure remains in its permanent position. many builders advise residents in new homes to avoid repairing any settlement damage until secondary consolidation is complete. . Predominates in highly plastic clays and organic clays. As a result. which is normally after two years at most. Occurs under constant effective stress due to continuous rearrangement of clay particles into a more stable configuration. After secondary consolidation is complete.


Total settlement refers to the uniform settlement of the entire structure
and occurs due to weight of the structure and imposed loads.
When all points settle with equal amount, the settlement is called


Differential settlement refers to the the unequal settling of a
building's piers or foundation that can result in damage
to the structure. The damage occurs when the
foundation sinks in different areas at different times.
Differential or uneven settlement can occur if the loads on
the structure are unevenly distrbuted, variations in the
soil properties or due to construction related variations.

Angular distortion Type of limit and structure 1/150 Structure damage of general buildings expected 1/250 Tilting of high rigid buildings may be visible 1/300 Cracking in panel walls expected Difficulties with overhead cranes 1/500 Limit for buildings in which cracking is not permissible 1/600 Overstressing of structural frames with diagonals 1/750 Difficulty with machinery sensitive to settlement .

Causes Differential settlement is primarily due to the condition of the soil upon which the structure sits. These cracks lead to cracks in the building's interior walls and uneven settling of the building's doors. Effects The settlement causes cracks in a structure's foundation. or changes in the water table. Soil has the capacity to expand or contract based upon the temperature or weather conditions. soil drying unevenly. slab or supporting piers. windows and trim. . heavy rainfall. It can also shift or wash away due to poor drainage.

Prevention and Solution The best way to prevent damage from differential settlement is to thoroughly analyze the soil and make necessary amendments before construction begins. . It may be necessary to reinforce the structure's piers or foundations if a problem occurs after the building has been constructed.

SIGNS OF FOUNDATION SETTLEMENT When the foundation to your home or office building has settled. The most common reasons for changes in the foundation include shifting soil. changes in the soil or even changes in the moisture. Knowing signs of foundation settlement can help you address the issue in your home or avoid purchasing a home with severe foundation movement. it means that there has been movement of the building below the position in which it was built. Most houses experience some settling after construction. but these are normally not significant. .

Plumbing lines can also be affected by a poor foundation as well as mechanical equipment. Gaps between the windows and doors with the frame may also occur. Windows. . Large cracks. Small cracks are often because of minor foundation settlement or even because of expansion and contraction of the settlement. Doors and Plumbing Foundation settlement may make it difficult to open or close doors and windows because the door frame does not fit the door and causes some sticking. however. A door or window may not close all the way. Cracks Settlement cracks often occur in the foundation or the house slab or on the ceilings and walls. can represent a more significant concern. Cracks can warrant concern if they exceed one-quarter of an inch in width.


however.Tilted Chimney A tilted chimney is a sign that the foundation of a building or home has settled. A slight shift in the chimney may not be as noticeable. it can be difficult to recognize unless it is severe. . but it is a sign of a shifting or settling foundation. EXAMPLES OF PREDICTION OF SETTLEMENT 1.

Nails and allpaper shift if the walls move and they do not bind or attach to he wall any more.Loose Nails and Wallpaper When nails begin to loosen or wallpaper starts to separate from the walls. it can be a sign of a foundation problem. Bending or bowing walls can be a sign of the ge of the home. . 2. deterioration of the home or shrinkage. settling of the foundation.

such as rotting or termite damage. the foundation causing the sloping floor may need to be jacked up so that new footers can be installed. . 3-Slanted flooring Slanted or sloped flooring may be a result of foundation settlement in a specific area of the building's foundation or other structural issues. In some cases.

available at home improvement stores. If it is. 3 -Fill the crack with concrete repair mortar mix. 2 -Paint the crack with a latex bonding agent. wear safety goggles. 5 -Paint the patch and the area immediately surrounding it with a water-based polyurethane sealer. work gloves and a dust mask to clean the crack using a stiff wire brush and whisk broom. Instructions For Shallow Cracks 1 -Gauge the depth of the crack to determine whether it is less than a 1/2-inch deep. available at home improvement stores. Mix and apply the mortar according to the label directions on the mix. 4 -Allow the patch to dry and settle for 24 hours. Apply more mortar mix if necessary and trowel smooth. then clean the area around the crack. to protect the patch from water seepage and staining. available at home improvement stores. while the latex bonding agent is still wet. . to improve the bond when the mortar mix is applied.

. use a hammer and chisel to remove loose chunks of concrete. If it is more than 1/2-inch deep and 1 inch wide. Be sure to remove all weak areas around the crack that are crumbling or in danger of breaking off. 7. available at home improvement stores. Smooth with a trowel and let it set for 24 hours.Wear safety goggles. 9.Paint the patch area and the area immediately surrounding it with a water- based polyurethane sealer. Add more filler. Instructions For Deep Cracks 6. if needed. while the sealer is still wet.Fill the crack with concrete repair mortar mix. Paint the crack with a water-based polyurethane sealer. according to label directions. work gloves and a dust mask to clean the crack.Use a stiff wire brush to abrade the crack and sweep it out thoroughly to remove all debris. 8.

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