# Solar Thermal Energy

Prof. Keh-Chin Chang

Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics
National Cheng Kung University

Outline
 Introduction to Heat Transfer
 Source of Solar Energy
 Applications of Solar Energy
 Introduction to Photovoltaic
 Solar Thermal Energy Systems
 Restrictions in Using Solar Energy
 Examples

Introduction to Heat Transfer
 Heat Transfer in a Solar Collector
 Heat Transfer Modes
 Conduction
 Convection

panel Panel（metal） .Heat Transfer Processes in a Solar Collector qconv.insulator Insulator qcond.mediu Medium flow m qcond.air qemit qsun absorbing film qconv.

𝑚𝑒𝑑𝑖𝑢𝑚 : heat transfer to the flow medium throughout tube wall  Conduction  𝑞𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑.Heat transfer modes Three heat transfer modes in a solar collector:  Radiation  𝑞𝑠𝑢𝑛 : solar irradiation  𝑞𝑒𝑚𝑖𝑡 : emitted radiant energy from the panel  Convection  𝑞𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑣.𝑝𝑎𝑛𝑒𝑙 : heat transfer inside the metal panel  𝑞𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑.𝑎𝑖𝑟 : heat loss due to wind  𝑞𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑣.𝑖𝑛𝑠𝑢𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑜𝑟 : heat loss to the insulator from the panel .

Conduction Definition: The transfer of energy from the more energetic to the less energetic particles (atoms or molecules ) of a substance due to interactions between the particles without bulk motion. റ 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑 ∙ 𝐴റ 𝑞𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑 = 𝑞" heat flux area gradient Fourier’s Law: 𝑞" റ 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑 = −𝑘𝛻𝑇 thermal conductivity .

Convection Definition: Heat transfer between a fluid in motion and a boundary surface Knowledge of convective heat transfer needs to know both fluid mechanics and heat transfer .

𝑓𝑙𝑜𝑤 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑓𝑖𝑔𝑢𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛) .Convection Newton’s cooling/heating law: 𝑞𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑣 = 𝑞"𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑣 × 𝐴 = ℎ𝐴(𝑇𝑠 − 𝑇∞ ) ℎ : convective heat transfer coefficient ℎ = ℎ(𝑅𝑒.

(Thermal) Radiation Definition: Energy is emitted by matter via electromagnetic waves with the wavelengths ranging between the long-wave fringe ultraviolet (UV. ≈10-1μm) and far infrared (IR. Stefan-Boltzmann Law: for a blackbody (ideal case) 𝑞𝑟𝑎𝑑 = 𝑞"𝑟𝑎𝑑 × 𝐴 = (𝜎𝑇 4 )𝐴 T: absolute temperature Stefan-Boltzmann constant For real case: 𝑞"𝑟𝑎𝑑 = 𝜀𝜎𝑇 4 . ≈103μm).0 < 𝜀 ≤ 1 emissivity .

Example: Glass (transparent material) Emission (E=𝜀𝜎𝑇 4 ) Reflection (G𝜌 ) Irradiation (G) Absorption (G𝛼 ) Transmission (G𝜏 ) G = G𝜌 + G𝛼 + G𝜏 G𝜌 G𝛼 G𝜏 transmitivity or 1= + + =𝜌+𝛼+𝜏 G G G reflectivity absorptivity .

𝑏 (𝜆. 𝜙.𝜙.𝜃 𝜆.𝑇) intensity blackbody 0 ≤ 𝜙 < 2𝜋 𝜋 0≤𝜃≤ 2 Spherical coordinate .𝜃.𝑇) 𝜀𝜆.𝑒 (𝜆. 𝜃. directional emissivity emitted 𝐼𝜆. Emissivity Defined as the ratio of the radiant energy rate emitting from a blackbody under identical condition a) Monochromatic (or spectral) . 𝑇 = 𝐼𝜆.

