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Spring 2010

• Review of land plant phylogeny
• Characters of seed plants
• Gymnosperm phylogeny & diversity
– Gnetophytes
– Cycads
– Gingko
– Conifers

Review of land plant phylogeny

Green plants (viridophytes)
Land plants (embryophytes)
Vascular plants (tracheophytes)
Seed plants (spermatophytes)

Figure 7.8 from the text

1) from the text .Figure 7.11 (Pt.

12 from the text .Figure 7.

g. integument/micropyle. heterospory. nutritive tissue . Spermatophytes (Seed Plants) “Gymnosperms” Angiosperms Flowering Plants nonmotile sperm loss of lateral branches and MORE! vessel structure striate pollen Seed Ferns double fertilization [FOSSIL] nonmotile sperm eustele axillary branching male gametophyte: pollen grain & pollen tube vascular cambium [secondary xylem (wood) & secondary phloem) & cork cambium (cork) seed: MANY CHARACTERS! – e. reduction/retention of megaspore..

cork cambium) • Seed – Heterospory – Megaspore reduction/retention – Integument/micropyle – Nutritive tissue • Male gametophyte – Pollen grain – Pollen tube . Characters of seed plants • Eustele • Axillary branching • Wood – Cambia (vascular cambium.

Characters of seed plants: Eustele eustele = primary stem vasculature comprising a single ring of vascular bundles .

Characters of seed plants: axillary branching .

Characters of seed plants: cambia cambia: vascular cambium (wood) & cork cambium (periderm) .

X-section of woody stem .

Characters of seed plants: seed • Heterospory • Megaspore reduction/retention • Integument/micropyle • Nutritive tissue .

Life cycle of most seed-free plants •homospory Multicellular Sporophyte [with sporangia] Zygote 2n SYNGAMY alternation of MEIOSIS generations n Spores Gametes [egg + sperm] Multicellular Gametophyte [with gametangia: archegonia + antheridia] .

Life cycle of seed plants •heterospory Multicellular Sporophyte Zygote 2n SYNGAMY alternation of MEIOSIS generations n microspores sperm Male Gametophyte egg [antheridia] megaspores Female Gametophyte [archegonia] .

Evolution of the seed Megaspore reduction: -reduction to 1 megaspore .

not released . Evolution of the seed Megaspore retention: -the one megaspore is retained within megasporangium.

Evolution of the seed Evolution of integument/micropyle from sterile sporophyte tissue .

Evolution of the seed •pollination droplet: -secreted by young ovule through micropyle -water + sugars. amino acids (megasporangium) -adhering pollen grains pulled inside! .

Evolution of the seed -nutritive tissue from the female gametophyte -integument becomes the seed coat .

11 (Pt.Figure 7. 2) from the text .

a few cells •pollen tube – formed by the pollen. Characters of seed plants male gametophyte •pollen grain = extremely reduced male gametophyte. grows though sporophytic tissue to deliver sperm cells to egg (in ovule) .

aiding in establishment . Characters of seed plants: seed Adaptive advantages of the seed: •protection (seed coat) •dispersal unit of sexual reproduction •dormancy mechanisms •nutritive tissue – provides energy for young seedling.

Two major groups of seed plants: • Gymnosperms—not sure of the early evolutionary history of gymnosperms. could be monophyletic or could be paraphyletic • Angiosperms—monophyly supported by many characters including the carpel .

Gymnosperm Phylogeny 4 monophyletic lineages of gymnosperms .

Figure 7.15 from the text Gymnosperms paraphyletic Gymnosperms monophyletic Gymnosperms Gymnosperms monophyletic paraphyletic .

and the longest living individual plants . 900 species -4 monophyletic lineages -all woody -mostly without effective vegetative reproduction -only tracheids in the xylem (except for gnetophytes. 75-80 genera. Gymnosperm diversity -ca. 15 families. ca. the most massive. which also have vessels) -naked seeds -relatively slow sexual reproduction -worldwide but dominant in many colder or arctic regions -include the tallest.

Major groups of gymnosperms • Gnetophytes • Cycads • Gingko • Conifers .

Major groups of gymnosperms Gnetophyta—Gnetophytes or Gnetales 3 extant genera: Ephedra (65 spp.g.). Gnetum (28 spp. similar pollen -vessel structure (independent of angiosperms) -nonmotile sperm (independent?) -double fertilization (independent of angiosperms) -some with insect pollination . e. Welwitschia mirabilis related to angiosperms? •recent molecular data: a gymnosperm group defined by many characters.: -opposite leaves.).

) -common desert shrub -reduced scale-like leaves . Major groups of gymnosperms Gnetophyta .Gnetophytes •Ephedra (65 spp.

Major groups of gymnosperms Gnetophyta – Gnetales •Gnetum (28 spp.) •tropical vines. trees. shrubs with opposite leaves that look like angiosperms! .

sw Africa! -2 big curly leaves! . Major groups of gymnosperms Gnetales – Gnetophytes •Welwitschia mirabilis -a strange plant native to deserts of Namibia.

Major groups of gymnosperms Cycadophyta – Cycads •squat. multiflagellate sperm! (ancestral) •coralloid roots with nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria . unbranched trunk (little wood). usually pinnately compound leaves •loss of axillary branching •dioecious: male and female plants •male and female strobili (cones) •motile.

) •now restricted distribution •seeds with bright fleshy seed coat--dispersed by plant-eating dinos! . Major groups of gymnosperms Cycadophyta – Cycads •ca. 11 genera (130 spp.

A native U. cycad: Zamia floridana .S.

fan-shaped leaves with dichotomous venation •dioecious: male and female trees -male: “cone” with lateral stalks bearing microsporangia -female: no cone. axis with 2 ovules (outer integument layer fleshy) •motile sperm (ancestral) . Major groups of gymnosperms Ginkgophytes – Ginkgo extensive fossil record but…only 1 living species: Ginkgo biloba! •highly branched tree with well developed wood •deciduous.

•once dominant worldwide. Major groups of gymnosperms Coniferophyta – Conifers •ca. highly branched with well developed wood •leaves simple. 600 spp. displaced by angios •shrubs or small trees. often needle-like or awl-shaped -pines: in fascicles •non-motile sperm (pollen tube needed) •female (seed-bearing) cones in most .

Major groups of gymnosperms Coniferophyta – Conifers •pollen cone or male cone -microsporangia & modified leaves •seed cone or female cone -axis with modified leaves (bracts. each subtending seed-bearing scale (modified branch system) -woody or leathery or fleshy female . usually reduced).

] . Major groups of gymnosperms Coniferophyta – Conifers •seed cone and pine nuts Stone Pine nuts Korean pine nuts [w U.S.

23 from the text Conifers .Figure 8.

Pollen usually with 2 appendages Leaves linear to needle-like Resin canals in wood & leaves Pinaceae Winged seeds Ovules 2. inverted .

Pseudotsuga (Douglas fir) Abies (fir) Picea (spruce) Larix (larch) .

Pinus (pines) -needles in bundles -cone scales thickened at the tip and often armed with a prickle .

Pollen without appendages Leaves scale-like to linear Cone scales fused to bracts Microsporangia 2-10 per microsporophyll & ovules 1-20 per cone scale Cupressaceae .

Juniperus (juniper) Taxodium (bald cypress) Chamaecyparis .

Sequoia sempervirens (redwood) Sequoiadendron giganteum (giant sequoia) .

brightly colored aril . Taxaceae Ovules solitary. cones lacking Seeds with a fleshy.

Podocarpus Araucariaceae .