ASSESSMENT OF STUDENT

LEARNING

Arlan M. Villanueva, M.A.
Commonwealth High School

What is Assessment?

 Assessment is a systematic process of gathering,
interpreting, and acting upon data related to student
learning and experience for the purpose of
developing a deep understanding of what students
know, understand, and can do with their knowledge
as a result of their educational experience; the
process culminates when assessment results are
used to improve subsequent learning.
Huba and Freed, 2000

Key Points

 Assessment is an ongoing
process aimed at
understanding and
improving student learning
Multiple methods
Criteria and standards
Evidence
Students know, can do and
understand
It’s more than just collecting
data

Sequence in Preparing Instructionally
Relevant Assessment

INSTRUCTION
Indicates the learning
outcomes to be attained
by students

LEARNING TASK
Is there Specifies the particular set
close of learning task(s) to be
agreement assessed.
?

ASSESSMENT
Provides a procedure
designed to measure a
representative sample of
the instructionally relevant
learning tasks.

What is the Assessment Process?

AIMS

ADJUSTMENT ACTION

ASSESSMENT

performance)  To find out how students go about the task of doing their work (process)  To find out how students feel about their work (motivation. effort) .Importance of Assessment  To find out what the students know (knowledge)  To find out what the students can do. and how well they can do it (skill.

.  To provide common definitions and benchmarks for student abilities that will enable us to act more coherently and effectively to promote student learning.What is Student Assessment for?  To help us design and modify programs to better promote learning and student success.

. and mentoring to students so as to help them better plan and execute their educational programs. guidance.What is Student Assessment for?  To provide feedback.  To provide improved feedback about student learning to support faculty in their work.

Functions of Assessment  Diagnostic: tell us what the student needs to learn  Formative: tell us how well the student is doing as work progresses  Summative: tell us how well the student did at the end of a unit/task .

What can be assessed?  Student learning characteristics -Ability differences -Learning styles  Student motivational characteristics -Interest -Self-efficacy -goal orientation .

What can be assessed? Cont.  Learning – Content knowledge – Ability to apply content knowledge – Skills – Dispositions and attitudes – Performances .

How should we assess?  True –False Item  Inventories  Multiple Choice  Checklist  Completion  Peer Rating  Short Answer  Self Rating  Essay  Journal  Practical Exam  Portfolio  Papers/Reports  Observations  Projects  Discussions  Questionnaires  Interviews .

 It should be valid. and should not be too costly.  It should be simple to operate.  It should be seen by students and society in general.  It should benefit all students. . Criteria In Choosing an Assessment Method  It should be reliable.

Who should be involved in assessment?  The teacher  The student  The student’s peer  Administrator  Parents .

What should we do with the information from our assessment?  Use it to improve the focus of our teaching (diagnosis)  Use it to focus student attention of strengths and weaknesses (motivation)  Use it to improve program planning (program assessment)  Use it for reporting to parents .

g. short answer. multiple choice. higher skills -Knowledge vs. and evaluation -Authentic tasks e. T/F. essay (recall) . synthesis. matching (recognition).Classroom Assessment  Paper and pencil assessments: Ask students to respond in writing to questions or problem -Item level: Assessing lower vs. application. analysis.

.Paper and Pencil Assessment  Strengths -Can cover a lot of material reasonably well -Fair -Effective in assessing declarative knowledge of content .Easier to construct and administer than performance assessments  Weaknesses -Require forethought and skill -Less effective in assessing procedural knowledge and creative thinking -Construction of good higher level recognition items is difficult -Recall items that do a good job of assessing higher level thinking (essay questions) are difficult to score.

Products: drawings. term papers. reciting a poem. poems.assessment that elicits and evaluates actual student performances  Types of Performances: 1. acting tryouts. Behavior: time trial for running a mile. solution to authentic problems 2. science experiments. dancing .Performance Assessments .

Performance assessments  Strengths -Effective for assessing higher level thinking and authentic learning -Effective for assessing skill and procedural learning -Interesting and motivating for students  Weaknesses -Emphasize depth at the expense of breadth -Difficult to construct -Time consuming to administer -Hard to score fairly .

multiple choice.  Traditional assessment practices reflect what students are able to recall from memory through various means. . and matching questions. true/false. such as. fill in the blank.How can we assess student learning?  Traditional assessment: assess student knowledge and skills in relative isolation from real world context.

and conferences with students. It requires information from a variety of source such as content work samples.  Occurs when the authenticity of student learning has been observed.How can we assess student learning?  Authentic assessment: assess students’ ability to use what they’ve learning in tasks similar to those in the outside world. . observation during class activities.

