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SCMS School of

Engineering and Technology

UWB & 
Thomas George. C


 Introduction to UWB
 Comparison of UWB with other wireless
 Advantages
 Applications in various fields
 conclusion

Introduction to UWB

 Narrow pulses have a wide frequency response.

Introduction to UWB

Sinusoidal signals are narrow in frequency and "wide" over time

A pulse is narrow in time and wideband in frequency

Introduction to UWB Limitations of narrowband communication  Narrowband Problems  • Multipath fading  Destructive interference of CW signals causes signal loss  • Insecure  Narrow Band signals are easily detected and jammed  • Poor range resolution Range resolution for tracking applications is a function of RF bandwidth  • Limited data rate  Narrow RF bandwidth means narrow data bandwidth .

6 GHz . UWB 3.1-10.Introduction to UWB So what is ultra wide band technology?  Uses narrow pulses(pulse width = nS) of very low duty cycles.  Very high band width ( in GHz range)  The first ever radio(spark gap radio) was a form of UWB radio.1 to 10.6 GHz for unlicensed use in 2002. but found no use  UWB technology gained strength when FCC provided 3.

resonators  ‘Separation of services by wavelength’  Era of wireless telephony begins: AM / SSB / FM  Commercial broadcasting matures. but did not take advantage of large spreading gain  1900-40s: Wireless goes ‘tuned’  Analog processing: filters. radar and signal processing  1970-90s: Digital techniques applied to UWB  Wide band impulse radar  Allows for realization of the HUGE available spreading gain  Now: UWB approved by FCC for commercialization .The history of UWB Technology  Before 1900: Wireless Began as UWB  Large RF bandwidths.

short-range & large bandwidth technology in radio frequency spectrum  Very large bandwidth.25 (fh and fl are highest and lowest frequency) . >500MHz  Very low average power: Should not exceed -43.Introduction to UWB Definitions and regulations of UWB  A low energy level.1 dBm  Fractional bandwidth > 0.

Comparison of UWB .NB and SS .

low power. nearly all-digital and single chip architecture .Properties of UWB  Extremely difficult to detect by unintended users  Highly Secured  Non-interfering to other communication systems  It appears like noise for other systems  Both Line of Sight and non-Line of Sight operation  Can pass through walls and doors  High multipath immunity  Common architecture for communications. radar & positioning (software re-definable)  Low cost.

1GHz to 10.  Lowest emission limits ever by FCC  Allows UWB technology to coexist with existing radio services without causing interference  FCC opened up new spectrum for UWB transmissions  One of the bands is from 3.6GHz  Maximum power emission limit is .Summary of the FCC Rules  Significant protection provided for sensitive systems  GPS. Federal aviation systems. etc.41.3dBm/MHz .


Comparison .

00100 Wats day) UWB device 0.00005 Wats .Power radiated Device type Transmit Power (Watts) Allowed leakage from a MicroWave oven 1.10000 Wats Class 2 Bluetooth device (10 m range) 0.00000 Wat Typical mobile phone transmit power 0.25000 Wats up to 1 Wat Class 1 Bluetooth device (100 m range) 0.00250 Wats Sunlight reflecting from the head of a pin (on a sunny 0.

suspension systems.FCC UWB Device Classifications  Report and Order authorizes 5 classes of devices with different limits for each:  Imaging Systems  Ground penetrating radars. . etc. medical imaging  Thru-wall Imaging & Surveillance Systems  Communication and Measurement Systems  Indoor Systems  Hand-held Systems  Vehicular Radar Systems  collision avoidance. improved airbag activation. wall imaging.

6 GHz Measurement Systems (different “out-of-band” emission limits for No indoor and hand-held devices) Imaging: Ground Penetrating Radar.1 to 10. <960 MHz or 3.1 to 10.6 GHz Yes Vehicular 22 to 29 GHz No . Wall.6 GHz Yes Medical Imaging Imaging: Through-wall <960 MHz or 1.99 to 10.99 to 10.FCC Limitations Class / Application Frequency Band for Operation at User Part 15 Limits Limitations Communications and 3.6 GHz Yes Imaging: Surveillance 1.

