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Properties &

Characteristics of
Materials;
Testing of
Materials
Presented by:
Hontiveros, Dave
Francis E.
Amin, Kurt Evaunce D.
Bautista, Dave
Cabrera, Dave Alfred
Campos, Vladimir A.
Roxas, Hubert R.
Laurente, Reymark B.
Rosales, Emmanuel
Properties & Characteristics
of Materials
Properties of Materials
What are Materials?
A material is a physical substance used to make things.

Properties of Material
A property of material is a description of the characteristics
which it has they are adjectives which tells us about the
material.

A property may be a constant or may be a function of one or


more independent variables, such as temperature.

Materials have different properties and characteristics depending


on what they are used for.
Properties of Materials
Acoustic Properties
Acoustic absorption - refers to the process by which a material, structure, or object takes in

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sound energy when sound waves are encountered, as opposed to reflecting the energy.

Speed of sound - is variable and depends on the properties of the substance through which
the wave is travelling. In solids, the speed of transverse (or shear) waves depends on the
shear deformation under shear stress (called the shear modulus), and the density of the
medium.

Atomic Properties
Atomic Mass is the mass of an atom.

Atomic Number of a chemical element is


the number of protons found in the nucleus
of an atom.It is identical to the
charge number of the nucleus.
Properties of Materials
Chemical Properties

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Corrosion Resistance is a natural process, which converts a refined metal to a more chemically-stable
form, such as its oxide, hydroxide, or sulfide.

pH is a numeric scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution

Reactivity the chemical reactions of a single substance; the chemical reactions of two or more
substances that interact with each other.

Environmental Properties

Embodied energy - is an accounting method which aims


to find the sum total of the energy necessary for an entire
product life-cycle.
Properties of Materials
Electric properties
Electrical Conductivity - is the reciprocal of electrical resistivity, and measures a
material's ability to conduct an electric current.

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Electrical Resistance - is a measure of the difficulty to pass an electric current through
that conductor

Capacitance is the ability of a body to store an electric charge.

Manufacturing Properties

Castability is the ease of forming a quality casting; Castability can refer to a part
design or a material property.

Machinability - refers to the ease with which a metal can be cut (machined) permitting
the removal of the material with a satisfactory finish at low cost.
Properties of Materials
Mechanical Properties
Brittleness - Ability of a material to break or shatter without significant deformation when under stress;
opposite of plasticity

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Bulk Modulus - is a measure of how incompressible/resistant to compressibility that substance is.

Coefficient of Friction - is a dimensionless scalar value which describes the


ratio of the force of friction between two bodies and
the force pressing them together.

Compressive Strength - Maximum stress a material can


withstand before compressive failure

Elastic Modulus - is a number that measures an object or substance's


resistance to being deformed elastically when a force is applied to it
Properties of Materials
Ductility - Ability of a material to deform under tensile load
Durability - Ability to withstand wear, pressure, or damage; hard-wearing.

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Elasticity - Ability of a body to resist a distorting influence or stress and to
return to its original size and shape when the stress is removed
Hardness Ability to withstand surface indentation and scratching
Plasticity - Ability of a material to undergo irreversible or permanent
deformations without breaking or rupturing; opposite of brittleness.
Properties of Materials
Poissons Ratio - is a measure of the Poisson effect, the phenomenon in which a
material tends to expand in directions perpendicular to the direction of compression.

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Shear Modulus Is the ratio of shear stress to the shear strain; Describes the material's
response to shear stress.

Shear Strength - is the strength of a material or component against the type of yield or
structural failure where the material or component fails in shear.

Ultimate Tensile Strength - is the capacity of a material or structure to withstand loads


tending to elongate, as opposed to compressive strength, which withstands loads tending
to reduce size.
Properties of Materials
Endurance Limit - Maximum stress a material can withstand under repeated loading.

Specific Strength - is a material's strength (force per unit area at failure) divided by its

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density. It is also known as the strength-to-weight ratio or strength/weight ratio.

Resilience - is a material's strength (force per unit area at failure) divided by its density.
It is also known as the strength-to-weight ratio or strength/weight ratio.

Viscosity - A fluid's resistance to gradual deformation by tensile or shear stress.