𝑇 𝑑𝜆 𝜎𝑇 4 0 𝜆 . 𝑇 𝑑𝜆 ∞ ‫׬‬0 𝐸𝜆.𝑏 𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝜃 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜃𝑑𝜃𝑑𝜙 1 2𝜋 2 𝜋 = 𝜋𝐼𝜆. hemispherical emissivity ∞ ∞ ‫׬‬0 𝜀𝜆 𝜆.𝜃 𝐼𝜆.𝑇) ‫׬‬0 ‫׬‬0 𝐼𝜆.𝑏 𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝜃 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜃𝑑𝜃𝑑𝜙 𝜀𝜆 𝜆. 𝑇 𝐸𝜆. hemispherical emissivity 𝜋 𝜋 2𝜋 2 2𝜋 2 ‫׬‬0 ‫׬‬0 𝐼𝜆. 𝜙.Emissivity b) Monochromatic. 𝑇 = 𝜋 = 2𝜋 2 𝐸𝜆. 𝑇)𝐸𝜆. 𝑇 𝑑𝜆 1 𝜀 𝑇 = = න 𝜀 (𝜆. 𝑇) 𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝜃 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜃 𝑑𝜃𝑑𝜙 𝜋 0 c) Total .𝑏 𝜆.𝑏 (T) = ‫׬ ׬‬0 𝜀𝜆.𝜃 (𝜆.𝑏 (𝜆.𝑒 𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝜃 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜃𝑑𝜃𝑑𝜙 ‫׬‬0 ‫׬‬0 𝜀𝜆. 𝜃.𝑏 𝜆.𝑏 𝜆.

directional absorptivity.𝜃 (𝜆. 𝛼 . hemispherical absorptivity. 𝜙) b) Monochromatic. 𝛼𝜆 (𝜆) c) Total. 𝜃. hemispherical absorptivity. 𝛼𝜆.Absorptivity Definition: A function of the radiant energy incident on a body that is absorbed by the body a) Monochromatic.

For a solar panel (opaque material. 1 = 𝛼 + 𝜌 𝐼𝑠𝑢𝑛 𝑞𝑠𝑢𝑛 = 𝐴𝑝 𝛼𝑝 𝐼𝑠𝑢𝑛 𝑞𝑒𝑚𝑖𝑡 4 𝑞𝑠𝑢𝑛 𝑞𝑒𝑚𝑖𝑡 = 𝐴𝑝 𝜀𝑝 𝜎𝑇 Looking for high 𝜶𝒑 while small 𝜺𝒑 . 𝜏𝜆 = 𝜏 = 0) ⟹ 1 = 𝛼𝜆 + 𝜌𝜆 .

.0 visible light : 0.e.A desired property for a good solar absorptance 𝛼𝜆 > 0.1 3 𝜆(𝜇𝑚) As Kirchhoff’s law for a diffuse (i.9 1.1 0 0. independent of direction) surface 𝜀𝜆 = 𝛼𝜆 .7μm 𝛼𝜆 < 0.4-0.

Source of Solar Energy  The Sun  Between the Sun and the Earth  Position of the Sun  Solar constant  Solar radiation and intensity .

600.000K . O. Ne. C.The Sun Source of Solar Energy  A sphere of intensely hot gaseous matter Consist of H.800K Core temperature:13. Fe… Surface temperature: 5. He.

AU) equinox solstice solstice Elliptic Orbit equinox .5 million km (1 astronomical unit. Between the Sun and the Earth Source of Solar Energy Average distance:149.

Between the Sun and the Earth Source of Solar Energy .

Position of the Sun (view from Earth) Source of Solar Energy Apparent placement of the Sun in the northern hemisphere .

.Position of the Sun (view from Earth) Source of Solar Energy Azimuth angle of the sun: Often defined as the angle from due north in a clockwise direction. (sometimes from south) Zenith angle of the sun: Defined as the angle measured from vertical downward.

Solar Constant Source of Solar Energy  Amount of incoming solar radiation per unit area incident on a plane perpendicular to the rays.  Includes a range of wavelength (not just the visible light). Solar Constant Entry point into atmosphere Intensity ~ 1350W/m2 .  At a distance of one 1AU from the sun (roughly the mean distance from the Sun to the Earth).

Solar Radiation Spectrum Source of Solar Energy .

Solar Radiation Budget (to Earth) Source of Solar Energy .

Factors affect the Solar intensity Source of Solar Energy  Latitude  Altitude  Atmospheric transparency  Solar zenith angle .

Applications of Solar Energy  Reserves of energy on Earth  Solar energy distribution  Advantages of using solar energy  Types of applications .

8 Gton 43 Oil 152 Gton 210 Gas 160755 Gm3 67 Uranium 1.Reserves of Energy on Earth Applications of Solar Energy Remaining Available Period Reserves (year) Coal 660.57 Mton 42 .

Solar Energy Distribution Applications of Solar Energy Annual global mean downward solar radiation distribution at the surface .

