AUG 14, 2017




Methods (Preprocessing and Detection)

Results and Evaluation



Abstract Delineation of building footprints from high resolution satellite stereo images Integration of digital surface model (DSM). 3D edge matching technique and GIS building polygons Three removal masks to generate DSM and normalized DSM Comparison of resulting blobs with GIS 2D building layer Extraction of building outlines based on 3D edge matching Reconstruction of building using a box-fitting approach Geo-Eye 1 stereo images 3 .

Occlusions and shadows with associated matching errors Resolution of the DSM is important 4 .Introduction Image-based updating of geospatial databases is important Updated using remote sensing imagery supported by automatic photogrammetric techniques Development of very high resolution space borne sensors makes it possible DSM from different epochs is used for building updates.

5 m and base-to-height ratio 1: 1.Preprocessing Current DSM and nDSM from stereo images Compared with building footprints of existing GIS database Delineating new building outlines with 3D edge matching Pan-sharpened RGB stereo images from Geo-Eye 1 Resolution 0. capital city of Saudi Arabia.5 Study area: suburb of Riyadh. 550 × 500 𝑚2 Orthorectification – rational polynomial coefficients (RPC) DSM generation – semi-global matching using the panchromatic channel 5 .

Detection Blobs are classified into new and existing buildings Straight lines are extracted from unmatched blobs Resulting 3D lines are processed into buildings Possibility of buildings being changed or demolished is neglected 6 .

5 m – part of the building blobs Comparison Morphological opening – elimination of very small Blobs VS GIS blobs Blobs without False alarms – matching errors. Detection DSM DSM is filtered to derive digital terrain model (DTM) nDSM – subtraction of DTM from DSM nDSM blobs nDSM > 2. buildings standing entry in GIS database close to each other and vegetation (trees) 7 .

shadows and poor texture nDSM blobs Left-to-right consistency check Comparison Blobs VS GIS Mismatched pixel – position difference beyond a threshold in the left image from subsequent Blobs without entry in GIS database right-to-left image 8 . Detection DSM Matching error mask – occlusions.

Detection Road network mask – no overlap between building DSM footprints and roads nDSM blobs Correct geometric positions for roads in the GIS Comparison Blobs VS database GIS Vegetation mask – maximum likelihood classification Blobs of the pan-sharpened RGB using the nDSM as without entry in GIS database additional channel 9 .

Detection DSM nDSM blobs are compared with building layer of GIS database nDSM blobs Correct GIS building footprint – at least 75 % overlap Comparison Blobs VS with one or more blobs GIS Height information from the GIS database is Blobs without compared to the average blob height entry in GIS database GIS height information is updated using nDSM 10 .

Detection Epipolar Detection of edges in each stereo pair individually using the Canny image pair operator Pre-processed by removing short-lines (shorter than 3 m) Edge detection Pixels – Calculation of the twos eigenvalues in a given neighborhood (on both images) using principal component analysis (PCA) Straight Pixels with one large and one small eigenvalue are accepted as part of line detection a straight line 3D line Douglas-Peucker algorithm for simplification of the PCA output and matching fitting best straight line to the result using end-points 11 .

and Line mid point 12 . Further geometric constraints. Line length. and New building Proximity constraint footprints Further geometric constraints – Orientation angle. Detection Re-project the area around the blob under 3D line matching investigation into image space 3D matching based on three constraints – Epipolar Refinement (new building) constraint.

viewing angle etc. Not to miss homologous line because of the displacement of end-points 13 . Detection Epipolar constraint – often used in line matching 3D line matching Yields an area in which the corresponding line should lie Refinement That area varies according to the parallax (new building) End points of homologous lines are not identical in the two New building footprints images due to variation in illumination.

lengths and mid-points of the two lines to be similar 14 . 5° threshold for maximum difference between the orientations of New building footprints homologous straight lines Using thresholds. Detection Further geometric constraints – to reduce the number of possible 3D line matches matching Orientation angle – stable property of straight line Refinement (new building) Most roof lines are horizontal.

Detection Proximity constraint – lines depicting building 3D line matching outlines have shortest distance from building centre Refinement The lines nearest to the building centre are selected as (new building) homologous New building footprints Distances are computed as Euclidean distance between the building center and the mid-point of the line 15 .

Detection 3D line DEM enhancement and building shape detection matching Fit a 3D box to the results of line matching Refinement (new building) Footprint of that 3D box – footprint of the building New building footprints 16 .

shadow and in regions of poor texture. e.g.Results and Evaluation Match errors are detected based on subtracting the two disparity maps resulting from left-right and right-left matching Most matching errors lie in areas of occlusion. asphalt Vegetation 17 .

asphalt are reduced by road network mask 18 .Results and Evaluation Match errors in regions of poor texture e.g.

and the DSM Two classes – vegetation and non- vegetation Overall accuracy .Results and Evaluation Third mask – supervised maximum likelihood classification (MLC) using the pan-sharpened image.75% 19 .

Results and Evaluation Correct polygons – 75 % overlap Yellow polygons – building outlines of GIS database Green area – accepted buildings Red area – new buildings 20 .

Sample of straight line detection Left – edge detection using Canny algorithm Right – straight lines after line simplification 21 .Results and Evaluation Fig.

Results and Evaluation Blah blah 22 .

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