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• was originally a job title: it was used to
describe those human beings
(predominantly women) whose job
was to perform the repetitive
calculations required to compute such
things as navigational tables, tide
charts, and planetary positions for
astronomical almanacs.

Counting Tables

A typical computer operation when computers were people. .

. by the Babylonians.C. ABACUS • can work on addition and subtraction problems at the speed of a person equipped with a hand calculator. • the oldest surviving abacus was used in 300 B.


A very old abacus .

.A more modern abacus • abacus is really just a representation of the human fingers: • the 5 lower rings on each rod represent the 5 fingers and the 2 upper rings represent the 2 hands.

Logarithms & Napier's Bones • 1617 Scotsman named John Napier invented Logarithms. which are a technology that allows multiplication to be performed via addition. . • also invented the logarithm values were carved on ivory sticks which are now called Napier's Bones.

An original set of Napier's A more modern set of Bones Napier's Bones .

Slide Rule • 1630 – 1670 • based on Napier’s rules for logarithms .


Jacquard Loom 19th century • a Frenchman Joseph Marie Jacquard • used metal cards with punched holes to guide weaving process • first stored program .metal cards • first computer manufacturing .

Jacquard's Loom showing the threads and the punched cards .

By selecting particular cards for Jacquard's loom you defined the woven pattern .

This tapestry was woven by a Jacquard loom .

who originated the concept of a programmable computer • considered the father of computer .Charles Babbage .1792-1871 • an English Mechanical Engineer and Polymath.

designed to aid in navigational calculations . never finished .huge calculator.• Difference Engine 1822 .


Analytical Engine 1833 • could store numbers • calculating "mill" used punched metal cards for instructions • powered by steam! • accurate to six decimal places .

First Programmer • Worked with Charles Babbage • Programmed Analytical Engine .Ada Augusta .

SIR WILLIAM THOMSON 1872 • Invented the TIDE-PREDICTING MACHINE. which is the first modern analog computer .

Engineer Tommy Flowers 1930’s • Working at the Post Office Research Station in London • Began to explore the possible use of electronics for the telephone exchange network .

ALAN TURING 1936 •A computer scientist who introduced the Universal Turing Machine .

KONRAD ZUSE 1939 • a german engineer who created the Z2 • these device had a low operating speed. originally using vacuum tubes • one of the earliest examples of an electromechanical computer .

KONRAD ZUSE 1941 • Z3 – the world’s first working electromechanical programmable. fully automatic digital computer .


BERRY 1942 • from Iowa State University developed and tested the Atanasoff-Berry Computer (ABC) • the first automatic digital computer • all-electronic. used about 300 vacuum tubes with capacitors . JOHN VINCENT ATANASOFF & CLIFFORD E.

Atanasoff-Berry Computer (ABC) .

MAX NEWMAN 1943 • build the Colossus • he spent eleven months from early February 1843 • world’s first electronic digital programmable computer • used a large number of valves (vacuum tubes) .

COLOSSUS in Great Britain .


JOHN MAUCHLY & J. PRESPER ECKERT • from the University of Pennsylvannia • built the ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer) – the first electronic programmable computer in the US • faster and flexible .

using 200 kilowatts of electric power and contained over 18. capacitors. . ENIAC • the development and construction lasted from 1943 to full operation at the end of 1945 • the machine was huge. 1.000 vacuum tubes. weighing 30 tons. and hundreds of thousands of resistors. and inductors.500 relays.


and the settings of 3000 switches. To reprogram the ENIAC you had to rearrange the patch cords.14 * diameter . you type out a program with statements like: Circumference = 3. To program a modern computer.

of course. JOHNNIAC. and. ILLIAC was built at the University of Illinois at Champaign-Urbana .• After ENIAC and EDVAC came other computers with humorous names such as ILLIAC. MANIAC.

First Computer Bug .1945 • Relay cards carried information • Grace Hopper found an actual moth stuck to card responsible for a malfunction • Called it "debugging" a computer .

Over the past 50 years, the Electronic
Computer has evolved rapidly.

– vacuum tube

– integrated circuit

– Transistor

– Microchip

Vacuum Tubes - 1930 - 1950s
• First Generation Electronic Computers
used Vacuum Tubes

• Vacuum tubes are glass tubes with
circuits inside.

• Vacuum tubes have no air inside of
them, which protects the circuitry.


UNIVAC . but very expensive .1951 • First commercially available computer • sold to censu bureau • "a big pocket calculator“ • until 1970 was standard computer.

starting in 1956 . First Transistor • Uses Silicon • developed in 1948 • won a Nobel prize • on-off switch • Second Generation Computers used Transistors.


• Integrated Circuits are transistors. and capacitors integrated together into a single “chip” . resistors. Integrated Circuits • Third Generation Computers used Integrated Circuits (chips).


An integrated circuit ("silicon chip") which is a small sliver of silicon the size of your thumbnail. .

250 transistors • four-bit chunks (four 1’s or 0’s) • 108Khz • 0. The First Microprocessor .300 Mips • Called "Microchip" .6 Mips (million instructions/sec) • Pentium 133 .1971 • The Intel 4004 had 2.


Inside the Intel 4004 Microchip .2250 Transistors .

000 transistors • 4.29.1981 • IBM-Intel-Microsoft joint venture • First wide-selling personal computer used in business • 8088 Microchip .77 Mhz processing speed • 256 K RAM (Random Access Memory) standard • One or two floppy disk drives . IBM PC .


a typical mainframe computer .The IBM 7094.

who write programs to this computer . MITS Altair • was the world's first personal computer (PC) • Bill Gates – harvard freshman.

the first PC .The Altair 8800.

widely used in schools • Macintosh .released in 1984. Apple Computers • Founded 1977 • Apple II released 1977 . Motorola 68000 Microchip processor • Macintosh is first commercial computer with graphical user interface (GUI) and pointing device (mouse) .



1990s: Pentiums and Power Macs • Early 1990s began penetration of computers into every niche: every desk.easy file transfers • Prices have plummeted . most homes. less expensive computers paved way for this • Windows 95 was first decent GUI for "PCs“ • Macs became more PC compatible . etc. • Faster.

By: Mam Sanoria . d end….