Examples  Verbal -Asking questions -Listening to student discussions -Conducting student conferences .Classroom Assessment  Informal Assessment: teachers’ spontaneous. day to day observations of student performances.

Informal Assessment-cont.  Nonverbal -Observing -Task performances -On-and off-task behavior -student choices -student body language .

Informal Assessment  Strengths -Facilitates responsive teaching -Can be done during teaching -Easy to individualize  Weaknesses -Requires high level of teacher skill -Is vulnerable to -Bias -Inequities -Mistakes .

. Strengths -allows the teacher to evaluate all students systematically on the important skills and concepts -helps teachers determine how well students are progressing over the entire year -provides useful information to parents and administrators.Classroom Assessment  Formal assessment: assessment that is planned in advance and used to assess a predetermined content and/or skill domain.

journals. survey. peer reviews and other such items. purposeful.Portfolios  A collection of student samples representing or demonstrating student academic growth. charts. group reports. maps. and meaningful collections of students’ work in one or more subject areas. It may contain written work. It can include formative and summative assessment. .  Portfolios are systematic.

Importance of Portfolios For Students  Shows growth over time  Displays student’s accomplishment  Helps students make choices  Encourages them to take responsibility for their work  Demonstrates how students think .

parents. and teachers  Showcases an ongoing curriculum  Facilitates student information for decision making .Importance of Portfolios For Teachers  Highlights performance-based activities over year  Provides a framework for organizing student’s work  Encourages collaboration with students.

Importance of Portfolios For Parents  Offer insight into what their children do in school  Facilitates communication between home and school  Gives the parents an opportunity to react to what their child is doing in school and to their development  Shows parents how to make a portfolio so they may do one at home at the same time .

Importance of Portfolios For Administrators  Provides evidence that teacher/school goals are being met  Shows growth of students and teachers  Provides data from various sources .

What do portfolios contain? Three basic models:  Showcase model.  Descriptive model. with no attempt at evaluation. consisting of work samples chosen by the student. . consisting of representative products that have been evaluated by criteria.  Evaluative model. consisting of representative work of the student.

Disadvantages of Portfolio  Require more time for faculty to evaluate than test or simple-sample assessment. such as recall of knowledge. usually outside of class.  Do not easily demonstrate lower-level thinking.  Require students to compile their own work.  May threaten students who limit their learning to cramming for doing it at the last minute. .

usually handed out before the assignment begins in order to get students to think about the criteria on which their work will be judged.  It is a working guide for students and teachers. .Rubric  It is a scoring guide that seeks to evaluate a student’s performance based on the sum of a full range of criteria rather than a single numerical score.

Rubrics are scoring criteria for  Free-response Questions  Scientific reports  Oral or Power point presentations  Reflections/Journals  Essay  Laboratory-based performance tests  Article review or reactions  Portfolios  Many others .

Explain why there is a difference a time between seeing lightning and hearing thunder. Level of Performance Criteria Sample Answer 4 Response include the fact that light Light is faster than sound. Wendy noticed that she always heard thunder shortly after she saw a flash of lighting.Open-ended Question During a storm. 3 Response only mentions the fact that Sound travels slower light is faster than sound. makes the You can see the lightning connection with scenario bolt before sound reaches you. does not than light relate the concept of hearing and seeing 2 Response is scientifically incorrect Sound is faster than light 1 Question or parts of question Thunder follows lightning restated 0 No answer or answer erased . travels faster than sound.

.Concept Mapping  It requires students to explore links between two or more related concepts. they clarify in their minds the links they have made of the concepts and having visual representation of these links. When making concept maps. they are better able to rearrange of form new links when new concepts are introduced.

measuring tools.Laboratory Performance  In this format students and teachers know the requirements in advance and prepare them. Students are rated on appropriate and effective use of laboratory equipment. The teacher judges the student performance within a specific time frame and setting. and safety laboratory procedures as well as a hands-on designing of an investigation. .

 Interest Inventories: student responses to questions designed to find out past experience and or current interest in a topic. either verbally or in writing. These responses may indicate an ability or interest in a particular field. .Inventories  Diagnostic Inventories: Student responses to a series of questions or statements in any field. subject or activity.