International Energy Agency.968 TJ). 2010. and G. Bergmann. Werner.780 tons and an annual avoidance of 322.393 tons of CO2. Weiss. I.713 GWh (394.4 million tons of CO2.  The annual collector yield of Taiwan was 918 GWh (3306 TJ). This corresponds to an oil equivalent of 12.Advantages of using Solar Energy Application of Solar Energy  No pollution  Inexhaustible  Contribution to energy supply and CO2 reduction  The annual collector yield of the world was 109.4 million tons and an annual avoidance of 39. . Faninger. This corresponds to an oil equivalent of 101. Solar Heat Worldwide–Markets and Contribution to the Energy Supply 2008.

Advantages of using Solar Energy Application of Solar Energy  Energy production prediction .

Types of Applications Application of Solar Energy  Photovoltaic (PV)  Solar cell  Solar thermal energy  Solar water heater  Solar thermal power  Solar cooling  Solar thermal ventilation .

Introduction to Photovoltaic  What is photovoltaic  Solar cell .

What is Photovoltaic Photovoltaic  A method of generating electrical power by converting solar radiation into direct current electricity through some materials (such as semiconductors) that exhibit the photovoltaic effect. .

 If a circuit is made. since the free electrons have to pass through the junction to recombine with the positive holes.Solar Cell Photovoltaic  Sun light of certain wavelengths is able to ionize the atoms in the silicon  The internal field produced by the junction separates some of the positive charges ("holes") from the negative charges (electrons). . power can be produced from the cells under illumination.

Solar Thermal Energy Systems  How to use solar thermal energy  Types of solar collectors  Solar water heater  Solar thermal power  Solar thermal cooling .

How to Use Solar Thermal Energy Solar Thermal Energy Working fluid Solar Radiation Solar Thermal Energy Solar collector thermal energy working fluid .

Types of Solar Collectors Solar Thermal Energy   Collectors and working temperature Low temperature Medium temperature High temperature .

do not require tracking of the sun. . and are low-maintenance.Flat-plate collector Solar Thermal Energy  Use both beam and diffuse solar radiation. inexpensive and mechanically simple.

Flat-plate collector
Solar Thermal Energy

 Glazed collector  Unglazed collector

Flat-plate collector
Solar Thermal Energy

Flat-plate collector
Solar Thermal Energy

 Main losses of a basic flat-plate collector during
angular operation

Weiss, Werner, and Matthias Rommel. Process Heat Collectors. Vol. 33, 2008.

Evacuated tube collector Solar Thermal Energy  A collector consists of a row of parallel glass tubes. .  A vacuum inside every single tube extremely reduces conduction losses and eliminates convection losses.

Evacuated tube collector Solar Thermal Energy  Heat pipe  Sydney tube .

Collector efficiency Solar Thermal Energy http://polarsolar.com/blog/?p=171 .

 All parabolic trough plants currently in commercial operation rely on synthetic oil as the fluid that transfers heat from collector pipes to heat exchangers. .Parabolic trough collector Solar Thermal Energy  Consist of parallel rows of mirrors (reflectors) curved in one dimension to focus the sun’s rays.

 Simple design of flexibly bent mirrors and fixed receivers requires lower investment costs and facilitates direct steam generation.Linear Fresnel reflector Solar Thermal Energy  Approximate the parabolic trough systems but by using long rows of flat or slightly curved mirrors to reflect the sun’s rays onto a downward- facing linear. . fixed receiver.

The entire apparatus tracks the sun. with the dish and receiver moving in tandem.Parabolic dish reflector Solar Thermal Energy  Concentrate the sun’s rays at a focal point propped above the centre of the dish.  Most dishes have an independent engine/generator (such as a Stirling machine or a micro-turbine) at the focal point. .

Heliostat field collector Solar Thermal Energy  A heliostat is a device that includes a plane mirror which turns so as to keep reflecting sunlight toward a predetermined target. .  Heliostat field use hundreds or thousands of small reflectors to concentrate the sun’s rays on a central receiver placed atop a fixed tower.

Solar Water Heater Solar Thermal Energy  Most popular and well developed application of solar thermal energy so far  Low temperature applications (Mainly using flat plate collector or evacuate tube collector) .

Solar Water Heater Solar Thermal Energy Direct (open loop) Indirect (close loop) User User Passive (Thermosyphon) User User Active Heat exchanger .

Solar Water Heater Solar Thermal Energy  Installation direction  For northern hemisphere → Facing south  For southern hemisphere → Facing north  Installation tilt angle  The angle of the collector is roughly equal to the local latitude .

Solar Water Heater Solar Thermal Energy  Annual heat collection vs. direction/tilt angle (in north hemisphere) Annual heat collection(%) Annual heat collection(%) Increasing collection area Increasing collection area L=local latitude Direction shifted from south (angle) Tilt angle of the collector .

