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Presented by

Associate Professor

Department of Humanities and Social Sciences

College of Arts and Sciences

Understanding Factor Analysis

2

exploratory and confirmatory multivariate

technique.

Understanding Factor Analysis

3

Data reduction

Scale development

Understanding Factor Analysis

4

the determination of a small number of factors based on a

particular number of inter-related quantitative variables.

height, weight, etc., some variables such as egoism,

creativity, happiness, religiosity, comfort are not a

single measurable entity.

measurement of other, directly observable variables .

Understanding Factor Analysis

5

motivation/love/hate/care/altruism/anxiety/worry/stress/product

quality/physical aptitude/democracy /reliability/power.

are used to allow the measurement of such construct (usually several

scale items are used) because the construct may include several

dimensions.

measuring several of its underlying dimensions.

the understanding and description of complex constructs.

Understanding Factor Analysis

6

number of measures.

measures.

reduction technique as it reduces a large number of

overlapping variables to a smaller set of factors that reflect

construct(s) or different dimensions of contruct(s).

Understanding Factor Analysis

7

dimensions (factors) can be used to explain complex

phenomena.

their sharing of factors.

might be linked to shared factors such as general

intelligence, critical thinking and reasoning skills,

reading comprehension etc.

Ingredients of a Good Factor Analysis Solution

8

relationships among sets of variables parsimoniously

yet keeping factors meaningful.

interpretable.

possible.

Application of Factor Analysis

9

applications of factor analysis:

Defining indicators of constructs

Defining dimensions for an existing measure

Selecting items or scales to be included in a measure.

Application of Factor Analysis

10

construct of interest.

theory, previous research, and logic.

Application of Factor Analysis

11

In this case the variables to be analyzed are chosen by the

initial researcher and not the person conducting the analysis.

Factor analysis is performed on a predetermined set of

items/scales.

Results of factor analysis may not always be satisfactory:

The items or scales may be poor indicators of the construct or

constructs.

There may be too few items or scales to represent each underlying

dimension.

Application of Factor Analysis

12

Factor analysis may be conducted to determine what items or

scales should be included and excluded from a measure.

Results of the analysis should not be used alone in making

decisions of inclusions or exclusions. Decisions should be

taken in conjunction with the theory and what is known about

the construct(s) that the items or scales assess.

Steps in Factor Analysis

13

1st Step: the correlation matrix for all variables is computed

factors

Steps in Factor Analysis:

The Correlation Matrix

14

Generate a correlation matrix for all variables

they share common factors (variables must be related to each

other for the factor model to be appropriate).

Think of correlations in absolute value.

indicative of acceptable correlations.

Examine visually the appropriateness of the factor model.

Steps in Factor Analysis:

The Correlation Matrix

15

used to test the hypothesis the correlation matrix is an identity matrix

(all diagonal terms are 1 and all off-diagonal terms are 0).

If the value of the test statistic for sphericity is large and the

associated significance level is small, it is unlikely that the

population correlation matrix is an identity.

cannot be rejected because the observed significance level is large,

the use of the factor model should be reconsidered.

Steps in Factor Analysis:

The Correlation Matrix

16

is an index for comparing the magnitude of the observed correlation

coefficients to the magnitude of the partial correlation coefficients.

(.8 and higher are great, .7 is acceptable, .6 is mediocre, less than .5 is

unaccaptable ).

Reasonably large values are needed for a good factor analysis. Small KMO

values indicate that a factor analysis of the variables may not be a good

idea.

Steps in Factor Analysis:

Factor Extraction

17

The primary objective of this stage is to determine the factors.

Initial decisions can be made here about the number of factors

underlying a set of measured variables.

Estimates of initial factors are obtained using Principal components

analysis.

The principal components analysis is the most commonly used

extraction method . Other factor extraction methods include:

Maximum likelihood method

Principal axis factoring

Alpha method

Unweighted lease squares method

Generalized least square method

Image factoring.

Steps in Factor Analysis:

Factor Extraction

18

the observed variables are formed.

for the largest amount of variance in the sample (1st

extracted factor).

amount of variance and is uncorrelated with the first (2nd

extracted factor).

of the total sample variance, and all are uncorrelated with

each other.

