Cellular Mobile Communications-I

An Introduction
Dr. Nasir D. Gohar

Cellular Mobile Communications-I
An Introduction

 Cell Phone Growth in Pakistan & Worldwide
 According to a Media Report (Goliath, May 25, 2005), Cell
Phones in Pakistan to Touch 15M mark in December 2005
 Another Media Report (Middle East Times, June 20, 2006)
Predicts the number of Cell Phones will rise from 2.2 Billion to 3
Billion worldwide by the end of Year 2008
 According to MOBILEDIA (Jan 20, 2006)
 U.S. offers more room for growth than Russia, and Japan offers greater
future growth than South Africa
 The number of mobile subscribers worldwide reached over 2 billion by the
end of 2005, and is predicted to rise to 3.96 billion by 2011
 The Asia Pacific Region will account for 50% of the total number of
subscribers worldwide by the end of this decade with a staggering 1.067
billion subscribers shared between China and India alone, the world's two
biggest mobile markets

Remote Controllers [TV/VCR/DISH] Pagers/Beepers  Semi-Duplex System: Communication is possible in two directions but one talks and other listens at any time[Push to Talk System]: Walki-Talki  Duplex System: Communication is possible in both directions at any time: Cellular Telephone [FDD or TDD] .Cellular Mobile Communications-I An Introduction Several Types of Mobile Radio Systems  Garage Door Controller [<100 MHz]  Remote Controllers [TV/VCR/DISH][Infra-Red: 1-100 THz]  Cordless Telephone [<100 MHz]  Hand-Held Radio [Walki-Talki] [VHF-UHF:40-480 MHz]  Pagers/Beepers [< 1 GHz]  Cellular Mobile Telephone[<2 GHz] Classification  Simplex System: Communication is possible in only one direction : Garage Door Controller.

Stock Info.Cellular Mobile Communications-I An Introduction Paging System: For Transmission of Brief Numeric/Alpha- numeric/Voice Messages [Pages] to Subscriber  To Notify/Alert the User  Simplex Service  Modern Paging Systems Can Send News Head-Lines. or Fax  Application Dependent System Range [2 Km to World-wide] City 1 Land Line Link Paging Terminal PSTN City 2 Land Line Link PAGING CONTROL Paging Terminal CENTRE City N Paging Terminal .

DECT. PHS.Cellular Mobile Communications-I An Introduction Cordless Telephone System: To Connect a Fixed Base Station to a Portable Cordless Handset  Early Systems (1980s) have very limited range of few tens of meters [within a House Premises]  Modern Systems [PACS. PCS] can provide a limited range & mobility within Urban Centers Cordless Handset Fixed Base PSTN Station .

and 5000 Simultaneous Calls  Handles Handoff Requests. Call Initiation Requests. and all Billing & System Maintenance Functions . other Radio Equipment [Transceivers] plus a small Tower  Mobile Switching Center [MSC] /Mobile Telephone Switching Office[MTSO]  An Interface between Base Stations and the PSTN  Controls all the Base Stations in the Region and Processes User ID and other Call Parameters  A typical MSC can handle up to 100.000 Mobiles.Cellular Mobile Communications-I An Introduction  Limitations of Simple Mobile Radio Systems  The Cellular Approach  Divides the Entire Service Area into Several Small Cells  Reuse the Frequency  Basic Components of a Cellular Telephone System  Cellular Mobile Phone: A light-weight hand-held set which is an outcome of the marriage of Graham Bell’s Plain Old Telephone Technology [1876] and Marconi’s Radio Technology [1894] [although a very late delivery but very cute]  Base Station: A Low Power Transmitter.

Cellular Mobile Communications-I An Introduction .

Cellular Mobile Communications-I An Introduction  The Cellular Concept  RF spectrum is a valuable and scarce commodity  RF signals attenuate over distance  Cellular network divides coverage area into cells. transmission range determines cell boundary  RF spectrum divided into distinct groups of channels  Adjacent cells are (usually) assigned different channel groups to avoid interference  Cells separated by a sufficiently large distance to avoid mutual interference can be assigned the same channel group  frequency reuse among co-channel cells . each served by its own base station transceiver and antenna  Low (er) power transmitters used by BSs.

