Egress and Fire Protection
Egress and Fire Protection

 What could make employees need to
escape quickly?
 What are the typical escape routes?
 What precautions are taken for fire
protection and prevention?

2 ©2006 TEEX

 29 CFR 1910 Subparts E and L
 29 CFR 1926 Subpart F – construction
 API RP 54
 Section 7: Fire Protection and Prevention
 6.10: Auxiliary Escape
 9.3.10: At least 2 stairways on a drilling rig

3 ©2006 TEEX
29 CFR 1910 Subpart E
Exit Routes, EAPs, and FPPs
1910.34 Coverage

 Every employer is covered:
 1910.34 through 1910.39 apply to
workplaces in general industry
 Except mobile workplaces such as vehicles
or vessels
 Exit routes
 Emergency action plans

5 ©2006 TEEX
1910.34(c) Definitions

 Exit: that portion of an exit route that is
generally separated from other areas to
provide a protected way of travel to the exit
 Exit access: that portion of an exit route that
leads to an exit.
 Exit discharge: the part of the exit route that
leads directly outside or to a street, walkway,
refuge area, public way, or open space with
access to the outside.

6 ©2006 TEEX
1910.34(c) Definitions

 Exit route: a continuous and unobstructed
path of exit travel from any point within a
workplace to a place of safety (including
refuge areas). Consists of three parts:
 The exit access;
 The exit; and,
 The exit discharge.
 Equivalent to “Means of Egress” in the Life
Safety Code and most local building and fire

7 ©2006 TEEX
1910.35 Compliance with NFPA
101-2000, Life Safety Code
 Compliance with the exit route
provisions of NFPA 101-2000 will be
deemed to be in compliance with the
corresponding requirements in § §
1910.34, 1910.36, 1910.37

8 ©2006 TEEX
29 CFR 1910.36
Design and Construction
Requirements for Exit Routes
1910.36(a)(1) Basic Requirement
 An exit route must be a permanent part
of the workplace
Eat at
Ma’s No
Place ropes
or rope

10 ©2006 TEEX
1910.36(a)(2) Exit separated by
fire resistant materials
 Construction materials used to separate
an exit from other parts of the
 1 hour resistance 3 stories
 2 hours resistance 4 stories

1 hour

2 hours
11 ©2006 TEEX
1910.36(a)(3) Openings into an
exit must be limited
 Openings into an exit: limited to those
necessary to allow access to the exit
 Each opening must be protected by an
approved self-closing fire door that
remains closed or automatically closes
in an emergency

12 ©2006 TEEX
1910.36(b) The number of exit
routes must be adequate
 At least 2 routes must be available
 Except for sufficiently small occupancy –
see (b)(3)
 As far away from each other as practical in
case one is blocked by fire or smoke
 More than 2 required if all cannot evacuate
through 2 exit routes
 Life Safety Code can help with this
13 ©2006 TEEX
1910.36(c)(1) Exit Discharge
 Must lead directly outside or to a street,
walkway, refuge area, public way, or
open space with access to the outside

Exit Discharge
Offices Storage

Discharge Exit access
Fabricating shop

14 ©2006 TEEX
1910.36(c)(2) Exit Discharge

 The street, walkway, refuge area, public
way, or open space to which an exit
discharge leads must be large enough
to accommodate the building occupants
likely to use the exit route

15 ©2006 TEEX
1910.36(c)(3) Exit Discharge

 Exit stairs that continue
beyond the level of the exit EXIT
discharge must be
interrupted at that level by
doors, partitions, or other
effective means that clearly
indicate the direction of
travel leading to the exit EXIT

16 ©2006 TEEX
1910.36(d) Exit door must be
 Must be able to open exit route door
 From the inside at all times
 Without keys, tools, or special knowledge
 Panic bar is permissible
 No device or alarm that could restrict
use of route if device fails
 Mental, penal, correctional facilities:
exception with constant supervision &
17 ©2006 TEEX
1910.36(e)(1) A side-hinged exit
door must be used
 A side-hinged door must be used to
connect any room to an exit route
 Must swing out in the direction of exit
travel if
 room is designed for > 50 people or
 room is a high hazard area

18 ©2006 TEEX
1910.36(f) The capacity of an
exit route must be adequate
 Must support the maximum permitted
occupant load for each floor served

See factors for
occupant load
and capacity in
Safety Code -
Chapter 7
19 ©2006 TEEX
1910.36(f) The capacity of an
exit route must be adequate

 Exit route
may not
toward exit

20 ©2006 TEEX
1910.36(g) Exit minimum height
and width requirements
 Ceiling at least 7’6”
 Any projection from the ceiling  6’8”
 Exit access  28 inches wide
 Including all objects projecting into route
7-½ ft.

