Chapter 2

Neuroscience and
Behavior

© 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This
document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

MODULE 5 - Neurons: The Basic
Elements of Behavior
• Why do psychologists study the brain and the
nervous system?
• What are the basic elements of the nervous
system?
• How does the nervous system communicate
electrical and chemical messages from one part
to another?

© 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This 2-2
document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

The Structure of the Neuron
• Neurons: Nerve cells, the basic elements of the
nervous system
• Consists of a cell body that contains a nucleus
• Physically held in place by glial cells which:
• Provide nourishment to neurons and insulate them
• Help repair damage
• Support neural functioning

© 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This 2-3
document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

The Structure of the Neuron
• Distinctive feature of neurons
• Ability to communicate with other cells
• Transmission of information across relatively long
distances

© 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This 2-4
document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

scanned. forwarded. duplicated. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. This 2-5 document may not be copied. distributed. or posted on a website. The Structure of the Neuron Dendrite • Cluster of fibers at one end of a neuron that receives messages from other neurons Axon • Part of the neuron that carries messages destined for other neurons Terminal buttons • Small bulges at the end of axons that send messages to other neurons Myelin sheath • Protective coat of fat and protein that wraps around the axon © 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. in whole or part. . Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner.

or posted on a website. distributed. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This 2-6 document may not be copied. scanned. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. duplicated. forwarded. . Figure 1 . in whole or part.The Primary Components of the Neuron © 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education.

How Neurons Fire • Neurons follow an all-or-none law • All-or-none law: Rule that neurons are either on or off • Resting state: State in which there is a negative electrical charge of about -70 millivolts within a neuron • Action potential: Electric nerve impulse that travels through a neuron’s axon when it is set off by a “trigger.” changing the neuron’s charge from negative to positive © 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. duplicated. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. . or posted on a website. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. distributed. scanned. This 2-7 document may not be copied. forwarded. in whole or part.

Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This 2-8 document may not be copied. forwarded. duplicated. or posted on a website. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. . scanned. in whole or part. distributed.Movement of an Action Potential along an Axon © 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. Figure 2 .

forwarded. scanned. distributed. This 2-9 document may not be copied. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. in whole or part. or posted on a website. . duplicated. Speed of Transmission • Speed at which an action potential travels along an axon is determined by the: • Axon’s size • Thickness of the myelin sheath • Neurons differ in terms of: • Quickness of an impulse moving along the axon • Potential rate of firing • Intensity of a stimulus determines how much of a neuron’s potential firing rate is reached © 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education.

This 2-10 document may not be copied. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. in whole or part. Figure 3 . duplicated. scanned.Changes in the Voltage in a Neuron during the Passage of an Action Potential © 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. or posted on a website. distributed. forwarded. . This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use.

when a person: • Enacts a particular behavior • Observes another individual carrying out the same behavior © 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. or posted on a website. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. . forwarded. scanned. This 2-11 document may not be copied. Mirror Neurons • Specialized neurons that fire. duplicated. in whole or part. distributed.

forwarded. This 2-12 document may not be copied. duplicated. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. scanned. . Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. Mirror Neurons • Helps in explaining how and why humans have the capacity to understand others’ intentions • Basis for: • Empathy feelings • Development of language in humans © 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. distributed. in whole or part. or posted on a website.

forwarded. Where Neurons Meet: Bridging the Gap • Synapse: Space between two neurons where the axon of a sending neuron communicates with the dendrites of a receiving neuron by using chemical messages • Neurotransmitters: Chemicals that carry messages across the synapse to the dendrite (and sometimes the cell body) of a receiver neuron © 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. scanned. This 2-13 document may not be copied. . duplicated. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. distributed. in whole or part. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. or posted on a website.

This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. forwarded. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. in whole or part. Where Neurons Meet: Bridging the Gap • Every neuron is not capable of receiving the chemical message carried by a neurotransmitter • Successful chemical communication is possible only when a neurotransmitter fits precisely into a receptor site © 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. . distributed. This 2-14 document may not be copied. duplicated. or posted on a website. scanned.

This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. or posted on a website. distributed. in whole or part. duplicated. scanned. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. forwarded. . Where Neurons Meet: Bridging the Gap • Types of chemical message delivered by neurotransmitters: • Excitatory message: Makes it more likely that a receiving neuron will fire and an action potential will travel down its axon • Inhibitory message: Prevents or decreases the likelihood that a receiving neuron will fire © 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. This 2-15 document may not be copied.

in whole or part. Figure 4 . . duplicated. 2000 © 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. This 2-16 document may not be copied. scanned. 2000. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner.A synapse is the Junction between an Axon and a Dendrite Source: (a) Mader. or posted on a website. distributed. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. (b) Johnson. forwarded.