6 are assigned distinct channel groups – system capacity = 175 channels . (3. cells (1. 5). 4). 7).Cellular Mobile Communications-I An Introduction  An Example of Frequency Reuse  Suppose we have spectrum for 100 voice channels  Scenario 1: a high power base station covering entire area – system capacity = 100 channels  Scenario 2: divide spectrum into 4 groups of 25 channels each. (2.

Cellular Mobile Communications-I An Introduction Frequency Reuse Factor  Frequency Reuse Factor N = No. of Distinct Channel Groups = Maximum Cluster Size .

N = 4  system capacity n = 25000 users  Scenario 4:  M = 100 cells. N = 1  system capacity n = 100000 users .Cellular Mobile Communications-I An Introduction Frequency Reuse Example-2  Suppose W = 25 MHz and B = 25 KHz/voice channel  W/B = 1000 voice channels can be supported over the spectrum  Scenario 1: a high power base station covering entire area (M = N = 1)  system capacity n = 1000 users  Scenario 2:  Coverage area divided into M = 20 cells with reuse factor N = 4  Each cluster accommodate 1000 active users  5 clusters in coverage area  system capacity n = 5000 users  Scenario 3:  M = 100 cells.

Cellular Mobile Communications-I An Introduction  Common Air Interface (CAI) Common Air Interface: A Standard that defines Communication between a Base Station and Mobile Specifies Four Channels [Voice Channels and Control / Setup Channels] Reverse Channel FVC: Forward Voice Channel RVC: Reverse Voice Channel FCC: Forward Control Channel Forward Channel RCC: Reverse Control Channel .

and service provider: Electronic Serial Number(ESN) -A Unique 32-bit Code Mobile Identification Number(MIN): A Subscriber’s Telephone Number  Station Class mark (SCM): Indicates the Max Tx Power for the User When a Cellular Phone is turned on and Initiates a Call:[see next slide] Monitors the Control Channels and gets hold on to the strongest one Makes a Call Initiation Request[Dials the Called part Number. MIN . its owner.Cellular Mobile Communications-I An Introduction  Call Setup Procedure Cellular Phone Codes: Special Codes are associated with each Cell Phone to identify the phone. ESN and SCM automatically transmitted] Validation Procedure at MSC & Voice-Frequency pair Allocation Base Station Pages the Information for the Mobile MSC Connects the Mobile with the Called Party[Another Mobile/Landline Phone] Call is Established and Communication Starts .

Begins Voice Transmission TIME . 7. Pages for the Called Mobile.Cellular Mobile Communications-I An Introduction  Call Setup Procedure (Cont’d) 4. the FCC Mobiles get ready to move to the respective Allocated VFPs Mobile 1. with MIN and Called Part Number FVC 8. Begins Voice Transmission RVC 8. Receives a Call Base Station Initiation Request. Connects the Initiation Request from Allocates a VFPs Called Party[on MSC Base Station. Makes a Call Initiation RCC Request. the Mobiles are FCC instructed to move to the Allocated VFPs respectively 2. ESN. Receives a Call Called Party. Receives [Called Mobile] the Page and Matches the MIN. Begins Voice Reception RVC 8. Begins Voice Reception 6. with RCC MIN. SCM and Called Part Number FVC 8. Locates the 3. and and Instructs the PSTN]/Mobile to the Verifies that User has a Base Stations via Mobile Valid MIN & ESN pair FCC 5.

Cellular Mobile Communications-I An Introduction  Handoff and Roaming Handoff When a Mobile is on the edge of a Cell RSL of the Mobile in that Cell gets bellow a set Level Base Station of the Cell originates a Handoff request MSC gets RSL Info from all the Candidate Cells MSC asks the Originating Cell and the Strongest Candidate Cell to Coordinate MSC In Case the Handoff is Successful. if the Mobile is Allowed. . the Mobile is asked to switch to another VFP All this happens in a matter of seconds and you hear a little CLICK sound Roaming When SID of the Control Channel and that programmed in the Mobile does not match: The Mobile is in another Service Provider’s Area MSC of the Cell contacts the MSC of the Mobile’s Home System After Verification. the new MSC is ready to Serve.

