Quality Management in
Welding

Definition of “Quality”  Fitness for purpose or use  Conformance to specified requirements  The totality of features & characteristics of a product or service that bears on its ability to satisfy the stated and/or implied needs .

New Definition of “Quality”  Meeting and anticipating customer’s requirements. stated or implied  At a given time and over a period of time  At a price the customer can afford and is willing to pay  Introducing new and better products into the market faster than competitor  Continuously bringing down the cost of manufacturing .

Thus “Quality” is termed as simply the price of entering the market and no more conformance to specification or competitive edge and re-defined as “Value” perceived by the customers Customer Delight if Value / Price is much greater than 1 .

Error Free OR Defect Free performance “Do the right things right the first time and every time” OPERATIONAL . “Quality” is better defined as….

. The changing trend. Six Sigma Quality Total Quality Management Quality Assurance Management ..ISO 9000 Company wide Quality Control Management Quality Control Management Inspection Management .

CONTINUAL IMPROVEMENT Plan Do Performance Act Check Assurance Time .

benchmark for formal quality systems . Quality Systems  Foundation of Total Quality Management  Network for integration of all business processes in the organisation  documented company wide operating structure effectively integrating the technical and managerial actions to produce consistent quality products and services  ISO 9000 .

Analysis and Improvement .. ISO 9000 Standards..  Quality Management Standards  Promotes uniformity in approach  Delivers consistency in output  Aids improvement in Quality and Productivity  Defines Documentation and Records  Focus on Corrective / Preventive actions  Thrust on Measurement.

Process Capability. Performance requirements for Product  Design Quality Assurance for performance. Code requirements for design. Process Sheets.Qualified Suppliers. materials & manufacture. Handling-Storage-Painting-Preservation-Despatch & qualified Personnel  Inspection & Test programme . Inspection & Testing covering Type and Routine tests  Manufacturing Quality Assurance .Incoming. In-process & Final Inspection/Examination/Testing requirements. Verification & Validation  Procurement Quality Assurance . qualified Inspection & Test personnel and Data Folder . Quality Assurance Plan  Market needs. assembly and Code compliance - Design Review. Agreement on Specification.Process Qualification.Customer & Statutory liaison . Calibration of Instruments.

Calibration. Materials etc. Codes and Standards  Code: Mandatory requirements specified and regulated by the Law to ensure “Safety”  Standards: Basis of Agreement to avoid communication mismatch. Design. Audit. .  Specifications: These include the mandatory requirements of the Code and the agreed requirements of the relevant Standards and forms part of the contract. Also aids in promoting interchangeability. ‘Standards’ include specified requirements for Product. Manufacture/Process. Inspection & Testing.

Quality Management  Quality Assurance: comprises of all the planned and systematic actions necessary to provide adequate confidence that a product or service will satisfy the requirements of Quality  Quality Control: comprises of all the operational techniques and activities that are used to fulfill requirements of Quality  Quality Management: All activities of the overall management function that determine the quality policy. quality control and quality improvement. and implementing through structured Quality Systems by means of quality planning. objectives and responsibilities. .

Examination and Testing shall be planned. Welding Quality Management  Welding and Heat Treatment are defined as “Special Processes”. where subsequent inspection cannot validate the conformance to requirements completely. calibration of equipment and defining Inspection methodologies to suit the application of the final product . Need for Quality Assurance and process controls is thus stressed. structured and built in the relevant stages to prevent defects and rejections  Quality Management in welding would thus become a total program covering the materials control. qualification of procedures and personnel.  Inspection. consumable controls.

Test coupons. Preheat & Post weld heat treatment requirements  Welding Personnel o Welder Qualification. fit up. Equipment calibration  NDE o Qualified procedures. technique sheet. Interpass temperature. Volumetric and surface examination . Aspects of QM in Welding  Material Requirements o Selection. Position and applicability. Chemistry control  Welding Procedure Specification o Procedure Qualification. Specification. Range. Range and applicability. Process Sheets for techniques. Skill requirements  Quality Control o Preheat. personnel. Impact.

distance between thermocouples o Determination of soaking period o Control of Rate of Heating/Cooling o Clear actions when there is a power breakdown during heat treatment o Temperature optimisation when there are different grades of materials . Aspects of QM in Heat Treatment  Minimum Requirements o Furnace or Local o Qualification of Furnaces/Calibration of Instruments o Locating of jobs – avoid direct flame impingement – Ensure test coupon loading o Location of Thermocouples covering thickest and thinnest part.

Quality Costs .

But these costs are the costs of doing it wrong first time .  For example if we design the product right first time. . resetting. repair. build it right first time . Quality in the long run results in increased profitability. Quality is Free Many think that quality costs money and adversely effects profits. warranty work etc. rework.we save all the costs of redesign. scrap.

service. win. companies companies will will need to offer high quality for a lower price price than than their their competitors. Quality and Profit IfIf the the organization organization does does not offer high quality product product or or service. ButBut just just having having high high quality quality will will not Quality be be enough. enough. itit will will soon soon go go out out ofof High business. To To win. quality. because because youryour competitors competitors will will also also have have the high high quality. business. competitors. This This requires requires organizations organizations to to identify identify and and reduce reduce their their quality quality costs costs Lower price .

Internal Failure Costs 4. Prevention Costs 2. External Failure Costs . Quality Costs Quality costs are all those costs that arise from not performing a task the right way the first time. 1. Appraisal Costs 3.

maintenance and planning prior to actual operation in order to avoid defects from happening. . implementation.   The emphasis is on the prevention of defects in order to reduce the probability of producing defective products. The motto is “Prevention rather than appraisal” . Prevention Costs   Prevention costs are associated with design. Prevention activities lead to reduction of appraisal costs and both type of failures (internal and external).