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Chapter 6

Dr. Steve
Training and Development

Why train employees?

Provide skills not obtained in school
Bring poor performers skill level up to par
Keep up with technology
Legal issues/ethics
Cultural Awareness
Expand employee roles (cross training)
Training and Development
Three Phases of Skill Acquisition
1. Declarative Knowledge Knowing what.
Performance is choppy, slow, error-filled
Ex: To play musical instrument must first learn music notation
2. Knowledge Compilation Integrate cognitive and motor
Performance is faster with fewer mistakes, but still deliberate
Ex: Lines of music become associated with finger movements on
musical instrument
3. Procedural Knowledge Knowing how.
Performance is skillful and automated
Person can concentrate on other tasks while performing
Ex: Accomplished musician can play by heart and concentrate on
Organizational Training Strategies

1. Speed Strategy train to increase production speed

How to produce more widgets in less time
2. Innovation Strategy train to offer new service or product
to remain competitive
Companies may train employees to provide support services rather
than just selling products
3. Quality Enhancement Strategy train to make product or
service better than competition
If 2 orgs offer same product or service at same price, consumers
choose the one of higher quality
4. Cost Reduction Strategy train to do job less expensively
Must be large savings to make this strategy effective
Training and Development
Preparing Employees
How to get the most out of training programs
Make trainees accountable for whats learned
Provide trainees with opportunity to use new skills
Clearly demonstrate need for training
Survey employees for what they would like to be
trained on and follow through
Training Development Process
Training & Training
Needs Assessment Development Evaluation Validity Levels

1. Org Analysis Training

2. Task Analysis Validity

3. Person Analysis
Of Criteria
Learning Intra-Orgl
Behavioral Validity
Selection Results
And Design Inter-Orgl
Of Instructional Validity
Use of
Training Models
Needs Assessment

Three step Needs Assessment Process

1. Organizational Analysis
2. Task Analysis
3. Person Analysis
Needs Assessment
Step 1. Organizational Analysis
Organizational Analysis Determine whether
training is necessary, where in org, and when to train
and whether it will transfer to the job
Does the org have the necessary resources / equipment?
Will supervisors accept newly learned skills / procedures?
Will learned behavior benefit the org?
Needs Assessment
Step 2. Task Analysis
Task Analysis Four step process used to
determine training objectives
I. Develop Task Statements
What, how, to whom or what, for why?
II. Develop Task Clusters
Task statements sorted into meaningful groups (by SMEs)
III. KSA Analysis
Gather descriptions of knowledge, skills, & abilities needed
Incumbents describe good and bad characteristics of workers
Determine what differentiates excellent worker from average
IV. Develop Training Programs
Link KSAs to each task statement
Determine what KSAs need improvement
Needs Assessment
Step 3. Person Analysis
Person Analysis Determine who needs training
and what kind
I think that
I am missingthose with diminished skills or other
Train everyone,
a vital piece
deficiencies, new hires, those using new equipment,
of the puzzle
Review performance records to see who is lacking
Importance of good, diagnostic performance appraisals
Conducting Training
On-The-Job Training (OJT) Informal process
where employee watches, attempts, and learns
Most common approach
Uses actual equipment
Good transfer
Ex: Large # of jobs including college professor
Unstructured training may provide new worker with incorrect
Difficult to determine whether trainee reached proficiency
before being placed on job
May learn bad habits from senior workers
Conducting Training
Vestibule Training Use of training equipment
off-line just away from actual work area
Provides opportunity to practice skills just prior to
Can be used in conjunction with OJT
Can be used for new hires or refresher training
Ex: Sewing factory worker can practice a particular
stitch on off-line equipment
Can only train one person at a time
Conducting Training
Job Rotation (Cross-Training) Workers rotate
through different tasks to learn series of related
Makes workers more flexible, better work coverage
Makes employees more marketable for future jobs or
opens up new opportunities for promotion
Ex: Each submarine crew member learns 4 positions
People may not be suited for multiple jobs or not motivated to
do more than one job
Difficult to select applicants if required to have greater KSA
Conducting Training
Apprentice Training New workers (apprentice)
work closely with veteran (journeyman) for long
period of time
After completing apprenticeship, apprentice is promoted
to journeyman (may require test)
Ex: Plumbers, Carpenters, Electricians, Magicians
Time is pre-determined, though not everyone learns at same rate
Conducting Training
Lectures Classroom setting of instruction for
declarative knowledge
Can train many workers at one time
Ex: Safety, ethics, orientation, etc.
Little opportunity to assess individual needs or provide
individual feedback
Conducting Training
Audio-Visual (AV) Material videos, films, slide
presentations, etc. used to present the same
information multiple times
Can be combined with lecture / demos
Can be visually captivating
Training is consistent
After initial cost of production, relatively cheap to use
Can be used to review performance (football film)
Training videos are difficult to update
Production cost is expensive (approx $2000 / finished minute or
Conducting Training
Conferences Discussion between trainers and
Trainer facilitates discussion (like seminar-style class)
Can provide feedback to trainees
Ex: Used to train doctors about new medical products
Trainer must have good facilitation skills
Conducting Training
Programmed Instruction workbook or
computerized method allowing trainees to learn at
their own pace.
Trainees must show proficiency on one unit before they
may proceed to the next
Provides trainees with immediate feedback
Ex: Skinners teaching machine
Long development time
Difficult to use for many jobs
Conducting Training
Computer-Assisted Instruction Computerized
instruction that can be personalized to individual
Can use animated graphics to demonstrate principles &
Can test and provide feedback
Ex: Reader Rabbit
Very high production cost and effort
Conducting Training
Simulation imitation of real environment
Can be computer generated, low-tech mockups, or
embedded in actual equipment
Allows trainee to practice tasks and trainer to manipulate
events (hazards, faults, etc.)
Can compress long time spans into short training periods
May be able to replay and critique performance
Physical Fidelity how closely resembles real-world
Functional Fidelity how well concepts are captured
Ex: Police Officer Training
Higher the fidelity, higher the cost
Conducting Training
Role-playing Act out scenarios that employees may
Good way to practice communication skills, decision making,
assertiveness, etc.
After role-playing exercise discuss outcome
Play roles, not scripts
Ex: Train salespeople what to do when customer says, no
May be unstructured
Differences in acting ability
Not suitable for many jobs
Training vs. Management
Training Teach employees basic KSAs
Ex: how to use equipment, procedures, rules, etc.
Workers get fired or passed over for promotion
Development Teach upper level management
techniques and coping strategies
Ex: stress management, decision making, interpersonal
skills, conflict management
Managers get derailed (have KSAs but dont reach
Other HOT Training Issues