6 ft.- 8 in.

21 ©2006 TEEX
1910.36(h) An outdoor exit route
is permitted.
 Same minimum height and width
 Additional requirements:
 Guardrails on unenclosed sides
 Covered if snow or ice likely to accumulate
 Unless snow removed before hazard
 Reasonably straight
 Smooth, solid, level walkways
 No dead end longer than 20 feet
22 ©2006 TEEX
29 CFR 1910.37
Maintenance, safeguards, and
operational features for exit routes
1910.37(a) The danger to
employees must be minimized
 Exit routes must be kept free of
explosive or highly flammable
furnishings or
 No exit route
may lead toward
high hazard area,
unless shielded
24 ©2006 TEEX
1910.37(a) The danger to
employees must be minimized
 Exit routes free and
unobstructed: No
may be placed within
exit route
 Exit access must not
go through a room that
can be locked
 Safeguards must be
kept in working order

25 ©2006 TEEX
1910.37(b) Lighting and marking
must be adequate and appropriate

 Exit routes adequately
 Clearly visible and
marked by a sign
reading "Exit"
 No decorations or signs
that obscure the
visibility of exit route
26 ©2006 TEEX
1910.37(b) Lighting and marking
must be adequate and appropriate

 If the direction of travel to the exit is not
immediately apparent, signs must be posted
indicating the direction of travel to the nearest
 Line-of-sight to an exit sign must clearly be
visible at all times

Way to exit is
not apparent

27 ©2006 TEEX
1910.37(b) Lighting and marking
must be adequate and appropriate

 Each doorway or
passage that could be
mistaken for an exit
must be marked "Not
an Exit" or similar
designation, or be
identified by a sign
indicating its actual
use (e.g., closet)
28 ©2006 TEEX
1910.37(b) Lighting and marking
must be adequate and appropriate

 Each exit sign must be
illuminated to a surface
value of at least five foot-
candles (54 lux) by a
reliable light source and
be distinctive in color
 The word "Exit" in plainly
legible letters 6”
 Letters 3/4 inch thick

29 ©2006 TEEX
1910.37(d) Exit routes during
construction, repairs, or alterations

 Employees must
not occupy a
workplace until
the exit routes are
ready in occupied

30 ©2006 TEEX
1910.37(d) Exit routes during
construction, repairs, or alterations

 Employees must not be exposed to
hazards from construction activities that
are beyond the normal permissible
conditions, or that would impede exiting
the workplace

31 ©2006 TEEX
1910.37(e) Alarm system

 Alarm system must be installed and
maintained in operable condition
 To warn of fire or other emergencies
 Unless employees can promptly see or
smell fire or hazard in time
 Must comply with 1910.165 (in Subpart L)

32 ©2006 TEEX
29 CFR 1910.38

Emergency Action Plans
1910.38 Emergency action plans
 Emergency action plan: EAP
 In writing
 Kept in the workplace
 Available to employees for
 Employer with 10 or
fewer employees may
communicate the plan
orally to employees
34 ©2006 TEEX
1910.38(c) Minimum elements of
an emergency action plan
1. Procedures for reporting a fire
or other emergency
2. Procedures for emergency
evacuation, including type of
evacuation and exit route
3. Procedures for employees who
remain to operate critical plant
operations before evacuating

