Chapter 4

States of Consciousness

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MODULE 12 - Sleep and Dreams
• What are the different states of consciousness?
• What happens when we sleep, and what are the
meaning and function of dreams?
• What are the major sleep disorders, and how can
they be treated?
• How much do we daydream?

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Introduction
• Consciousness: Awareness of the sensations,
thoughts, and feelings being experienced at a
given moment
• Types
• Waking consciousness
• Altered states of consciousness

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The Stages of Sleep Stage 1 • State of transition between wakefulness and sleep • Rapid. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. in whole or part. or posted on a website. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. . forwarded. least responsive to outside stimulation © 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. low-amplitude brain waves Stage 2 • Slower and more regular wave pattern compared to stage 1 • Momentary interruptions of sleep spindles Stage 3 • Slow brain waves with higher peaks and lower valleys of waves than stage 2 Stage 4 • Deepest stage. distributed. scanned. duplicated. This 4-4 document may not be copied.

or posted on a website. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. duplicated. forwarded. 1989 © 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. scanned. . distributed. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. Figure 2 .Brain-Wave Patterns Source: Adapted from Hobson. This 4-5 document may not be copied. in whole or part.

REM Sleep: The Paradox of Sleep • Rapid eye movement sleep: Sleep occupying 20% of an adult’s sleeping time. distributed. duplicated. characterized by: • Increased heart rate. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. scanned. . forwarded. blood pressure and breathing rate • Erections • Eye movements • Experience of dreaming © 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. or posted on a website. This 4-6 document may not be copied. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. in whole or part.

Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. . in whole or part. or posted on a website. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. scanned. duplicated. forwarded.REM-deprived sleepers spend significantly more time in REM sleep than normal • Plays a role in learning and memory • Allows us to rethink and restore information and emotional experiences © 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. distributed. This 4-7 document may not be copied. REM Sleep: The Paradox of Sleep • Rebound effect .

Why do We Sleep. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. or posted on a website. forwarded. . duplicated. distributed. This 4-8 document may not be copied. scanned. in whole or part. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. and How Much Sleep is Necessary? • Sleep is a requirement for normal human functioning • Exact reason for sleep is unknown • Explanations • Evolutionary theory • Restoration and replenishment for brain and body • Physical growth and brain development © 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education.

This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. in whole or part. duplicated. or posted on a website. Why do We Sleep. forwarded. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. scanned. and How Much Sleep is Necessary? • Most people sleep between 7–8 hours per night • Varies among individuals • Sleep pattern differs between men and women © 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. . This 4-9 document may not be copied. distributed.

forwarded. or posted on a website. in whole or part. This 4-10 document may not be copied. distributed. scanned.Information one remembers and reports • Disguises the latent content • Latent content of dreams . The Function and Meaning of Dreams • Unconscious wish fulfillment theory • Dreams represent unconscious wishes that dreamers desire to see fulfilled • Theory by Sigmund Freud • Manifest content of the dream . Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use.Underlying wishes of the dreamer © 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. duplicated. .

. duplicated. The Function and Meaning of Dreams • Dreams-for-survival theory • Dreams permit information that is critical for our daily survival • Required to be reconsidered and reprocessed during sleep • Activation-synthesis theory • Brain produces random electrical energy during REM sleep • Stimulates memories stored in the brain • Theory by Hobson © 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. in whole or part. This 4-11 document may not be copied. scanned. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. or posted on a website. distributed. forwarded.

duplicated. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This 4-12 document may not be copied. Sleep Disturbances: Slumbering Problems Insomnia Sleep Apnea • Plays a role in Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) Night Terrors Narcolepsy Sleep talking Sleepwalking © 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. in whole or part. distributed. scanned. or posted on a website. forwarded. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. .

in whole or part. .Controls circadian rhythms • Seasonal affective disorder .Severe depression which increases during the winter and decreases during the rest of the year © 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. duplicated. This 4-13 document may not be copied. Circadian Rhythms: Life Cycles • Biological processes that occur regularly on approximately a 24-hour cycle • Suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) . Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. distributed. scanned. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. or posted on a website. forwarded.

. or posted on a website. forwarded. This 4-14 document may not be copied. in whole or part. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. Daydreams: Dreams Without Sleep • Fantasies that people construct while awake • Part of waking consciousness • Time spent in daydreaming varies from individual to individual • Content of daydreams and dreams show many parallels • Brain areas and processes involved in daydreaming and dreams during sleep are related © 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. distributed. duplicated. scanned.

MODULE 13 . scanned. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. duplicated. . forwarded. This 4-15 document may not be copied. distributed. in whole or part. and are hypnotized people in a different state of consciousness? • What are the effects of meditation? © 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. or posted on a website.Hypnosis and Meditation • What is hypnosis.