Modulation techniques  DS UWB modulation techniques  Pulse Position Modulation (PPM)  Bipolar Signaling (BPSK)  Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM)  On/Off Keying (OOK)  Pulse-Shape Modulation  Multi band OFDM suggested for data transmission  Use FFT to achieve high data rates. .

DS Modulation techniques  A number of modulation schemes may be used with UWB systems. The potential modulation schemes include both orthogonal and antipodal schemes.  Pulse Position Modulation (PPM)  Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM)  On-Off Keying (OOK)  Bi-Phase Modulation (BPSK) .

0 GHz)  Group C: Intended for devices with improved SOP performance (6.6 GHz) .1 – 4.1 – 10.Band Plan for MB OFDM  Group the 528 MHz bands into 4 distinct groups GROUP A GROUP B GROUP C GROUP D Band Band Band Band Band Band Band Band Band Band Band Band Band #1 #2 #3 #4 #5 #6 #7 #8 #9 #10 #11 #12 #13 3432 3960 4488 5016 5808 6336 6864 7392 7920 8448 8976 9504 10032 MHz MHz MHz MHz MHz MHz MHz MHz MHz MHz MHz MHz MHz f  Group A: Intended for 1st generation devices (3.1 GHz)  Group D: Reserved for future use (8.0 – 8.9 GHz)  Group B: Reserved for future use (4.9 – 6.

Ability to work with low SNRs Offers high performance in noisy environments.Advantages of UWB Advantage Benefit Coexistence with current narrowband and wideband Avoids expensive licensing fees. High performance in multipath channels Delivers higher signal strengths in adverse conditions. Simple transceiver architecture Enables ultra-low power. radio services Large channel capacity High bandwidth can support real-time high- definition video streaming. Low transmit power Provides high degree of security with low probability of detection and intercept. smaller form factor. . Resistance to jamming Reliable in hostile environments. and beter mean time between failures. all at a reduced cost.

 Simple CMOS transmiters at very low power available.More advantages  The low power requirement eliminates the need of a power amplifier in the transmiter  Adding security for data transmission is easy. suitable for batery driven devices .

Data & Video Distribution –RF Tagging & Identification b) Radar –Collision/Obstacle Avoidance –Precision Altimetry –Intrusion Detection (“see through wall”) –Ground Penetrating Radar c) Precision Geolocation –Asset Tracking –Personnel localization .UWB Major Application Areas a) Communications –Wireless Audio.

Some of Military & Commercial Applications of UWB .

Source:MSSI .

WPANs  WPAN: wireless personal area network  Small network of devices and host  Bluetooth was previously used  Bandwidth of bluetooth is very low ( ≈ 1 MbPS)  UWB can replace bluetooth for WPANs .Applications of UWB 1.

with wireless connectivity • Enabling high-speed wireless universal serial bus (WUSB) connectivity for PCs and PC peripherals. and mobile devices .PC. and portable MP3 players. • Replacing IEEE1394 cables between portable multimedia CE devices. such as camcorders. such as 3G cell phones.scanners. including printers.UWB can enable a wide variety of WPAN applications. and external storage devices • Replacing cables in next-generation Bluetooth Technology devices. digital cameras. as well as IP/UPnP-based connectivity for the next generation of IP-based PC/CE/mobile devices • Creating ad-hoc high-bit-rate wireless connectivity for CE.

MP3. DSC  Media Player. 60+ GB  Range is near device (< 2m)  User requires xfer time < 10s Low Power & High Data Rate Use Exchange your MPEG4 movie music & data (512 MB) to player Print from handheld Mount portable HD . Content Transfer: Mobile Devices  Applications Low Power Use Cases  Smartphone/PDA. 2048 … MB storage/network  HD 4. display Images from MP3 titles to  Requirements music player camera to  Mobile device storage sizes  Flash 5. Storage. 32. 512. ….

