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UWB &

APPLICATIONS
Thomas George. C
S7 ECE

TOPICS COVERED

 Introduction to UWB
 Comparison of UWB with other wireless
technologies
 Advantages
 Applications in various fields
 conclusion

Introduction to UWB
FREQUENCY RESPONSE

 Narrow pulses have a wide frequency response.

Introduction to UWB

Sinusoidal signals are narrow in frequency and "wide" over time

A pulse is narrow in time and wideband in frequency

Introduction to UWB Limitations of narrowband communication  Narrowband Problems  • Multipath fading  Destructive interference of CW signals causes signal loss  • Insecure  Narrow Band signals are easily detected and jammed  • Poor range resolution Range resolution for tracking applications is a function of RF bandwidth  • Limited data rate  Narrow RF bandwidth means narrow data bandwidth .

1-10. but found no use  UWB technology gained strength when FCC provided 3.  Very high band width ( in GHz range)  The first ever radio(spark gap radio) was a form of UWB radio.Introduction to UWB So what is ultra wide band technology?  Uses narrow pulses(pulse width = nS) of very low duty cycles.6 GHz .6 GHz for unlicensed use in 2002. UWB 3.1 to 10.

The history of UWB Technology  Before 1900: Wireless Began as UWB  Large RF bandwidths. resonators  ‘Separation of services by wavelength’  Era of wireless telephony begins: AM / SSB / FM  Commercial broadcasting matures. radar and signal processing  1970-90s: Digital techniques applied to UWB  Wide band impulse radar  Allows for realization of the HUGE available spreading gain  Now: UWB approved by FCC for commercialization . but did not take advantage of large spreading gain  1900-40s: Wireless goes ‘tuned’  Analog processing: filters.

25 (fh and fl are highest and lowest frequency) .Introduction to UWB Definitions and regulations of UWB  A low energy level. >500MHz  Very low average power: Should not exceed -43.1 dBm  Fractional bandwidth > 0. short-range & large bandwidth technology in radio frequency spectrum  Very large bandwidth.

NB and SS .Comparison of UWB .

nearly all-digital and single chip architecture .Properties of UWB  Extremely difficult to detect by unintended users  Highly Secured  Non-interfering to other communication systems  It appears like noise for other systems  Both Line of Sight and non-Line of Sight operation  Can pass through walls and doors  High multipath immunity  Common architecture for communications. radar & positioning (software re-definable)  Low cost. low power.

41.  Lowest emission limits everby FCC  Allows UWB technology to coexist with existing radio services without causing interference  FCC opened up new spectrum for UWB transmissions  One of the bands is from 3. Federal aviation systems.Summary of the FCC Rules  Significant protection provided for sensitive systems  GPS. etc.3dBm/MHz .1GHz to 10.6GHz  Maximum power emission limit is .

.

Comparison .

10000 Watts Class 2 Bluetooth device (10 m range) 0.00005 Watts .00250 Watts Sunlight reflecting from the head of a pin (on a sunny 0.25000 Watts up to 1 Watt Class 1 Bluetooth device (100 m range) 0.00100 Watts day) UWB device 0.Power radiated Device type Transmit Power (Watts) Allowed leakage from a MicroWave oven 1.00000 Watt Typical mobile phone transmit power 0.

etc. wall imaging. medical imaging  Thru-wall Imaging & Surveillance Systems  Communication and Measurement Systems  Indoor Systems  Hand-held Systems  Vehicular Radar Systems  collision avoidance. suspension systems.FCC UWB Device Classifications  Report and Order authorizes 5 classes of devices with different limits for each:  Imaging Systems  Ground penetrating radars. improved airbag activation. .

6 GHz Yes Vehicular 22 to 29 GHz No .6 GHz Yes Imaging: Surveillance 1.1 to 10.6 GHz Measurement Systems (different “out-of-band” emission limits for No indoor and hand-held devices) Imaging: Ground Penetrating Radar.6 GHz Yes Medical Imaging Imaging: Through-wall <960 MHz or 1. <960 MHz or 3.99 to 10.99 to 10. Wall.1 to 10.FCC Limitations Class / Application Frequency Band for Operation at User Part 15 Limits Limitations Communications and 3.

