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Managers responsibility in serving food

As a hospitality manager, you have a legal

obligation to:
only sell food that is wholesome
deliver that food in a manner that is safe
Uniform Commercial Code (UCC)
A foodservice manager is required to operate
his or her facility in a manner that protects the
guest from the possibility of food borne illness
or any other injury that may be caused by
consuming unwholesome food and beverages.
Managers responsibility in serving food
Guest safety
Routine inspections to food establishment by
local health departments to check if they are
complying by the set requirements in food
Managers must make every effort to comply with
local ordinances, train staff in effective food-
handling and production techniques and
document their efforts.
Management should frequently review all food
temperatures, serving containers, food
production techniques and delivery methods.
Managers responsibility in serving food
Guest safety
Be sensitive to guest with allergies and train
your employees about ingredients that are
known to cause allergic reactions.
As a manager, be sure to check the state laws
for compliance with the regulations that is
adopted by your management.
Managers responsibility in serving alcohol
No hospitality manager has the right to serve
alcohol but its a privilege that is carefully
regulated by law.
In serving alcohol, it is important to realize
that it is not what you serve but how much you
Only .08 blood alcohol level is allowed to
intake and the law prohibits food
establishments to serve alcohol to intoxicated
Managers responsibility in serving alcohol
Some common areas of operation regulated by the State
Permitted hours of sale (specified time of
Approved changes for expansion or
equipment purchases (not close to school &
Maintaining records(vendors license, daily
sales volume)
Methods of operation (servers must be above
states specified minimum age)
Managers responsibility in serving alcohol
Prohibitions in serving alcohol
Distribution of free alcoholic beverages
Providing additional servings of alcohol until the
previous servings has been consumed
The sale of alcoholic beverages at a reduced price
during specified days or times
Unlimited beverages (sale at the fixed price during
fixed period)
Increasing the volume of alcohol without increasing
the price
Giving alcoholic beverages as a prize
Managers responsibility in serving alcohol
License can be revoke due to the following:
Frequent incident of fighting, disorderly
conduct or creating public nuisance
Allowing prostitution or solicitation on the
Allowing the sale or use of drugs and
Illegal adult entertainment(nude dancing)
Failure to maintain records
Sale of alcohol to minors
Managers responsibility in serving alcohol
Liability Associated with Alcohol Service
Server or seller of alcohol

Three parties liable for negative effects of alcohol:

First Party buyer or the consumer of the alcohol
Second Party the establishment selling or dispensing
Third Party an individual not directly involved in the
situation having to do with the sale or consumption of
Managers responsibility in serving alcohol
Important thing to remember:
As a hospitality manager, the social host or your server
liability will not be view liable in the court but the
operation will be held responsible for the service of
It is important to understand that there can be
criminal liability as well as civil liability when alcohol
is served irresponsibly.
Criminal liability could subject to hospitality operator
to a revocation of the liquor license, fines or jail time.
The Golden Rule of Food safety
Keep hot food hot and cold food cold to avoid rapid
growth of bacteria especially in temperature danger
Basic steps to Food Safety
Keep it clean. Personal Health & Hygiene
Prevent cross contamination
Control time & temperature of food
Clean and sanitize properly
Food safety
Criteria for Assuring foods are fit to eat:
The desired stage of development or maturity of food
Freedom from pollution at any stage in production
and subsequent handling
Freedom from objectionable chemical and physical
changes resulting from action of food enzymes;
activity of microbes, insects and rodents, invasion of
parasites and damage from pressure, freezing,
heating or drying.
Freedom from microorganism and parasites causing
foodborne illnesses.
Food safety
Biological Contamination
Pathogens can categorized as:
Natural Toxins
FAT TOM an acronym used to identify the ideal
conditions for foodborne microorganism growth.
Food safety
Physical contamination
Occurs when particles are not supposed to be in food
chips of glass metal from broken glass metal
Metal curls from worn out can opener
Staple wire from cartons
Fingernails, hair, dirt, bones, jewelries and fruit pits
Tampering incidents particularly in soft packed items
Evidence of tampering in food items should be rejected
upon delivery
Food safety
Chemical Contamination
Occurs when substances such as chemicals, toxic metals
or sanitizers are accidentally introduced into the food
Examples of chemical contamination occur in
foodservice operations:
Contamination of food with foodservice chemicals, such
as pesticides, detergents and sanitizers
Use of excessive quantities of additives, preservatives and
Contamination of food with toxic metals
Pesticides chemicals that kills or discourage the growth
of pests
Preservatives used to preserve flavors, safety and
consistency of foods
Food safety
Common Food allergens:
Peanuts and treenuts
Milk and dairy products
Food safety
F Food: specially carbohydrates and proteins

