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Department of Civil Engineering

TCE-305

Engineering Geology
Rock forming Minerals
About 25 minerals makes 99.5% of rocks.

Three main Groups of rock forming Minerals are


1. Silicates
2. Oxides
3.Carbonates
Silicates
80% of Crust of Earth is made up of silicates
Biggest group of minerals
Eg. Feldspar, mica, hornblende, augite, olivine,etc

Chemical composition : made up of 9 elements Na, K, Al, Ca, Mg, Fe,


Li, Si and O
Atomic Structure : made up of Silicon-oxygen Tetrahedron [SiO4]4-
Oxides
Non metallic minerals
Eg. Quartz and Corundum

Metallic Minerals
Eg. Haematite, Magnetite, cuprite, Bauxite
Carbonates
Important rock forming minerals in sedimentary and metamorphic
rocks.

Eg Calcite and Dolomite


FELDSPAR

It is most abundant of all minerals


It is used for making more than 50% by weight crust of earth
It is non-metallic and silicate minerals

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION:
Potash feldspar KAlSi3O8
Soda-lime feldspar NaAlSi3O8 (OR) CaAl2Si2O8
GENERAL PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
CRYSTAL SYSTEM: monoclinic,triclinic
Structure: Tabular (crystalline)
CLEAVAGE: Perfect( 2- directional)
FRACTURE: Conchoidal or uneven
COLOUR: White, grey, pink, green, red
LUSTRE: Vitreous
HARDNESS: 6-6.5
SPECIFIC GRAVITY; 2.56-2.58(low)
STREAK: No
OCCURRENCE: Igneous rock
USES: Ceramics, glass, tableware, enamels, electric porcelain, false teeth
Quartz
Chemical Formula : SiO2
Colour : Colourless
Streak : White
Hardness : 7
Crystal System: Hexagonal
Lustre : Vitreous
Cleavage: No cleavage
Fracture : Conchoidal
Orthoclase
Chemical Formula : KAlSi3O8
Colour :
Streak :
Hardness :
Crystal System:
Lustre :
Cleavage:
Fracture :
Albite
Chemical Formula : NaAlSi3O8
Streak : Colourless
Hardness : 6 to 6.5
Crystal System: Triclinic
Lustre : Vitreous to milky
Cleavage: in two directions
Fracture : uneven
Hornblende
Chemical Formula : Ca2(Mg,Fe2+,Fe3+,Al)5(Si,Al)8O22(OH)2
Colour : Black, dark green, dark brown, dark gray.
Streak : Colourless
Hardness : 5-6
Crystal System: Monoclinic
Lustre : Vitreous, submetallic, dull
Cleavage: Prismatic
Fracture : Uneven
Calcite (CaCO3)
Chemical Formula :
Colour : White and Transparent
Streak : White
Hardness : 3
Crystal System: Hexagonal
Lustre : Vitreous
Cleavage: Rhombohedral
Fracture : Conchoidal
Dolomite
Chemical Formula : CaMg(CO3)2
Colour : White
Streak : White
Hardness : 3.3-4
Crystal System:
Lustre : Vitreous
Cleavage: Rombohedral , Perfect
Fracture : Conchoidal
Magnesite
Chemical Formula : MgCO3
Colour : White when pure
Streak : White
Hardness : 3.5 to 4.5
Crystal System: Hexagonal
Lustre : Vitreous to dull
Cleavage: Rhombohedral
Fracture : Conchoidal to even