2007  Large-scale system  Dormitory hot water  Swimming pool  Industrial process heating .Solar Water Heater Solar Thermal Energy  Residential hot water system  Hot water production  House warming “Solar Thermal Action Plan for Europe”. ESTIF.

 About 50% of the industrial heat demand is located at temperatures up to 250°C.Solar Water Heater Solar Thermal Energy  Industrial process heating  In EU. 2/3 of the industrial energy demand consists of heat rather than electrical energy. .

Solar Water Heater Solar Thermal Energy  Market potential of industrial process heating .

Solar thermal power  High temperature applications (by means of sun-tracking.  Indirect means : concentrated solar power (CSP).Solar Thermal Power Solar Thermal Energy  Conversion of sunlight into electricity  Direct means : photovoltaics (PV). concentrated solar collectors) .

drives a heat engine (usually a steam turbine) which is connected to an electrical power generator. then.Solar Thermal Power Solar Thermal Energy  Electrical power is generated when the concentrated light is converted to heat and. .

.Solar Thermal Power Solar Thermal Energy  Types of solar thermal power plant Technology roadmap concentrating solar power. IEA. 2010.

Solar Thermal Power Solar Thermal Energy  Combination of storage and hybridisation in a solar thermal plant .

Solar Thermal Power Solar Thermal Energy PS10 and PS20 solar power tower (HFC) (Seville. Spain). 2007 and 2009 .

.Solar Thermal Power Solar Thermal Energy Kimberlina solar thermal energy plant (LFR) (Bakersfield. 2008. CA).

Spain) 2009.Solar Thermal Power Solar Thermal Energy Calasparra solar power plant (LFR) (Murcia. .

Spain). Spain). 2009 Andasol solar power station (PTC) (Granada. 2009 .Solar Thermal Power Solar Thermal Energy Puertollano solar power station (PTC) (Ciudad real.

Solar (Thermal) Cooling Solar Thermal Energy  Active cooling  Use PV panel to generate electricity for driving a conventional air conditioner  Use solar thermal collectors to provide thermal energy for driving a thermally driven chiller Solar thermal cooling  Passive cooling  Solar thermal ventilation .

Solar Thermal Cooling Solar Thermal Energy International Journal of Refrigeration 3I(2008) 3-15 .

" Management. Solar Thermal Cooling Solar Thermal Energy  Solar cooling benefits from a better time match between supply and demand of cooling load 2 1 "Renewable Energy Essentials: Solar Heating and Cooling. Koldehoff and D. 2 B. 2009.W. ." International Energy Agency. Görisried. "Solar Thermal & Solar Cooling in Germany.

Heat source Cooling tower Cooling distribution Chiller . Solar Thermal Cooling Solar Thermal Energy  Active cooling  Use solar thermal collectors to provide thermal energy for driving thermally driven chillers.

Desiccant Evaporative Cooling Open cycle .Solar Thermal Cooling Solar Thermal Energy  Basic type of solar thermal chiller  Absorption cooling－LiBr+H2O Closed cycle  Adsorption cooling－silica gel+H2O  DEC.

Solar Thermal Cooling Solar Thermal Energy Conventional compression cooling Adsorption/absorption cooling QL QL Qg high pressure vapor high pressure vapor condenser condenser We desorption compressor expansion We expansion valve (switch) valve absorption evaporator Qa evaporator QC low pressure vapor QC low pressure vapor COPelect=QC/We COPthermal=QC/Qg COPelect=QC/We .

10 (July 2007): 1734-1749. Solar Thermal Cooling Solar Thermal Energy COPthermal of different type of chiller Henning. H. “Solar assisted air conditioning of buildings – an overview. no. .” Applied Thermal Engineering 27.

2006.Solar Thermal Cooling Solar Thermal Energy "Solar Assisted Cooling – State of the Art –. .“ESTIF.

"Review on existing solar assisted heating and cooling installations.Solar Thermal Cooling Solar Thermal Energy A." 28. 2010. Denmark ABSORPTION.2010 – Workshop Århus. Napolitano. .04.

. 2010.2010 – Workshop Århus.04." 28. Mugnier. Denmark ABSORPTION. "Refrigeration Workshop Market analysis Market actors Systems costs Politics : incentives & lobbying Conclusion Introduction. Solar Thermal Cooling Solar Thermal Energy D.

04. Denmark ABSORPTION. "Refrigeration Workshop Market analysis Market actors Systems costs Politics : incentives & lobbying Conclusion Introduction.2010 – Workshop Århus. 2010. Solar Thermal Cooling Solar Thermal Energy D. Mugnier. ." 28.