A Acidity: A pH of 4.6 to 7.5 is ideal

T Temperature: Growth is best between 41F and

135F( 5C and 57C)

O Oxygen: some need oxygen, others do not

M Moisture: water activity(A) of 8.5 or higher is

ideal growth
Foodservice Operational Practices to Assure the
Safety of Food
Food Safety in Production and Service

100C 212F Most diseases-causing organisms

Cooking killed in few minutes
74C 165F
Hot food Bacteria do not multiply but most
Holding are not killed
57C 135F
Food Bacteria multiply
danger rapidly
4.5C 41F
Cold food storage Food safe for short periods.
(refrigeration) Little bacteria growth
0C 32F
Subfreezing Bacteria do not grow but most are
- 18C 0F not killed

Freezer Bacteria do not grow but most are not killed.

Storage Best temperatures for frozen food storage
Nutritional Menu Planning

The process by which menus are

Menu planned taking into
consideration all aspects of a
Planning foodservice system

Nutritional Planning menus that provide the

nutrients, ingredients and calories
Menu required for healthy living based on
consumers needs and/or demands and
Planning to achieve organizational objectives.
Nutritional Menu Planning
Success and failure of a foodservice
operation depends on the menu & how the
foods on it are selected and served.
Determine the degree of profit

Nutritious menus are expensive,
unpopular/or difficult to plan.
Basic Considerations in Nutritional Menu Planning


Basic Considerations in Nutritional Menu Planning
Thorough commitment
from the organization
Menu conforms to the
Goals &
organizations goals &

Depends on Income
Managements from food sales
View Point 2) Budget Economic

Requires considerable
amount of
3) Market raw/unfrozen products
conditions Have alternative
equivalent items on
Basic Considerations inDictate
Nutritional Menu Planning
the types of menus that may be
4) Facilities & Important:
Availability of certain pieces of
Equipment equipment & their quantity
Size & capacity of the equipment
Storage space (critical)
Aware of the nutritional significance of the
menu items
Many nutrients are sensible to light, heat &
5) Personnel Skills moisture
Lost by improper handling, processing and
serving of food

6) Production Conventional food production &
delivery system; foods are prepared, held
types at serving temperature & served on the
& Service system same day (many choices)
In system where food is cooked &
chilled or frozen (strong limitation)
Consumers Viewpoint
1. Nutritional Requirements
Most important factor in menu planning
May be mandated by regulatory agencies
Nutritional content along does not make
a menu item popular.
Should based on consumers needs and
Consumers Viewpoint
2. Food Characteristics

Color Texture Shape

Can be a good A combination of soft Different shapes also
indicator of the & hard textured items add to the attraction
nutritional content is essential. & appeal of the menu
of the menus. Eg. Red items.
tomatoes, yellow, Texture of foods are
orange, etc. described in various Eg. Vegetables & fruits
ways: soft, hard crispy, carvings
Help stimulate chewy, smooth, etc.
appetite & ensure the
nutritional variety of Eg. Soups & crispy
menus crackers
Consumers Viewpoint
2. Food Characteristics
Method of
Consistency Flavor Food
Refers to the degree of Sweet, sour, bitter or Food can be prepared
viscosity or density of salty flavor in many ways and
the product variety is essential.
There are various off
Adjectives to describe flavors or undesirable Eg. Baking, boiling,
consistency; runny, flavors specific to frying, steaming, etc.
thin, thick, sticky, etc. certain foods.

