Institutions and Environmental

Cooperation

Today  Types of global environmental problems  The role of international institutions (regimes): realist vs. institutionalist perspectives  Analyzing international environmental regimes .

Types of Cooperation Dilemmas  Tragedy of the commons (Garrett Hardin 1968). Common resources: – non-excludable (cannot exclude additional users) – Subtractable (use by one actor reduces availability to others) – individual utility of each additional use greater than the disutility of overuse. which is shared by all. . Strong incentives to overuse.

Tragedy of the Commons  “Each man is locked into a system that compels him to increase his herd without limit in a world that is limited. 41) . p. Ruin is the destination toward which all men rush…” (Hardin 1968.

Externalities  Activity within one state affects the environment in other states Examples? .

Shared Resources  Resources that extend across the jurisdiction of several states: Examples? .

Linked Issues  When environmental regimes have unintended consequence on other issues and vise versa. Examples? .

” Are these feasible in international relations? .Solutions Garrett Hardin:  Privatization  Government regulation/ “mutually agreed coercion.

rules.Cooperation  Coordination of polices.  International institutions and regimes are instruments of cooperation . and norms by national governments.

norms. goals and mechanisms for cooperation. monitoring (rare). – Reporting. assistance.  Norms (soft rules)  Voluntary codes of conduct  Public-private partnerships . trade sanctions (rare).Instruments:  Framework convention – Set of principles. but no major obligations  Conference of parties  Protocols – Specific obligations (most intense negotiations)  Implementation provisions.

Realism: Assumptions  Anarchic system: no central authority  States want to survive  States potentially dangerous (military capability)  Uncertain about intentions of other states  Rational: make strategic calculations how to survive .

human rights) of secondary. importance  Cooperation unlikely (although “not impossible”)  Institutions – irrelevant b/c reflect distribution of power . if any.Realism Implications about state behavior  Maximize power  Fear each other  Follow own interest defined as security and maximization of RELATIVE power  War is means not an end  Non-security issues (particularly environment.

follow own interests  Interests can be issue specific (e. security.g. but governance possible  States seek to maximize utility. environment. economy. can contribute to peace .Neoliberal Institutionalism Assumptions  States unitary. rational actors  Anarchy: no government.)  Cooperation possible – governance without government  Institutions – facilitate cooperation. etc.

Role of Institutions Facilitate Cooperation: –institutionalize iteration (long-term calculations and reciprocity conducive to cooperation) -provide information (monitor. change of strategy) -credible commitments -issue linkage -reduce transaction costs (make agreements and monitoring less costly to administer) -resolve distribution conflicts .

Key Differences Definition of power Definition of interests Prospects for international cooperation Role of institutions .

Interpreting environmental cooperation: Realism? -focus on hegemon. non-state actors. interests. power relations Liberal institutionalism? -focus on interests. power. ideas. networks that spread ideas Other factors? -domestic politics. transnational actors . bargaining Constructivism? -focus on norms. institutions.

– Non-state actors change behavior (business. consumers. – Change in values? – Change in environmental conditions.).Regime Effectiveness:  How can we tell if cooperation was successful or not? – States change policies and behavior. non-profit organizations. etc. .

or thwarts regime creation?  Why do some regimes grow stronger over time.  Which explanation is more convincing? Why? . while others do not?  What instruments are used in different regimes?  Is the regime effective?  Use Shrek’s rule: layers of explanation.Analyzing Cases:  What contributes to.