.Modulation techniques  DS UWB modulation techniques  Pulse Position Modulation (PPM)  Bipolar Signaling (BPSK)  Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM)  On/Off Keying (OOK)  Pulse-Shape Modulation  Multi band OFDM suggested for data transmission  Use FFT to achieve high data rates.

 Pulse Position Modulation (PPM)  Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM)  On-Off Keying (OOK)  Bi-Phase Modulation (BPSK) .DS Modulation techniques  A number of modulation schemes may be used with UWB systems. The potential modulation schemes include both orthogonal and antipodal schemes.

Band Plan for MB OFDM  Group the 528 MHz bands into 4 distinct groups GROUP A GROUP B GROUP C GROUP D Band Band Band Band Band Band Band Band Band Band Band Band Band #1 #2 #3 #4 #5 #6 #7 #8 #9 #10 #11 #12 #13 3432 3960 4488 5016 5808 6336 6864 7392 7920 8448 8976 9504 10032 MHz MHz MHz MHz MHz MHz MHz MHz MHz MHz MHz MHz MHz f  Group A: Intended for 1st generation devices (3.9 GHz)  Group B: Reserved for future use (4.6 GHz) .1 – 4.0 GHz)  Group C: Intended for devices with improved SOP performance (6.9 – 6.1 GHz)  Group D: Reserved for future use (8.1 – 10.0 – 8.

all at a reduced cost.Advantages of UWB Advantage Benefit Coexistence with current narrowband and wideband Avoids expensive licensing fees. High performance in multipath channels Delivers higher signal strengths in adverse conditions. Simple transceiver architecture Enables ultra-low power. Resistance to jamming Reliable in hostile environments. Low transmit power Provides high degree of security with low probability of detection and intercept. Ability to work with low SNRs Offers high performance in noisy environments. smaller form factor. . and better mean time between failures. radio services Large channel capacity High bandwidth can support real-time high- definition video streaming.

More advantages  The low power requirement eliminates the need of a power amplifier in the transmitter  Adding security for data transmission is easy.  Simple CMOS transmitters at very low power available. suitable for battery driven devices .

UWB Major Application Areas a) Communications –Wireless Audio. Data & Video Distribution –RF Tagging & Identification b) Radar –Collision/Obstacle Avoidance –Precision Altimetry –Intrusion Detection (“see through wall”) –Ground Penetrating Radar c) Precision Geolocation –Asset Tracking –Personnel localization .

Some of Military & Commercial Applications of UWB .

Source:MSSI .

WPANs  WPAN: wireless personal area network  Small network of devices and host  Bluetooth was previously used  Bandwidth of bluetooth is very low ( ≈ 1 MbPS)  UWB can replace bluetooth for WPANs .Applications of UWB 1.

such as camcorders. • Replacing IEEE1394 cables between portable multimedia CE devices. digital cameras. as well as IP/UPnP-based connectivity for the next generation of IP-based PC/CE/mobile devices • Creating ad-hoc high-bit-rate wireless connectivity for CE. and external storage devices • Replacing cables in next-generation Bluetooth Technology devices. and mobile devices .PC.scanners. and portable MP3 players. with wireless connectivity • Enabling high-speed wireless universal serial bus (WUSB) connectivity for PCs and PC peripherals. including printers. such as 3G cell phones.UWB can enable a wide variety of WPAN applications.

512. 32. 2048 … MB storage/network  HD 4. display MP3 titles to Images from  Requirements music player camera to  Mobile device storage sizes  Flash 5. 60+ GB  Range is near device (< 2m)  User requires xfer time < 10s Low Power & High Data Rate Use Exchange your MPEG4 movie music & data (512 MB) to player Print from handheld Mount portable HD . Storage. MP3. …. DSC  Media Player. Content Transfer: Mobile Devices  Applications Low Power Use Cases  Smartphone/PDA.