Eg. Meats & thin Desirable blend of

gravies flavors is essential for
acceptance of menu
Consumers Viewpoint
2. Food Characteristics
Probably the most easily The final appearance of
controlled & least the food.
complex component in
planning menus. Consumers buy with
Hot and cold food their eyes & taste foods
should appear on the afterward.
Loss of nutrients
The Food Guide Pyramid & Menu Planning
Food Guide Pyramid can be used in planning
nutritionally wholesome meals.
Divides food groups into different sections.
It illustrates with graphic simplicity:
a. Variety: the need to include all food groups
and to vary menu items.
b. Serving sizes: the relative proportions of
foods that can be chosen from each food
c. Moderation: the consumption of fats, oils &
sugars in very limited amounts.
Reference materials for Menu Planning
1. Standardize recipe files.
2. Copies of previous menus, if available
3. Cookbooks
4. Pictures of prepared foods, if available
5. Food preferences data
6. Market segmentation
7. Consumer comments
8. Food delivery schedules
9. Comprehensive list of menu items (nutrient contents &
10. Food sales record
11. Production records
12. Journals
The Food Guide Pyramid & Menu Planning
Point to remember:

No one food group is more important than

any other, regardless of the quantities or
servings recommended.

Foods from one group cannot be

substituted for foods from another group.
The Food Guide Pyramid & Menu Planning
To start the process of menu planning
important to have several blank menu
forms for use trial & error
Avoid leftovers.
Keep a record of leftover items & consider
those items in planning menus
Indicate of popularity or dislike of certain
menu items.
The Food Guide Pyramid & Menu Planning
Steps recommended for Menu Planning from a
nutritional point of view:
Step 1. Select pasta, starch & bread items for the
entire menu period
Step 2. Select meat and meat alternatives
Step 3. Add vegetables
Step 4. Add salads
Step 5. Select soups and appetizers
Step 6. Plan nutritious desserts
Step 7. Add beverages
Step 8. Plan breakfast menus
Possible Substitutions of menu Items to meet
dietary guidelines
To reduce the content of:
After the menu is finalized, a check should be made to
see if all the requirements have been meet
A trial menu may be offered for the first two weeks
particularly if the foodservice is new
Modification and changes may be necessary
Enough flexibility must be built into the menu to
accommodate future changes or unexpected conditions.
A Typical Blank form for Planning Menus
Breakfast/Lunch/Dinner (circle one) Dates: From ________ Through ________
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________

Food Items Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday

_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________

Hot breads
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________

Blank Form use for planning menu for a Week
Checklist use in planning menus
Final Checklist of Weekly menus for nutritional content
Truth in Menu Laws
Laws regulating food labeling and advertising
As a hospitality manager, you have the right to advertise
your food and beverage products in a way that cast them
in their best light.
Menus should accurately reflect the price to be charged to
the customer
Accuracy in menu entails being careful in describing food
attributes including:
Preparation style
Portion size
Health Benefits
The FDA Menu Labeling Law
US FDA Food labeling Regulations
Why Menu Labeling is Important
Food Labels
Small area on a packet describing the value of nutrition
Product name
Total quality of the food item
Manufacturers name along with the address
Amount of calories
The number of person that can be served
Fat content along with other nutrients
The remaining ingredients put in to make the final
Expiry date
Specific parameters for storing the food item.
The advantages of food Labels
1. To get more knowledge about the food item
2. To find the quantity of every ingredient relative to each
3. To find out how much of the exact quantity of each
component is present in the final food product.
4. To stay away from allergic components or additives that
they do not wish to have.
5. To know the production parameters of particular food
6. To look at similar products according to their varying
7. To extract data if some nutritional components have
been inserted or deleted from the initial manufacturing
Issues regarding food labels
1. Increase importance has to be given to the section
of calories per serving on food labels the data
should be displayed in bigger fonts and in one or
two lines only for easy reading.
2. Listing calories from the fat on the food label
reduces the important that the local calories should
be getting.
3. The limit of the serving size has to be upgraded,
nowadays people consume more food than 30 years
back but they should know their appropriate4
calorie intake according to the FDA calorie intake
per serving size
Issues regarding food labels
4. People are misguide when the manufacturer
tells that the total amounts of calories on the
food label is for the entire product, this
information is for only half of the packet.
5. The concept of fiber content has to be changed
nowadays even the ice cream manufacturers add
the word fiber to their labels but in fact it
contains isolated fibers which do not have the
capacity to reduce blood sugars or cholesterol
Example Menu - Hamburger Restaurant
Example Menu - Pizza Restaurant
Example Menu - Buffet Restaurant
Kraft Miracle Whip Dressing
Nutritional knowledge, nutritional labels,
and health claims on food
Author: Petrovici, Dan
Fearne, Andrew
Nayga, Rodolfo M, Jr
Drolias, Dimitris