Steps in Factor Analysis:

Factor Extraction

19

To decide on how many factors we

need to represent the data, we use

2 statistical criteria: Total Variance Explained

Comp % of Cumulativ % of Cumulativ

onent Total Variance e% Total Variance e%

The determination of the number 1 3.046 30.465 30.465 3.046 30.465 30.465

considering only factors with 3 1.009 10.091 58.566 1.009 10.091 58.566

5 .840 8.404 76.307

6 .711 7.107 83.414

Factors with a variance less than 1 7 .574 5.737 89.151

are no better than a single 8 .440 4.396 93.547

variable, since each variable is 9 .337 3.368 96.915

expected to have a variance of 1. 10 .308 3.085 100.000

Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.

Steps in Factor Analysis:

Factor Extraction

20

visual of the total variance associated with

each factor.

of the factors usually lower than an Eigen

value of 1.

to the statistical criteria, one should make

initial decisions based on conceptual and

theoretical grounds.

factors is not final.

Steps in Factor Analysis:

Factor Extraction

21

Component Matrix using Principle Component Analysis

Component Matrixa

Component

1 2 3

I discussed my frustrations and feelings with person(s) in school .771 -.271 .121

I tried to develop a step-by-step plan of action to remedy the problems .545 .530 .264

I read, attended workshops, or sought someother educational approach to correct the .398 .356 -.374

problem

I tried to be emotionally honest with my self about the problems .436 .441 -.368

I sought advice from others on how I should solve the problems .705 -.362 .117

I took direct action to try to correct the problems .074 .640 .443

I told someone I could trust about how I felt about the problems .752 -.351 .081

I put aside other activities so that I could work to solve the problems .225 .576 .272

a. 3 components extracted.

Steps in Factor Analysis:

Factor Rotation

22

In this step, factors are rotated.

(most factors are correlated with may variables).

easier to interpret (each variable is associated with a

minimal number of factors).

identification of somewhat different factors.

Steps in Factor Analysis:

Factor Rotation

23

factors/components.

loadings on a factor. This enhances the interpretability of the factors.

Steps in Factor Analysis:

Factor Rotation

24

which yield correlated factors.

Oblique rotations are less frequently used because their results are

more difficult to summarize.

Quartimax (Orthogonal)

Equamax (Orthogonal)

Promax (oblique)

Steps in Factor Analysis:

Factor Rotation

25

A factor is interpreted or named by examining the largest values linking the

factor to the measured variables in the rotated factor matrix.

Rotated Component Matrixa

Component

1 2 3

I discussed my frustrations and feelings with person(s) in school .803 .186 .050

I tried to develop a step-by-step plan of action to remedy the problems .270 .304 .694

I read, attended workshops, or sought someother educational approach to .050 .633 .145

correct the problem

I tried to be emotionally honest with my self about the problems .042 .685 .222

I sought advice from others on how I should solve the problems .792 .117 -.038

I took direct action to try to correct the problems -.120 -.023 .772

I told someone I could trust about how I felt about the problems .815 .172 -.040

I put aside other activities so that I could work to solve the problems -.014 .155 .657

Rotation Method: Varimax with Kaiser Normalization.

Steps in Factor Analysis:

Making Final Decisions

26

The final decision about the number of factors to choose is the number of

factors for the rotated solution that is most interpretable.

To identify factors, group variables that have large loadings for the same

factor.

Plots of loadings provide a visual for variable clusters.

Interpret factors according to the meaning of the variables

A priori conceptual beliefs about the number of factors from past research or

theory

Eigen values computed in step 2.

The relative interpretability of rotated solutions computed in step 3.

Assumptions Underlying Factor Analysis

27

The measured variables are linearly related to the factors + errors.

This assumption is likely to be violated if items limited response scales

(two-point response scale like True/False, Right/Wrong items).

The data should have a bi-variate normal distribution for each pair of

variables.

Observations are independent.

The factor analysis model assumes that variables are determined by

common factors and unique factors. All unique factors are assumed

to be uncorrelated with each other and with the common factors.