HDTV. almost always battery power. The applications like video. Power consumption is one of the important hurdles of wireless designers. As the wireless devices work on their own power. .  Another draw back of Wi-Fi is the higher power consumption.  Wi-Fi  One of the main disadvantage of Wi-Fi is its high expense to set up a network and make it working. monitor etc. the high power consumption becomes a big drawback. are good examples. It is not always feasible to install Wi-Fi for home or personal networks.Wireless USB  Inadequacy of current wireless solutions:  Bluetooth Bandwidth of 3 Mbps is not enough for most of the applications which needs very high bandwidth.

Wireless USB .

scanners.  Due to high data rate. HD videos can be transmitted live without wires.  To back support the devices. It is also suitable for transferring parallel video streams.  As in USB 2. digital cameras.Wireless USB  Wireless USB is used in game controllers. a WUSB hub is also developed . printers. portable media players.0 a WUSB hub supports 127 devices  It frees the USB devices from cables. hard disk drives and flash drives.

Wireless USB • Due to absence of physical ports port expansion is easy • Host USB interface of host computer system – Host Controller Wire Adapters Belkin Wireless USB hub .

which provides a data rate of 24 Mbps.Bluetooth 3. . it accepted the 60-GHz technology.0  In 2006 it was predicted that Bluetooth 3.0 will have data rates Up to 480 Mbps using UWB  But due to standardization issues.

 As it is spread over a wide range jamming is not possible . UWB radars can be used for penetration RADARs.Applications of UWB RADAR application  Due to high bandwidth and short pulse duration.

" such as a concrete structure. the side of a bridge. very short pulses are needed to resolve typical buried targets. •Operation is restricted by FCC to law enforcement. to commercial mining companies. •A special directional antenna to transmit the stimulus signal into the ground and receive the reflected waves. and to construction companies.5 and 10 m. fire and rescue organizations. Wall Imaging Radar System •To detect the location of objects contained within a "wall. Ground and Ice Penetrating RADAR • A system used to detect objects buried in the ground. . to scientific research institutions. or the wall of a mine. •Depth of penetration is typically between 0.

6 GHz band. •Freq of Operation: below 960 MHz or 3. .Through Wall Radar System •Uses very short pulses to provide detection of objects on the opposite side of a non-metallic wall. •Objects in the field then reflect the signal back to the wall where part of the signal is transmitted through the wall to the receiver.1-10. •The stimulus signal is transmitted into the wall. A portion of the signal incident on the wall is transmitted through the wall and into the space on the far side.

•improved airbag activation •suspension systems that better respond to road conditions. •intelligent cruise control systems. . • proximity aids. Vehicular Radar Systems Potential applications include • collision avoidance. •FCC limits operation of vehicular radar to the 22-29 GHz band using directional antennas on terrestrial transportation vehicles provided the center frequency of the emission and the frequency at which the highest radiated emission occurs are greater than 24.075 GHz.

Obstretrics) . pneumology. vital signs. ENT. medical store security) • Medical imaging ( cardiac imaging.Medical application • Penetrating through obstacles • High precision ranging at the centimeter level • Low electromagnetic radiation • Low processing energy consumed Used for… • Patient monitoring( movement.

Medical imaging .

Other applications • Wireless Sensor networks( military and commercial use) • Automotive industry (collision avoidance. roadside assistance) • Tagging and identification • Non LOS communication • Intrusion detection .

Challenges in UWB • Main challenge is in the standardization. the high data rate is available only in short range ( <10 m) . Different countries allocated different spectral regions for unlicensed use. • Design of antenna • Due to power limit set by FCC.

 Very interesting application in wireless content transfer.Conclusion  UWB technology has very high potential in real life applications. . especially for HD videos. due to its high bandwidth and low power.

 Young Man Kim. McCorkle. Siwiak and D. Wiley: UK. Ohio State University NEST group. March 2000. “A Tutorial on Ultrawideband Technology. McKeown. Ultra-Wideband Radio Technology.” Doc.  J.References  Ultra-wideband communications: fundamentals and applications-F Nekoogar – 2005  K. IEEE 802. Ultra Wide Band (UWB) Technology and Applications. . 2004.15- 00/082r0.