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This 4-17 document may not be copied. forwarded. . scanned. Hypnosis: Process Hypnotist may Person is make Person is suggestions Hypnotist asked to made that the explains what concentrate on comfortable in person is going to a specific a quiet interprets as happen object or environment being image produced by hypnosis © 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. distributed. duplicated. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. in whole or part. or posted on a website.

forwarded. This 4-18 document may not be copied. distributed. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. . Hypnosis: A Trance-Forming Experience • Different state of consciousness • Divided consciousness . This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. in whole or part. duplicated. or posted on a website. scanned.Division or disassociation of consciousness into two simultaneous components • Uses • Controlling pain • Reducing smoking • Treating psychological disorders • Assisting in law enforcement • Improving athletic performance © 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education.

Meditation: Regulating our Own State of Consciousness • Learned technique for refocusing attention that brings about an altered state of consciousness • Repetition of a mantra • Long-term practice improves health because of the biological changes it produces © 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. or posted on a website. forwarded. distributed. . duplicated. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This 4-19 document may not be copied. scanned. in whole or part.

Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. forwarded. and what are their effects? © 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. or posted on a website. duplicated. MODULE 14 . distributed. . This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. scanned. in whole or part. This 4-20 document may not be copied.Drug Use: The Highs and Lows of Consciousness • What are the major classifications of drugs.

duplicated. perceptions. distributed. in whole or part. or posted on a website. Introduction • Psychoactive drugs: Influence a person’s emotions. scanned. forwarded. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. This 4-21 document may not be copied. . and behavior • Addictive drugs: Produce a biological or psychological dependence in the user • Withdrawal from them leads to a craving for the drug that may be nearly irresistible © 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner.

. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Introduction • Reasons for drug intake • Perceived pleasure of the experience itself • Escape that a drug-induced high affords from daily pressures of life • Attempt to achieve a religious or spiritual state • Peer pressure • Genetic factors predispose people to be susceptible to drugs © 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. forwarded. in whole or part. This 4-22 document may not be copied. distributed. scanned. or posted on a website. duplicated.

in whole or part.Number of Teenagers Who Use Drugs © 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. . Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. or posted on a website. Figure 1 . distributed. scanned. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. This 4-23 document may not be copied. forwarded. duplicated.

and muscular tension • Examples • Caffeine • Nicotine • Amphetamines • Methamphetamine • Cocaine © 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. blood pressure. forwarded. Stimulants: Drug Highs • Drugs that have an arousal effect on the central nervous system • Cause a rise in heart rate. This 4-24 document may not be copied. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. distributed. or posted on a website. . scanned. duplicated. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. in whole or part.

or posted on a website. duplicated. distributed. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. scanned. Figure 4 . forwarded. in whole or part.Drugs and Their Effects © 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. This 4-25 document may not be copied. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. .

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Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This 4-28 document may not be copied. Depressants: Drug Lows • Drugs that slow down the nervous system • Alcohol • Intoxication • Binge drinking • Depressive effects • Emotionally and physically unstable • Poor judgment and may act aggressively • Memory impairment • Diminished brain processing • Slurred speech © 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. in whole or part. or posted on a website. scanned. distributed. forwarded. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. duplicated. .

This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Barbiturates and Rophynol • Barbiturates • Induce sleep or reduce stress • Produce a sense of relaxation • Produce altered thinking. in whole or part. .Date rape drug © 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. This 4-29 document may not be copied. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. faulty judgment. and sluggishness when consumed at higher levels • Rohypnol . or posted on a website. forwarded. distributed. scanned. duplicated.

Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. forwarded. in whole or part. or posted on a website. scanned. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Narcotics: Relieving Pain and Anxiety • Drugs that increase relaxation and relieve pain and anxiety • Examples • Morphine • Heroin • Methadone • Satisfies a heroin user’s physiological cravings for the drug without providing the “high” • Oxycodone © 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. . duplicated. This 4-30 document may not be copied. distributed.

duplicated. This 4-31 document may not be copied. in whole or part. or posted on a website. Hallucinogens: Psychedelic Drugs • Produces hallucinations. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. forwarded. scanned. distributed. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. . or change in the perceptual process • Marijuana • Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) • MDMA (ecstasy) • Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD or acid) © 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education.

© 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. distributed. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This 4-32 document may not be copied. in whole or part. or posted on a website. 2012. forwarded.Teenagers Who Have Used Marijuana in the Last Year Source: Adapted from Johnston et al. . Figure 7 . scanned. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use.. duplicated.