. Where Neurons Meet: Bridging the Gap • Neurotransmitters remaining at the site of the synapse lead to: • Receiving neurons awash. in whole or part. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. scanned. in a continual chemical bath • Producing constant stimulation or constant inhibition of the receiving neurons • Effective communication across the synapse would no longer be possible • Reuptake: Reabsorption of neurotransmitters by a terminal button © 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. duplicated. This 2-17 document may not be copied. forwarded. or posted on a website. distributed.

This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. scanned. duplicated.Major Neurotransmitters © 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. in whole or part. This 2-18 document may not be copied. Figure 5 . Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. distributed. . or posted on a website. forwarded.

The Nervous System and the Endocrine System: Communicating Within the Body • How are the structures of the nervous system linked? • How does the endocrine system affect behavior? © 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. or posted on a website. scanned. forwarded. MODULE 6 . distributed. duplicated. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. . This 2-19 document may not be copied. in whole or part.

forwarded. scanned. . distributed. in whole or part. Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems • Central nervous system (CNS): Part of the nervous system that includes the brain and spinal cord • Spinal cord: Bundle of neurons that leaves the brain and runs down the length of the back • Main means for transmitting messages between the brain and the body • Controls simple behaviors on its own. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. or posted on a website. This 2-20 document may not be copied. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. without any help from the brain © 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. duplicated.

distributed. or posted on a website. in whole or part. duplicated. . This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This 2-21 document may not be copied. Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems • Reflex: Automatic. forwarded. involuntary response to an incoming stimulus • Kinds of neurons involved in reflexes: • Sensory (afferent) neurons: Transmit information from the perimeter of the body to the central nervous system • Motor (efferent) neurons: Communicate information from the nervous system to muscles and glands © 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. scanned.

or posted on a website. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. lungs. it branches out from the spinal cord and brain and reaches the extremities of the body • Includes • Somatic: Specializes in the control of voluntary movements and the communication of information to and from the sense organs • Autonomic: Controls involuntary movement of the heart. and other organs © 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. . Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems • Peripheral nervous system: Made up of neurons with long axons and dendrites. in whole or part. forwarded. This 2-22 document may not be copied. glands. distributed. duplicated. scanned.

. distributed. scanned. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. or posted on a website. forwarded. This 2-23 document may not be copied.A Schematic Diagram of the Relationship of the Parts of the Nervous System © 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. in whole or part. Figure 1 . duplicated. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use.

This 2-24 document may not be copied.Central Nervous System © 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. forwarded. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. distributed. duplicated. in whole or part. . scanned. Figure 2 . or posted on a website.

engaging all the organism’s resources to respond to a threat • Parasympathetic division: Acts to calm the body after an emergency has ended © 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. . Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. scanned. Activating the Divisions of the Autonomic Nervous System • Autonomic nervous system consists of: • Sympathetic division: Acts to prepare the body for action in stressful situations. distributed. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. forwarded. This 2-25 document may not be copied. duplicated. in whole or part. or posted on a website.

scanned.The Major Functions of the Autonomic Nervous System © 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. or posted on a website. distributed. duplicated. Figure 3 . This 2-26 document may not be copied. forwarded. in whole or part. . This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner.

forwarded. . scanned. distributed. The Evolutionary Foundations of the Nervous System • Evolutionary psychology: Branch of psychology that seeks to identify behavior patterns that are a result of our genetic inheritance from our ancestors • Behavioral genetics: Study of the effects of heredity on behavior © 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. This 2-27 document may not be copied. or posted on a website. in whole or part. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. duplicated. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner.

Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. . or “master gland” • Secretes hormones that control growth and other parts of the endocrine system © 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. distributed. The Endocrine System: Of Chemicals and Glands • Endocrine system: Chemical communication network that sends messages throughout the body via the bloodstream • Hormones: Chemicals that circulate through the blood and regulate the functioning or growth of the body • Pituitary gland: Major component of the endocrine system. scanned. This 2-28 document may not be copied. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. forwarded. or posted on a website. duplicated. in whole or part.

This 2-29 document may not be copied. . duplicated. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. forwarded. scanned. in whole or part. MODULE 7 . and for what behaviors is each part responsible? • How do the two halves of the brain operate interdependently? • How can an understanding of the nervous system help us find ways to alleviate disease and pain? © 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. or posted on a website.The Brain • How do researchers identify the major parts and functions of the brain? • What are the major parts of the brain. distributed. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner.