Date: 2012

Journal: British Food Journal

Nutritional knowledge, nutritional labels,
and health claims on food
1. To examine the factors that affect the use
of nutritional facts, nutrient content
claims and health claims on food label use
in the United Kingdom.
Nutritional knowledge, nutritional labels,
and health claims on food
The researchers use questionnaires on self
supported behaviour for the primary data
from previous studies regarding nutrition
The paper reports the results of a survey of
over 300 face-to-face interviews with
shoppers of Asda, Morrisons and Sainsbury -
three of the major supermarkets in the UK.
Nutritional knowledge, nutritional labels,
and health claims on food
Systematic sampling was used (every tenth
shoppers was invited to complete the survey and
standard (University of Kent) ethical procedures
were followed - respondents were briefed about
the research project and prior consent of the
respondents was sought.
During the interviews one example from each
category (NFI, NCL and HCL) was showed to the
informants in order to avoid confusion over the
interpretation of concepts.
Nutritional knowledge, nutritional labels,
and health claims on food
Product class involvement factors were
measured on a five-point importance scale.

Health locus of control measured on a three-

item scale ([37] Moorman and Matulich, 1993).

The nutritional knowledge score was

calculated as a cumulative score derived from
the correct answers on the four items retained.
Nutritional knowledge, nutritional labels, and
health claims on food
Product class involvement factors, individual
characteristics, health-related factors
(nutritional knowledge, health locus of control, perceived
need of dietary change), situational, attitudinal and
behavioral factors were found to be significant factors
affecting the use of nutritional information and
nutritional and health claims on food labeling.
The use of nutritional information and health claims
increases with the stated importance of "nutrition" and
"family preferences", it is less likely among shoppers for
whom "taste" is an important driver of food purchasing
Nutritional knowledge, nutritional labels, and
health claims on food
There is also evidence of mistrust in health claims, as
indicated by the negative relationship between
the consideration of such claims and the stated
importance of "quality" and perceived need to
"change dietary quality" - the more discerning
shoppers are the least likely to consider health claims.
Nutritional knowledge, nutritional labels, and
health claims on food
This study empirically investigates the factors that
influence the use of nutritional information on
food labels and particularly the use of nutritional
claim and health claim.
The results are broadly consistent with findings
from previous studies, but indicate that there are
additional factors that play a part in determining
how different sources of nutritional information
are used by British consumers.
Nutritional knowledge, nutritional labels, and
health claims on food
Moreover, the results suggest that consumers who
place greater importance on nutrition are more
likely to use nutritional facts information and
nutritional claims, while taste has a negative
impact on the use of nutritional claims.
The results are consistent with previous studies
([22] Gracia et al. , 2007; [41] Nayga, 2000).
However, in contrast with the study by [12]
Drichoutis et al. (2005), the importance of
nutrition is significant while price does not have a
negative effect on label use.
Nutritional knowledge, nutritional labels, and
health claims on food
This study indicates that people with lower levels of
internal Health Locus of Control, arguably the most
vulnerable to health problems on the grounds of lack
of propensity to preventative action, are less likely to
use nutrition information.
The study reinforces the role of credibility of claims.
As [29] Keller et al. (1997) pointed out, this credibility
can be damaged when consumers perceive an
inconsistency between claims and nutritional facts
Nutritional knowledge, nutritional labels, and
health claims on food
These results indicate that policy makers, marketers
and other factors involved in the food sector need to
acknowledge the importance of a targeted approach
in tailoring nutritional and health-related
Nutritional knowledge, nutritional labels, and
health claims on food
Future research should employ extended scales
of nutrition knowledge which examines the
links between nutrients/foods and risk of
disease in addition to the sources of nutrients.