Stiffness - Ability of an object to resist deformation in response to an applied force;


rigidity; complementary to flexibility
Properties of Materials
Suface Roughness - is a component of surface texture. It is quantified by the deviations in the
direction of the normal vector of a real surface from its ideal form

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Specific modulus - is a materials property consisting of the elastic modulus per mass density
of a material.

Flexural Modulus - is an intensive property that is computed as the ratio of stress to strain in
flexural deformation, or the tendency for a material to bend.

Flexural Strength - also known as modulus of rupture, or bend strength, or transverse


rupture strength is a material property, defined as the stress in a material just before it
yields in a flexure test.
Properties of Materials
Thermal Properties
Boiling Point - is the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid equals the pressure surrounding the
liquid and the liquid changes into vapor.

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Thermal Expansion - is the tendency of matter to change in shape, area, and volume in response to a
change in temperature.

Flammability - is the ability of a substance to burn or ignite, causing fire or combustion .

Melting Point - is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid at atmospheric pressure.
At the melting point the solid and liquid phase exist in equilibrium.

Heat Capacity - is a measurable physical quantity equal to the ratio of the heat added to (or removed
from) an object to the resulting temperature change.
Properties of Materials

Thermal Properties

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Heat capacity - is a measurable physical quantity equal to the ratio of the heat added to (or removed from) an
object to the resulting temperature change.

Thermal Conductivity - is the property of a material to conduct heat

Thermal Diffusivity - is the thermal conductivity divided by density and specific heat capacity at constant
pressure. It measures the rate of transfer of heat of a material from the hot side to the cold side.

Thermal Expansion - is the tendency of matter to change in shape, area, and volume in response to a change in
temperature.
Testing of Materials
Testing of Materials
What is Material Testing?
Measurement of the characteristics and behaviour of such
substances as metals,ceramics, or plastics under various
conditions. The data thus obtained can be used in specifying the
suitability of materials for various applications.

Types of Material Testing:


Destructive Testing - includes methods where your material is
broken down in order to determine mechanical properties, such
as strength, toughness and hardness.

Non-Destructive Testing - is a wide group of analysis


techniques used in science and technology industry to evaluate
the properties of a material, component or system without
causing damage.
Destructive Testing
Tensile Test
Also known as tension testing, is a fundamentalmaterials sciencetest in which a sample is

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subjected to a controlledtensionuntil failure. The results from the test are commonly used
to select a material for an application, forquality control, and to predict how a material
will react under other types offorces. Properties that are directly measured via a tensile
test areultimate tensile strength, maximumelongationand reduction in area.
Destructive Testing
Bending Test

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Bend tests deform the test material at the midpoint causing a concave surface or a bend to form
without the occurrence of fracture and are typically performed to determine the ductility or
resistance to fracture of that material. Unlike in aflexure testthe goal is not to load the material
until failure but rather to deform the sample into a specific shape. The test sample is loaded in a way
that creates a concave surface at the midpoint with a specified radius of curvature according to the
standard in relation to which the test is performed. Bending tests are as popular astensile test,
compression test, and fatigue tests.
Destructive Testing
Hardness Test
Hardness Testing measures a materials strength by determining resistance to
penetration. The hardnesstest is extremely useful in material selection because it

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provides a hardness value which indicates how easily a material can be machined and
how well the material will wear. Material hardness testing is also valuable in making
decisions about treatments and coatings.

Examples of Hardness Test Methods:


TheRockwell Hardness Test and Superficial Rockwellare performed on castings,
forgings and other relatively large metal products and samples because the tests
produce a large visible indentation.
TheBrinell Hardness Testcan be applied to almost any metallic materialand is the
method most commonly used to test castings and forgings that have a grain structure
too coarse for other metal hardness testing methods.
TheShore Durometer Testmeasures the hardness of polymeric materials
Destructive Testing
Compression Test
A compression test is any test in which a material experiences opposing forces that push inward upon
the specimen from opposite sides or is otherwise compressed, squashed, crushed, or flattened. The

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test sample is generally placed in between two plates that distribute the applied load across the entire
surface area of two opposite faces of the test sample and then the plates are pushed together by a
universal test machine causing the sample to flatten. A compressed sample is usually shortened in the
direction of the applied forces and expands in the direction perpendicular to the force. A compression
test is essentially the opposite of the more common tension test.
Destructive Testing
Ductility Test
Ductility involves determining the extent by which a material can withstand plastic