35 ©2006 TEEX
1910.38(c) Minimum elements of
an emergency action plan
4. Procedures to account for all
employees after evacuation
5. Procedures to be followed by
employees performing rescue or
medical duties
6. Name or job title of every employee
who may be contacted by employees
who need more information about the
36 ©2006 TEEX
Alarms, training, review

d. Alarm system must use distinctive signals
for each purpose, comply with 1910.165
e. Designate and train employees to assist
in safe, orderly evacuation of others
f. Review of EAP with each employee:
 When plan developed or employee assigned
 When employee’s responsibilities under the
plan change
 When the plan changes

37 ©2006 TEEX
29 CFR 1910.39

Fire Prevention Plans
1910.39(b) Written and oral fire
prevention plans
 Any required fire prevention plan must:
 Must be in writing,
 Be kept in the workplace, and
 Be made available to employees for review
 Employer with 10 or fewer employees
may communicate the plan orally to

39 ©2006 TEEX
1910.39(c)(1) Minimum elements
of a fire prevention plan
 List of all major fire hazards
 Proper handling and storage
procedures for hazardous materials
 Potential ignition sources and their
 Type of fire protection equipment
necessary to control each major hazard

40 ©2006 TEEX
1910.39(c)(1) Minimum elements
of a fire prevention plan, cont’d
 Procedures to control accumulations of
flammable and combustible waste
 Maintenance procedures for safeguards on
heat-producing equipment to prevent ignition
of combustible materials
 Name or title of employees responsible for
maintaining equipment to prevent or control
sources of ignition or fires
 Name or title of employees responsible for
control of fuel source hazards
41 ©2006 TEEX
1910.39(e) Employee
 An employer must inform employees
upon initial assignment to a job of the
fire hazards to which they are exposed.
 An employer must also review with
each employee those parts of the fire
prevention plan necessary for self-

42 ©2006 TEEX
29 CFR Subpart L

Fire Protection
Organization of 1910 Subpart L

 155 Scope, application, definitions
 156 Fire brigades
 157 Portable fire extinguishers
 158 Standpipe and hose systems
 159 Automatic sprinkler systems
 160-163 Fixed extinguishing systems
 164 Fire detection systems
 165 Employee alarm systems
44 ©2006 TEEX
29 CFR 1910.155
Scope, Application, and
Scope and Application

 Fire brigades, fire suppression
equipment, fire detection systems,
alarm systems
 Applies to all employments except
maritime, construction, and agriculture

46 ©2006 TEEX

 Class A fire: Ordinary combustible materials
 Paper
 Wood
 Cloth
 Some rubber and plastic.
 Class B fire:
 Flammable or combustible liquids
 Flammable gases
 Greases
 Some rubber and plastic

47 ©2006 TEEX

 Class C fire: Energized electrical equipment
 Employee safety requires nonconductive
extinguishing media
 Class D fire: Combustible metals
 Magnesium
 Titanium
 Zirconium
 Sodium
 Lithium
 Potassium

48 ©2006 TEEX

 Dry chemical: small particles of
chemicals supplemented for dryness
and flow
 Bicarbonates
 Potassium chloride
 Monoammonium phosphate
 Dry powder: compound used to
extinguish or control Class D fires
49 ©2006 TEEX

 Enclosed structure:
 Has a roof or ceiling and at least 2 walls
 May accumulate smoke, toxic gases and
 Foam: Bubbles form a blanket over
liquid, sealing combustible vapors
 Gaseous agent: Diffuses uniformly to
extinguish fires
50 ©2006 TEEX
29 CFR 1910.156

Fire Brigades
Scope and Application

 Organization, training, PPE
 Fire brigades established by employer
 Industrial fire departments
 Private or contractual fire departments
 PPE requirements only apply to interior
structural firefighting

52 ©2006 TEEX
Organization and Training

 Organizational statement available
 Physical capability
 No heart disease, epilepsy, or emphysema
without physician’s certificate of fitness
 Training and education
 Beforehand and frequently enough
 Examples of quality training programs
 Special hazards and written procedures
53 ©2006 TEEX
Firefighting Equipment

 Maintain and inspect at least annually
 Portable fire extinguishers and
respirators: inspect at least monthly
 Remove and replace unserviceable or
damaged equipment

54 ©2006 TEEX
Protective clothing

 For interior structural firefighting
 Not required for incipient stage firefighting
 Provide at no cost and assure use
 Protect head, body, and extremities
 Foot and leg protection
 Body protection
 Hand protection
 Head, eye, and face protection
55 ©2006 TEEX
Respiratory protection devices