This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. duplicated. in whole or part. forwarded. . Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. Studying the Brain’s Structure and Functions: Spying on the Brain • Electroencephalogram (EEG) • Records electrical activity in the brain through electrodes placed on the outside of the skull • Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) • Provides a detailed. three-dimensional computer- generated image of brain structures and activity by aiming a powerful magnetic field at the body © 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. or posted on a website. This 2-30 document may not be copied. distributed. scanned.

scanned. distributed. forwarded. . This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Studying the Brain’s Structure and Functions: Spying on the Brain • Positron emission tomography (PET) • Shows biochemical activity within the brain at a given moment • Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) • Causes a momentary interruption of electrical activity by exposing a tiny region of the brain to a strong magnetic field © 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. in whole or part. duplicated. or posted on a website. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This 2-31 document may not be copied.

duplicated. Figure 2 . . Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. or posted on a website. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. in whole or part. This 2-32 document may not be copied. forwarded. scanned. distributed.The Major Divisions of the Brain © 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education.

Bridge in the hindbrain • Acts as a transmitter of motor information • Involved in regulating sleep • Cerebellum: Part of the brain that controls bodily balance © 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. distributed. or posted on a website.Controls critical body functions • Pons . This 2-33 document may not be copied. duplicated. in whole or part. scanned. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. . This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. forwarded. The Central Core: Our “Old Brain” • Central core: “Old brain” • Controls basic functions such as eating and sleeping and is common to all vertebrates • Hindbrain contains: • Medulla .

passing through the midbrain and the forebrain • Thalamus: Part of the brain located in the middle of the central core that acts primarily to relay information about the senses © 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. scanned. . or posted on a website. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. distributed. in whole or part. forwarded. This 2-34 document may not be copied. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. duplicated. The Central Core: Our “Old Brain” • Reticular formation: Extends from the medulla through the pons.

forwarded. or posted on a website. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. located below the thalamus. . that maintains homeostasis and produces and regulates vital behavior • Maintains homeostasis • Produces and regulates behavior that is critical to the basic survival of the species © 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. duplicated. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. The Central Core: Our “Old Brain” • Hypothalamus: Tiny part of the brain. This 2-35 document may not be copied. scanned. distributed. in whole or part.

and reproduction • Consists of amygdala and hippocampus • Plays an important role in learning and memory. forwarded. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. or posted on a website. distributed. along with hippocampus • Otherwise referred as “animal brain. scanned. in whole or part. . Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner.” due to similarities in structures and functions to those of other mammals © 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. The Limbic System: Beyond the Central Core • Limbic system: Part of the brain that controls eating. aggression. duplicated. This 2-36 document may not be copied.

This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. distributed. Figure 4 . Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. in whole or part. duplicated.The Limbic System © 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. or posted on a website. scanned. This 2-37 document may not be copied. . forwarded.

. duplicated. scanned. forwarded. The Cerebral Cortex: Our “New Brain” • Responsible for the most sophisticated information processing in the brain • Lobes: Four major sections of the cerebral cortex • Frontal • Parietal • Temporal • Occipital © 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. distributed. or posted on a website. in whole or part. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This 2-38 document may not be copied.

The Cerebral Cortex: Our “New Brain” • Motor area: Responsible for the body’s voluntary movement • Sensory area: Site in the brain of the tissue that corresponds to each of the senses. duplicated. language. forwarded. memory. with the degree of sensitivity related to the amount of tissue • Association areas: Site of the higher mental processes • Thought. and speech © 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. This 2-39 document may not be copied. distributed. . scanned. or posted on a website. in whole or part.

This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. duplicated. forwarded. in whole or part. . scanned. This 2-40 document may not be copied. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner.Creation of new neurons in certain areas of the brain during adulthood © 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. or posted on a website. distributed. Neuroplasticity and the Brain • Neuroplasticity • Changes in the brain that occur throughout the life span relating to the addition of new neurons • New interconnections between neurons • Reorganization of information-processing areas • Neurogenesis .

This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. This 2-41 document may not be copied. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. The Specialization of the Hemispheres: Two Brains or One? • Brain is divided into two roughly mirror-image halves • Hemispheres: Symmetrical left and right halves of the brain that control the side of the body opposite to their location • Lateralization: Dominance of one hemisphere of the brain in specific functions • Language © 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. scanned. . or posted on a website. duplicated. forwarded. in whole or part. distributed.

duplicated. or posted on a website. The Split Brain: Exploring the Two Hemispheres • Split-brain patients • Corpus callosum surgically cut © 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. This 2-42 document may not be copied. forwarded. in whole or part. . Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. distributed. scanned.