Solar Thermal Cooling Solar Thermal Energy  Passive Cooling (solar ventilation.  Direct gain warms air inside the chimney causing it to rise out the top and drawing air in from the bottom. solar chimney)  A way of improving the natural ventilation of buildings by using convection of air heated by passive solar energy. .

 In sophisticated systems.Solar desalination/distillation  Solar humidification-dehumidification (HDH)  HDH is based on evaporation of brackish water and consecutive condensation of the generated humid air. waste heat is minimized by collecting the heat from the condensing water vapor and pre-heating the incoming water source. . mostly at ambient pressure.  The simplest configuration: the solar still.

Solar Thermal Applications Solar Thermal Energy .

Conventional installation way in Taiwan .

Conventional installation way in Taiwan .

Damage due to typhoon invasion .

Damage due to typhoon invasion .

Roof integrated flat-plate collectors on house in Denmark (Source: VELUX) .

2009. Contribution of solar thermal to EU heat demand by sector Solar Thermal Energy Reduction of -40% Summary. and Peter Biermayr. Executive. . Werner Weiss.Executive Summary. Potential of Solar Thermal in Europe .

Restrictions in Using Solar Energy  Geographical aspects  Financial aspects .

Geographical Aspects Restrictions in Using Solar Energy  Low energy density  Solar radiation has a low energy density relative to other common energy sources  Unstable energy supply  Solar Energy supply is restricted by time and geographical location  Easily influenced by weather condition .

 Solar water heater  Most economically competitive technology by now  The need of SWH is inversely proportional to local insolation . especially for PV.Financial Aspects Restrictions in Using Solar Energy  Higher cost compared with traditional energy  The capital cost in utilization of solar energy is generally higher than that of traditional ones.

Examples .

Example 1  A family with 5 members plans to install a solar water heater which is mainly used for bath. Assuming that each person needs 60 liters of hot water for taking bath a day. water density is 1 kg / l. How much heat should be provided by the solar water heater to satisfy the family’s demand for bath? (Note: water specific heat Cp is assumed to be 1 kcal/kg-℃. ) . The hot-water temperature required for bath is 50 ℃. while the annual average temperature of cold water is 23 ℃.

Answer 1 Q  M  C p  T Q  Heat Demand M  Hot Water Quantity C p  specific heat capacity of water ΔT  temperature difference between hot and cold water    50C  23C  l kcal Q   60  5 person  1  person  day  kg  C    50C  23C  kg kcal   60  5 person  1  person  day  kg  C kcal  8100 day .

how many kilo-calories (kcal) of heat can be collected by this solar water heater during a day? (Note: 1cal = 4. .5. and the daily cumulative insolation onto the collector is 4 kWh/m2-day in February.186 W × s). If the average efficiency of the solar water heater is 0.Example 2  A solar water heater is equipped with an ​effective collect area of 1m2.186J = 4.

186 day day day day kcal  1720 day .Answer 2 Qc  H  A  Qc  Heat provided from collector H  Daily accu mulative insolation A  Effective collector area η  Efficiency of solar water heater kWh Qc  4  1 m 2  0.5 m  day 2 kJ 1  3600 s kcal kWh kJ 2 2 s  7200  7200 4.

Example 3
 The minimum heat demand is 8100 kcal/day, and there is a
certain solar panel which can offer a heat supply of 1720
kcal/m2 in a day. With the absence of auxiliary heating device,
calculate the required installation area of the solar panel.
 If the effective arer of this solar panel is 0.8 m2 /piece, how
many pieces of solar panel should be installed to collect this
heat demand?

Q  Demand Heat
Q
A Qc  Heat provided from collector per m 2
Qc A  Effective collector area

8100 kcal
day
A  4.764m 2
1720 kcal
m 2  day

4.764m 2
2
 5.955  6 pieces
0.8m

Example 4
 From meteorological data, the average daily accumulative
insolation in Tainan is 420 ly/day (i.e., langley / day).
For a solar collector that faces south with a area of 2 m2 and
tilt angle of 0 degree, what is the daily accumulative insolation
onto the collector surface? (in kWh and kcal, respectively)
(Note: ly = Langley = cal/cm2).

186W  s 1000 kW  3600 hr 4.767 10000 m  day 10000 m  day day .186 1 kWh (2)  420 1 2  2 m  420 1 2 2  2 m2  9. Answer 4 ly cal 420  2 m2  420 2  2 m2 day cm  day 1 kcal kcal (1)  420 1000  2 m2  4200 1 10000m  day 2 day 4.