Cellular Mobile Communications-I An Introduction  Comparison of Common Wireless Communication Systems Comparison of Mobile Communication Systems . Complexity Functionality Range Cost Frequency Structure Tv Remote Control Low Low Low Low Infra-Red Tx/Rx Garage Door Contol Low Low Low Low <100 Mhz Tx/Rx Paging System High High Low/High Low/High <1GHz Rx/Tx Cordless Phone Low Low Moderate/Low Low/Moderate <100 MHz Transceiver Cellular Phone High High High Moderate/High <1 GHz Transceiver Tx = Transmitter Rx = Receiver .Mobile/Base Station Required Coverage Hardware Carrier System Infra.

JTACS Not an Efficient Method for Digital Transmission 849 MHz 869 MHz . E-TACS.Cellular Mobile Communications-I An Introduction  Cellular Mobile Access Technologies FDMA Assigns each Call a Separate Frequency Works like Radio Stations Mainly Analogue Technology-used by AMPS. NAMPS. NMT-450.

Cellular Mobile Communications-I An Introduction  Cellular Mobile Access Technologies TDMA Assigns each Call a certain Time-Slot on a Designated Frequency Each Mobile/User gets one-third of a total Channel Time-Slot[6.7 ms] Courtesy of Compression Techniques: Speech Data in Digital Form takes considerably less time Optimal Frequency Usage: System Capacity improves by three times Operates both in 800 MHz[IS-54] and 1900 MHz[IS-136] Digital Access Technology use by GSM. PDC and PCS . IDEN. USDC.

Cellular Mobile Communications-I An Introduction  Cellular Mobile Access Technologies CDMA Assigns a Unique Code to each Call and Spreads it over the entire bandwidth available  A form of Spread Spectrum Technology Speech Data is sent in small pieces over number of Discrete Frequencies available at any time in a specified range  Receiver uses the same unique Code to Recover the Speech Data GPS used for Exact Time Stamp Can handle 8-10 Calls in the same Channel Space as one Analogue Channel An Access Technology for 3G Mobile Systems[IMT-2000] Supports both Bands [800 MHz and 1900 MHz] .

Cellular Mobile Communications-I An Introduction  Cellular System vs. and E-mail] and mobility  Originated in UK. Personal Communication System/Network (PCS/PCN)  Personal Communication Services [PCS] is a system. very similar to Cellular Phone Service with great emphasis on personal services (such as Paging. requires more infra-structure  PCS works in 1.85-1. to improve its competitiveness in the field  PCS has smaller Cell size. therefore. Caller ID. .99 GHz band  PCS uses TDMA Technology but with 200 KHz Channel Bandwidth with eight time-slots[as compared to 30 KHz and 3 time-slots used by Digital Cellular Phone System IS-54/IS-136]  GSM and Cellular Digital Packet Data[CDPD] also use PCS Tech.

A popular version of Tri-Mode Cellular Phone is the one which supports GSM [800 MHz as well as 1900 MHz (USA version)] as well as FDMA. .Cellular Mobile Communications-I An Introduction  Dual Band/Dual Mode Cellular Phones Dual Band Phone: Supports both bands 800 MHz and 1900 MHz Dual Mode Phone: Supports both FDMA and TDMA Access Technologies Dual Band/Dual Mode Phone: Supports both Bands and Both Access Technologies Tri-Mode Phone: It can Support FDMA/TDMA/CDMA all Access Tech.

 ETSI’s 20 Mbps HIPER LAN: Standard for indoor Wireless Networks  IMT-2000 [International Mobile Telephone-2000 Standard]: A 3G universal. anywhere.Cellular Mobile Communications-I An Introduction  Trends in Cellular radio and Personal Communications  PCS/PCN: PCS calls for more personalized services whereas PCN refers to Wireless Networking Concept-any person. anytime can make a call using PC.11: A standard for computer communications using wireless links[inside building]. multi-function. PCS and PCN terms are sometime used interchangeably  IEEE 802. globally compatible Digital Mobile Radio Standard is in making  Satellite-based Cellular Phone Systems  A very good Chance for Developing Nations to Improve their Communication Networks .