PHRASAL VERBS

Phrasal verbs What are phrasal verbs? Using phrasal verbs Literal and idiomatic phrasal verbs Understanding phrasal verbs Commonly used particles Transitive and intransitive phrasal verbs .

What are phrasal verbs? A phrasal verb (also called a multi-word verb) is a verb with two or more words. It is a verb combined with one or more prepositions or adverbs (called particles): Have you run (verb) out (particle) of (particle) energy? This amazing CD and book set will turn (verb) your life around (particle). . It’ll cheer (verb) you up (particle).

we can change the meaning of the verb completely. For example … .Using phrasal verbs By adding different particles to a verb.

become My brother took over the family take + over responsible (for) business when Dad died. take + to Luckily.Verb + particle Meaning Example Does your son take after you take + after resemble (look like) or your husband? leave the ground (of Fasten your seatbelts. etc. . I’m thinking about taking up yoga. take + off aeroplanes) please. take + up begin a hobby. accept work She’s just taken on a new project. We’ll take off shortly. Mum and Dad took to my find likeable new boyfriend immediately. take + on so she’s very busy at the moment. sport.

We’ll take off shortly. (= leave the ground) You can take off the bandages after two weeks. so she’s very busy at the moment. For example: Fasten your seatbelts.Very often. please. (= hire/employ) I’m thinking about taking up yoga. (= beginning) They’ve got an enormous TV. It takes up half the living room. (= occupies) . (= remove) She’s just taken on a new project. a phrasal verb has more than one meaning. (= accepted) The company will not take on any more staff.

In this sentence. . put up is a literal phrasal verb meaning hang on the wall. In this sentence.Literal and idiomatic phrasal verbs Sometimes you can work out the meaning of a phrasal verb just by looking at the individual words. but we managed to get on the train. I put up the painting in the living room. It was busy. In this sentence. get on is a literal phrasal verb meaning enter. put something back is a literal phrasal verb meaning return something to its original place. These phrasal verbs are called literal phrasal verbs: He put the magazine back after he’d finished reading it.

however. get on is an idiomatic phrasal verb meaning make progress. When we were in Rome. Michael put us up. a phrasal verb has a meaning which is completely different from the meaning of the individual words. get on is an idiomatic phrasal verb meaning have a good relationship.Sometimes. put up means let someone stay in your home. I think we’re too different. In this sentence. How are you getting on with that book you’re writing? In this sentence. . In this sentence. It’s impossible to guess the meaning of these phrasal verbs if you don’t know the context. We call these phrasal verbs idiomatic phrasal verbs: My sister and I don’t really get on.

) Unfamiliar idiomatic phrasal verbs are much more difficult to understand. They often have several meanings. (set out = put things in a particular order) . depending on the context they are used in: Can we put off the meeting until tomorrow? (put off = delay/postpone) What you said about Tracy really put me off her. books and papers before she started work.Understanding phrasal verbs It is very easy to understand the meaning of a literal phrasal verb as long as you know the meaning of the verb and the particle: We went up to the eighty-eighth floor. pencils. (= We went from a lower position to a higher position. (set out = started a journey) She set out her pens. (put me off = made me dislike) I set out at six o’clock.

(= I can’t continue at this high speed. if you use your imagination. For example: The price of oil went up again today.Still. (= It went from a lower price to a higher price. particles can often give you a clue about the meaning of idiomatic phrasal verbs as well.) .) I can’t keep up this speed much longer.

Commonly used particles The following adverbs and prepositions are the most commonly used particles in phrasal verbs … .

Particle Literal Idiomatic He was very foolish to run Could you look after my after dog while I’m away? after the robber. look back on the past. ask I don’t really care for for Dr Johnson. Japanese horror films. in/into The burglar came in Drop in and see me if through the window. we didn’t have tickets. did you take down down there. any notes during the class? for When you get there. Put the box down over Sarah. Back away from the We were turned away because away dog slowly. We came back from our It’s never a good idea to back holiday yesterday. you’re in the neighbourhood. .

Ha! You’ve put on your Stop picking on me! You’re on shirt the wrong way round! such a bully. suddenly. but off I don’t think it’ll come off. out. don’t worry. He got really angry and Then.Particle Literal Idiomatic We got off the train at Lo It’s an interesting plan. the light went out walked out of the meeting. 1 . Linda went over to talk to You’ll get over her. There are lots of other girls. fast when she was in Madrid. over some guy by the pool. Wu station. up She picked up the bottle She picked up Spanish very from the floor.

We call these phrasal verbs transitive phrasal verbs: Could you turn on the lights. please? I’ll look after your dog while you’re away. These are called intransitive phrasal verbs: I’m happy with the way it all turned out. things are really looking up. Yes.Transitive and intransitive phrasal verbs Some phrasal verbs must be followed by direct objects. Some phrasal verbs are never followed by direct objects. .

we must place it between the verb and the particle. We CANNOT place it after the particle: She’s heating it up.) . i.) He put us up.Many transitive phrasal verbs are separable. (NOT He put up us. or between the verb and the particle: She’s heating the soup up. Careful: If the direct object is a pronoun. we can choose to place the direct object either … after the particle: She’s heating up the soup. (NOT She’s heating up it.e.

) . i. the verb and the particle cannot be split apart. some transitive verbs are inseparable. We CANNOT place it between the verb and the particle: We’re looking for my cat.e. However. The direct object of an inseparable transitive phrasal verb always comes after the particle. Have you seen her? (NOT We’re looking my cat for.

Intransitive phrasal verbs are always inseparable.  Things are really looking up.  It all turned out really well.  It all turned really well out.  The plane took successfully off. . We never put any words between the verb and the particle:  Things are looking really up.  The plane took off successfully.

g. with different meanings:  He took off his smelly shoes. Careful: Many phrasal verbs can be both transitive and intransitive. put up with) are also usually inseparable:  I look forward very much to seeing you. (intransitive) . (transitive)  The plane took off one hour late.Phrasal verbs with more than one particle (e.  I very much look forward to seeing you.