 Peer Evaluation: judgments by students about one another’s performance relative to stated criteria and program outcomes .Classroom Assessment  Presentation: a presentation by one student or by a group of students to demonstrate the skills used in the completion of an activity or the acquisition of curricular outcomes/expectations. debate etc. lecture. Powerpoint or Corel presentations. Computers can also be used for presentation when using such software as Hyperstudio. lab presentation. The presentation can take the form of a skit.

There are two types: one in which students write with minimal direction what he/she is thinking and or feeling and the other requires students to compete a specific written assignment and establishes restrictions and guidelines necessary to accurately accomplish the assignment. Journals can evolve different types of reflecting writing. .Journal Assessment  This refer to student’s ongoing record of expressions experiences and reflections on a given topic. and role playing. painting. drawing.

REFLECTIVE JOURNAL What happened? How do I feel What did I learn? about it? .

SYNTHESIS JOURNAL What I What I How I Did? learned? can Use It? .

SPECULATION ABOUT EFFECTS JOURNAL What happened? What could happen because of this? .

 Assessment is integrated with student’s day-to-day learning experiences rather than a series of an end- of-course tests.  Classroom assessment is not only for grading or ranking purposes.Summary  A fair assessment is one in which students are given equitable opportunities to demonstrate what they know and can do. Its goal is to inform instruction by providing teachers with information to help them make good educational decisions. .

means better learning.Why link assessment with instruction? Better assessment Better teaching means better teaching. . Better students Better learning mean better means opportunities better students. for a better life.

“but have you read the specs on this order?” TEACHER: …must stand above all students. It was His sixth day of “overtime’’ and He knew that this was a tremendous responsibility for teachers would touch the lives of so many impressionable young children. …must communicate vital knowledge to all students daily and be right most of the time . (Read and Take Joy in being a Teacher) THE CREATION OF A TEACHER Anonymous The Good Lord was creating teachers.” “Yes. “You are taking a long time to figure this one out. yet be on their level …must be able to do 180 things not connected with the subject being taught …must run on coffee and leftovers.” said the Lord. An angel appeared to Him and said.

Another pair of eyes is in the back of the teacher’s head to see what should not be seen. and worried parents …must go on teaching when parents question every move and others are not supportive …must have 6 pair of hands. “this is a very large project and I think you should work on it tomorrow”. said the Lord. “Three pairs of eyes…on a standard model?” The Lord nodded His head.The Creation of a Teacher …must have more time for others than for herself/himself …must have a smile that can endure through pay cuts. .” said the angel. “One pair can see a student for what he is and not what others have labeled him as. “it is not the hands that are the problem. without so much as saying a word to the child. The eyes in the front are only to look at the child as he/she ‘acts out’ in order to reflect. “Six pair of hands. problematic children. but what must be known. “said the angel. It is the three pairs of eyes that are presenting the most difficulty!” The angel looked incredulous. “that’s impossible” “Well.” “Lord. I understand and I still believe in you”.

I have one that comes to work when he/she is sick…teachers a class of children that do not want to learn… has a special place in his/her heart for children who are not his/her own…understands the struggles of those who have difficulty…never takes the students for granted…” The angel looked closely at the model the Lord was creating. “but also tough. “for I have come very close to creating something much like Myself.” The Lord moved in closer and lifted the drop of moisture from the teacher’s cheek. said the Lord.” said the Lord. “It is a tear. “Can this teacher think?” asked the angel.” . your job looks fine but there is a leak. “Not only think. “but reason and compromise.The Creation of a Teacher “I can’t. “said the angel. “Yes. Lord. if necessary”. “said the angel. You can not imagine the stress that will be placed upon the teacher.” He said. “Well. “It is not a leak. I told you that you were putting too much into this model.” said the Lord. You can not imagine what this teacher can endure or do..” The angel cam closer to have a better look at the model and ran his finger over the teacher’s cheek. “It is too soft-hearted. It shone and glistened in the light.

” . “It is for the joy and pride of seeing a child accomplish even the smallest task. It is for the loneliness of children who have a hard time to fit in and it is for compassion for the feelings of their parents. It comes often when a teacher has been with a class for a year and must say good. It comes from the pain of not being able to reach some children and the disappointment those children feel in themselves.bye to those students and get ready to welcome a new class.” said the angel. “What is a tear for?” The Lord replied with great thought.” “My. "The tear thing is a great idea…You are a genius!” The Lord looked somber. “I didn’t put it there.The Creation of a Teacher “A tear? What is that?” asked the angel.

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