Obtaining a Factor Analysis

28

Click:

Analyze and

select

Dimension

Reduction

Factor

A factor

Analysis Box

will appear

Obtaining a Factor Analysis

29

Move

variables/scale

items to

Variable box

Obtaining a Factor Analysis

30

Factor

extraction

When

variables

are in

variable

box,

select:

Extractio

n

Obtaining a Factor Analysis

31

extraction Box

appears, select:

Scree Plot

selections

including:

Principle component

Analysis

Based on Eigen Value

of 1, and

Un-rotated factor

solution

Obtaining a Factor Analysis

32

During

factor

extraction

keep

factor

rotation

default of:

None

Press

continue

Obtaining a Factor Analysis

33

During Factor

Rotation:

Decide on the

number of factors

based on actor

extraction phase

and enter the

desired number of

factors by choosing:

Fixed number of

factors and

entering the

desired number of

factors to extract.

Under Rotation

Choose Varimax

Press continue

Then OK

Bibliographical References

34

Almar, E.C. (2000). Statistical Tricks and traps. Los Angeles, CA: Pyrczak Publishing.

Bluman, A.G. (2008). Elemtary Statistics (6th Ed.). New York, NY: McGraw Hill.

Chatterjee, S., Hadi, A., & Price, B. (2000) Regression analysis by example. New York: Wiley.

Cohen, J., & Cohen, P. (1983). Applied multiple regression/correlation analysis for the behavioral

sciences (2nd Ed.). Hillsdale, NJ.: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Darlington, R.B. (1990). Regression and linear models. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Einspruch, E.L. (2005). An introductory Guide to SPSS for Windows (2nd Ed.). Thousand Oak, CA:

Sage Publications.

Fox, J. (1997) Applied regression analysis, linear models, and related methods. Thousand Oaks, CA:

Sage Publications.

Glassnapp, D. R. (1984). Change scores and regression suppressor conditions. Educational and

Psychological Measurement (44), 851-867.

Glassnapp. D. R., & Poggio, J. (1985). Essentials of Statistical Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences.

Columbus, OH: Charles E. Merril Publishing.

Grimm, L.G., & Yarnold, P.R. (2000). Reading and understanding Multivariate statistics. Washington

DC: American Psychological Association.

Hamilton, L.C. (1992) Regression with graphics. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

Hochberg, Y., & Tamhane, A.C. (1987). Multiple Comparisons Procedures. New York: John Wiley.

Jaeger, R. M. Statistics: A spectator sport (2nd Ed.). Newbury Park, London: Sage Publications.

Bibliographical References

35

Keppel, G. (1991). Design and Analysis: A researchers handbook (3rd Ed.). Englwood Cliffs, NJ:

Prentice Hall.

Maracuilo, L.A., & Serlin, R.C. (1988). Statistical methods for the social and behavioral sciences. New

York: Freeman and Company.

Maxwell, S.E., & Delaney, H.D. (2000). Designing experiments and analyzing data: Amodel

comparison perspective. Mahwah, NJ. : Lawrence Erlbaum.

Norusis, J. M. (1993). SPSS for Windows Base System Users Guide. Release 6.0. Chicago, IL: SPSS

Inc.

Norusis, J. M. (1993). SPSS for Windows Advanced Statistics. Release 6.0. Chicago, IL: SPSS Inc.

Norusis, J. M. (2006). SPSS Statistics 15.0 Guide to Data Analysis. Upper Saddle River, NJ.: Prentice

Hall.

Norusis, J. M. (2008). SPSS Statistics 17.0 Guide to Data Analysis. Upper Saddle River, NJ.: Prentice

Hall.

Norusis, J. M. (2008). SPSS Statistics 17.0 Statistical Procedures Companion. Upper Saddle River,

NJ.: Prentice Hall.

Norusis, J. M. (2008). SPSS Statistics 17.0 Advanced Statistical Procedures Companion. Upper

Saddle River, NJ.: Prentice Hall.

Pedhazur, E.J. (1997). Multiple regression in behavioral research, third edition. New York: Harcourt

Brace College Publishers.

Bibliographical References

36

SPSS Base 7.0 Application Guide (1996). Chicago, IL: SPSS Inc.

SPSS Base 7.5 For Windows Users Guide (1996). Chicago, IL: SPSS Inc.

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SPSS Interactive graphics (1999). Chicago, IL: SPSS Inc.

SPSS Regression Models 11.0 (2001). Chicago, IL: SPSS Inc.

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SPSS Statistics Base 17.0 Users Guide (2007). Chicago, IL: SPSS Inc.

Tabachnik, B.G., & Fidell, L.S. (2001). Using multivariate statistics (4th Ed). Boston, MA: Allyn and

Bacon.

Dr. Maher Khelifa

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