Further research is needed on the link between

the use of nutritional labels and actual
purchasing behaviour.
Nutritional knowledge, nutritional labels, and
health claims on food
For example, do NCLs and HCLs represent
mechanisms for
improving nutritional knowledge or are they
simply purchase cues for particular (branded)
food products?
Combining data on claim usage with scanner
data on purchases may be a promising avenue
for future research, as the welfare implications
of nutritional claims usage deserve further
attention from researchers.
What's on the menu? A review of the energy and
nutritional content of US chain restaurant menus
Author: Wu, Helen W
Sturm, Roland

Date: Jan 2013

Journal: Public Health Nutrition

What's on the menu? A review of the energy and
nutritional content of US chain restaurant menus
Describe the availability of nutrition
information in major chain restaurants
Document the energy and nutrient levels
of menu items
Evaluate relationships with restaurant
characteristics, menu labeling and trans fat
laws, and nutrition information accessibility
Compare energy and nutrient levels against
industry-sponsored and government-issued
nutrition criteria.
What's on the menu? A review of the energy and
nutritional content of US chain restaurant menus
Descriptive statistics and multivariate regression
analysis of the energy, total fat, saturated fat, trans fat,
sodium, carbohydrate and protein levels of 28 433
regular and 1833 children's menu items.
Energy and nutrition information provided on
restaurant websites or upon request, and secondary
databases on restaurant characteristics.
The top 400 US chain restaurants by sales, based on
the 2009 list of the Restaurants &
Institutions magazine.
What's on the menu? A review of the energy and
nutritional content of US chain restaurant menus
Complete nutrition information was reported for 245
(61 %) restaurants. Appetizers had more energy, fat
and sodium than all other item types.
Children's menu specialty beverages had more fat,
saturated fat and carbohydrates than comparable
regular menu beverages.
The majority of main entres fell below one-third of
the US Department of Agriculture's estimated daily
energy needs, but as few as 3 % were also within
limits for sodium, fat and saturated fat.
What's on the menu? A review of the energy and
nutritional content of US chain restaurant menus
Main entres had significantly more energy, fat and
saturated fat in family-style restaurants than in fast-
food restaurants.
Restaurants that made nutrition information easily
accessible on websites had significantly lower energy,
fat and sodium contents across menu offerings than
those providing information only upon request.
What's on the menu? A review of the energy and
nutritional content of US chain restaurant menus
There is not compelling evidence
that labeling alters individual choices from a
fixed menu, but restaurant menus change over
time, and the present study provides baseline
data just before national labeling laws came into
effect that can be used to assess such changes.
Many restaurant menu items are high in fat,
saturated fat and sodium, and restaurant
industry-supported logos used to highlight
'healthy choices' are more generous than USDA
recommendations, particularly for sodium.

What's on the menu? A review of the energy and

nutritional content of US chain restaurant menus
Menu items that appear reasonable based on
energy alone must be considered within the
context of an entire meal and for other
nutrient values.
Sometimes those extras, such as children's
specialty beverages, are problematic.
What's on the menu? A review of the energy and
nutritional content of US chain restaurant menus