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deformation without rupture. Bend test for ductility provides a simple way to evaluate the
quality of materials by their ability to resist cracking or other surface irregularities during
one continuous bend. With a ductile fracture, there is a considerable amount of plastic
deformation prior to failure. In metals, for example, the fracture shows a typical cone
and cup formation, and the fracture surface appears rough and fibrous. Ductile
materials show a measured amount of plastic deformation prior to
fracture.
Destructive Testing
Impact Test
An impact test is used to observe the mechanics that a material will

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exhibit when it experiences a shock loading that causes the specimen
to immediately deform, fracture or rupture completely. The collision
between the weight and specimen generally results in the destruction
of the specimen but the transfer of energy between the two is used to
determine the fracture mechanics of the material.
Destructive Testing
Corrosion Test
Corrosion testing refers to the processes conducted by laboratories in order to solve, prevent or mitigate problem
related to corrosion. These processes can be applied in industrial materials and infrastructure products, and are

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often used in failure analysis.
All corrosion laboratories are composed of expert failure analysts, chemists and engineers that are all certified in
corrosion testing. Such tests can provide useful information in order to make sound decisions regarding selection o
materials, processing and treatment.

Destructive Testing
Chip Test
The process of testing materials to evaluate the resistance of surface coatings (paint, clear

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coats, metallic plating, etc.) to chippings caused by the impacts of gravel and other flying
objects. An example of this test is called the Gravelometer. The primary usage of this test is
to simulate the effects of the impact of gravel or other debris on automotive parts.
Destructive Testing
Spark Test

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Spark testingis a method of determining the generalclassificationofferrousmaterials. It normally
entails taking a piece of metal, usually scrap, and applying it to agrinding wheelin order to observe
the sparks emitted.These sparks can be compared to a chart or to sparks from a known test sample to
determine the classification. Spark testing also can be used to sort ferrous materials, establishing the
difference from one another by noting whether the spark is the same or different.
Non-Destructive Testing
Ultrasonic testing

Ultrasonic testing uses high-frequency sound waves called ultrasonic pulse waves to

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detect flaws or other imperfections or defects in metal components, and it can also be
used to identify and monitor changes like shifts in thickness within the components that
may result in failure or other problems in the future. One of the most common uses of
ultrasonic testing is to evaluate corrosion in pipelines and other enclosed structures or
components. Ultrasonic testing is most commonly performed on metals and metallic
alloys, but it can also be used to test concrete and composites, and sometimes even
wood.
Non-Destructive Testing
Magnetic Particle Testing
Also called magnetic particle inspection (MPI), this technique can be used in metals that have magnetic
properties (also called ferromagnetic materials) such as iron, cobalt, nickel and some alloys. MPI works

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by issuing a magnetic field into the component being tested essentially magnetizing the component.
Next, iron particles are applied to the surface either in a dry form or suspended in liquid. Because even
the tiniest cracks and fissures will allow some of the magnetism to leak out, these particles become
attracted to the tiny cracks, building up and providing evidence of a leak, or indication. The
component may be magnetized by an electrical current, called direct mag netization, or indirectly by
applying a magnetic field to the outside of the component
Non-Destructive Testing
Liquid Penetrant Testing
Liquid penetrant testing is one of the oldest methods of non-destructive testing. In this

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method, two solutions are used a penetrant that is first applied to the surface of the
component to be tested and a developer that combines with the penetrant to help reveal
tiny cracks or other imperfections. After the penetrant is applied, it is allowed to soak in
for a prescribed period of time to help reveal defects that extend below the components
surface.
Non-Destructive
Testing
Radiographic testing
Radiographic testing uses x-rays or radioactive isotopes to evaluate
components in much the same way a doctor uses an x-ray to evaluate

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the structures inside a human body. This type of testing works by
sending the radiation through the component and measuring the
amount that emerges on the opposite side. The result is a
photographic-type image that reflects areas of different densities,
including areas where material may be missing or thinned, such as in
cracks or areas of weakness. Radiographic testing can be difficult to
use on components with irregular surface areas since those
irregularities can influence the thickness of the materials that are
being evaluated.
FIN