 Provided to and used by fire brigade
 Meet 1910.134 as well
 SCBA requirements

56 ©2006 TEEX
29 CFR 1910.157

Portable Fire Extinguishers
Scope and application

 Placement, use, maintenance, testing
 For portable fire extinguishers to be
used by employees inside structures
 (e) and (f) only if not for employee use
 Partial exemptions:
 Policy requiring total evacuation; FPP and
EAP; extinguishers not present
 Only designated employees authorized
58 ©2006 TEEX
General requirements

 Provide, mount, locate and identify
 Readily accessible to employees without
possible injury
 Only approved fire extinguishers
 No carbon tetrachloride or
chlorobromomethane extinguishers
 Maintain fully charged and operable in
designated places
59 ©2006 TEEX
Selection and distribution

 Based on fire classes, size of hazard
 Class A: 75 ft. travel distance to
extinguisher, or standpipe
 Class B: 50 ft. travel distance to
 Class C: Based on pattern for Class A/B
 Class D: 75 ft. travel distance to
extinguishing agent
60 ©2006 TEEX
Fire Extinguisher Classes

61 ©2006 TEEX
Inspection, maintenance, and
 Portable extinguishers or hose visually
inspected monthly
 Annual maintenance check – record available
 Maintenance 6 years after recharge or
hydrostatic test for dry chemical extinguishers
with 12-year hydrostatic test requirements
 Alternate equivalent protection during

62 ©2006 TEEX
Hydrostatic testing

 Performed by trained persons with
suitable testing equipment and facilities
 Test interval given for various types of
 Tested when new evidence of corrosion
or mechanical injury
 Details for various types

63 ©2006 TEEX
Training and education

 If employees are to use fire
extinguishers, the employer must
educate them on principles and hazards
 EAP-designated employees trained on
appropriate equipment
 Upon employment and at least annually

64 ©2006 TEEX
Standpipe and hose systems

 For smaller systems – not Class I
 Protected against mechanical damage
 Repaired promptly if damaged
 Equipment: designed for prompt use
 Water supply: minimum 100 gal/min
 Tests and maintenance

65 ©2006 TEEX
1910.159-163: Sprinklers and
Fixed Extinguishing Systems
 Sprinklers – only if required by OSHA
 Fixed extinguishing systems
 Discharge alarms and safeguards
 Inspection and maintenance
 PPE for rescue of employees trapped
 Dry chemical
 Gaseous agent
 Water spray and foam
66 ©2006 TEEX
Fire detection systems

 Restore to normal condition ASAP after each
test or alarm – spares available
 Maintenance and testing
 Protect from corrosion, physical impact
 Do not support by wires or tubing
 Designed to operate in time, provide a
 Delay only if necessary for immediate safety

67 ©2006 TEEX
Employee alarm systems

 All local fire alarm signaling systems
used to alert employees
 Enough warning for emergency action
of safe escape
 Perceived above ambient noise/light
 Tactile devices when necessary
 Distinctive and recognizable

68 ©2006 TEEX
Employee alarm systems

 Explain to each employee how to report
 Establish procedures for emergency
 Restore to normal condition ASAP after
each test or alarm – spares available

69 ©2006 TEEX
Employee alarm systems

 Maintain in operating condition except
during repairs or maintenance
 Test for reliability/adequacy every 2
months if unsupervised
 Back-up means of alarm when out of
 Supervised systems notify personnel of
deficiencies – test once/year
70 ©2006 TEEX
Employee alarm systems

 Manually operated actuation devices
(fire alarm pulls)
 Unobstructed
 Conspicuous
 Readily accessible

71 ©2006 TEEX
Fire Protection on Oil and Gas
Well Sites
API RP 54 Requirements

 Drilling rigs: at least 4 20-pound
capacity, Class BC rated fire
 Well servicing rigs: at least 2 20-pound
capacity, Class BC rated fire
 Available near all welding
 Firefighting equipment also includes
water hoses and drilling fluid guns
73 ©2006 TEEX