It is not always feasible to install Wi-Fi for home or personal networks. As the wireless devices work on their own power. are good examples. the high power consumption becomes a big drawback. monitor etc. HDTV.  Another draw back of Wi-Fi is the higher power consumption. . almost always batery power. Power consumption is one of the important hurdles of wireless designers.Wireless USB  Inadequacy of current wireless solutions:  Bluetooth Bandwidth of 3 Mbps is not enough for most of the applications which needs very high bandwidth. The applications like video.  Wi-Fi  One of the main disadvantage of Wi-Fi is its high expense to set up a network and make it working.

Wireless USB .

printers.Wireless USB  Wireless USB is used in game controllers.  Due to high data rate.  As in USB 2. digital cameras. It is also suitable for transferring parallel video streams.  To back support the devices. portable media players. a WUSB hub is also developed . HD videos can be transmited live without wires. hard disk drives and flash drives.0 a WUSB hub supports 127 devices  It frees the USB devices from cables. scanners.

Wireless USB • Due to absence of physical ports port expansion is easy • Host USB interface of host computer system – Host Controller Wire Adapters Belkin Wireless USB hub .

0 will have data rates Up to 480 Mbps using UWB  But due to standardization issues.Bluetooth 3. it accepted the 60-GHz technology.0  In 2006 it was predicted that Bluetooth 3. which provides a data rate of 24 Mbps. .

 As it is spread over a wide range jamming is not possible .Applications of UWB RADAR application  Due to high bandwidth and short pulse duration. UWB radars can be used for penetration RADARs.

or the wall of a mine." such as a concrete structure. Wall Imaging Radar System •To detect the location of objects contained within a "wall. •A special directional antenna to transmit the stimulus signal into the ground and receive the reflected waves. fire and rescue organizations. •Depth of penetration is typically between 0. •Operation is restricted by FCC to law enforcement. to commercial mining companies.   Ground and Ice Penetrating RADAR • A system used to detect objects buried in the ground. and to construction companies. . to scientific research institutions. very short pulses are needed to resolve typical buried targets. the side of a bridge.5 and 10 m.

•Objects in the field then reflect the signal back to the wall where part of the signal is transmited through the wall to the receiver. •The stimulus signal is transmited into the wall.Through Wall Radar System •Uses very short pulses to provide detection of objects on the opposite side of a non-metallic wall. •Freq of Operation: below 960 MHz or 3. .6 GHz band.1-10. A portion of the signal incident on the wall is transmited through the wall and into the space on the far side.

Vehicular Radar Systems Potential applications include • collision avoidance.075 GHz. . •intelligent cruise control systems. •FCC limits operation of vehicular radar to the 22-29 GHz band using directional antennas on terrestrial transportation vehicles provided the center frequency of the emission and the frequency at which the highest radiated emission occurs are greater than 24. •improved airbag activation •suspension systems that beter respond to road conditions. • proximity aids.

ENT. vital signs. Obstretrics) . pneumology. medical store security) • Medical imaging ( cardiac imaging.Medical application • Penetrating through obstacles • High precision ranging at the centimeter level • Low electromagnetic radiation • Low processing energy consumed Used for… • Patient monitoring( movement.

Medical imaging .

roadside assistance) • Tagging and identification • Non LOS communication • Intrusion detection .Other applications • Wireless Sensor networks( military and commercial use) • Automotive industry (collision avoidance.

the high data rate is available only in short range ( <10 m) . Different countries allocated different spectral regions for unlicensed use.Challenges in UWB • Main challenge is in the standardization. • Design of antenna • Due to power limit set by FCC.

. due to its high bandwidth and low power.  Very interesting application in wireless content transfer. especially for HD videos.Conclusion  UWB technology has very high potential in real life applications.

March 2000.References  Ultra-wideband communications: fundamentals and applications-F Nekoogar – 2005  K.  J.15- 00/082r0. Ultra-Wideband Radio Technology.  Young Man Kim. McCorkle. McKeown. IEEE 802. 2004. Ultra Wide Band (UWB) Technology and Applications.” Doc. Siwiak and D. . Wiley: UK. “A Tutorial on Ultrawideband Technology. Ohio State University NEST group.