Cultural Diversity
Sexual Harassment
360 Degree Feedback
Mentoring Programs

Cultural Diversity Training

Issues of Training Cultural Diversity

Sensitive to different norms, work ethics, preferences,
customs and habits of others
Diverse backgrounds provide unique perspectives and
ideas for better decision making
Do we ignore differences or highlight them?
Global economy means customers of all backgrounds
Infamous Failures to Recognize
Cultural Diversity
General Motors introduces Chevy Nova to
In Spanish No va means doesnt run
Coke first introduces Coca-Cola in China as Ke-
Coke doesnt realize until 1000s of signs are printed
that the printed phrase actually means bite the wax
tadpole or female horse stuffed with wax
Coke changes phonetic spelling to Ko-kou-ko-le which
loosely means happiness in the mouth
Infamous Failures to Recognize
Cultural Diversity
Pepsi introduces new slogan in Taiwan Come
alive with the Pepsi Generation
Translation means Pepsi will bring your ancestors
back from the dead
Kentucky Fried Chicken introduces their product
to Taiwan with slogan finger-Lickin Good
Translation means Eat your fingers off
Ford Motor attempts to sell Pinto in Brazil
Pinto is Brazilian slang for tiny male genitals
Changed name to Corcel
Infamous Failures to Recognize
Cultural Diversity
Parker Pen marketed a ball-point pen in Mexico
with the slogan, it wont leak in your pocket and
embarrass you.
Company thought embarazar was Spanish for
Slogan actually read, it wont leak in your pocket and
make you pregnant.
Purdue Chicken tried to market poultry products
to Mexico with slogan, it takes a tough man to
make a tender chicken.
Mangled Spanish translation appeared on billboards
as, it takes a hard man to make a chicken aroused.
Sexual Harassment
Sexual Harassment (EEOC definition)
Unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors,
and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature
when submission to or rejection of this conduct explicitly or
implicitly affects an individuals employment, unreasonably
interferes with an individuals work performance, or creates
an intimidating, hostile or offensive work environment.
Two types
1. Quid pro quo sexual compliance is required for promotion or to keep
2. Hostile environment sexual advances, teasing, sexual jokes make
environment uncomfortable to work in.
Sexual Harassment
How to train for prevention of sexual harassment
Teach workers and managers to be sensitive to
peoples values and preferences
Ex: touchy talkers
Avoid profanity in the workplace
Avoid situations where even the perception of sexual
harassment can take place
Ex: supervisor and subordinate working together after hours
Clarify standards of acceptable behaviors
Ex: often problem is one of differences in perception of
acceptable behaviors
360 Degree Feedback
360 Degree Feedback provides managers with
performance feedback from their supervisors,
peers, subordinates, and self,
Enhances self awareness by seeing how perception of
self differs from those of others
Most people dont identify own faults and overrate own
behavior Self Peers
Effective in causing managers to modify behavior

Mentoring Programs
Mentoring veteran workers serve a big brother
function, showing employees the ropes
Knowledge is passed down through generations
New worker becomes socialized into org culture
Useful for providing role models for women and minorities
Four phases of mentoring
1. Initiation Mentor accepts new worker as protg
2. Protg performance of apprentice is regarded as product
of mentors instruction
3. Breakup protg is evaluated on own merits
4. Lasting friendship mentor and protg become peers
Transfer of Training
Transfer of Training how well KSAs learned in
training are used on the job

Transfer improved by:

Providing trainees opportunity to practice what was
Difficult to achieve for events that seldom occur (ex: emergency
operations, fire fighting, etc.)
Providing encouragement and reinforcement for using
new info and techniques
Having superiors/veterans model learned behavior
(practice what you preach)
Evaluating Training
Four criteria for evaluating training
1. Reaction criteria Feedback from trainees
How did you like the training? (surveys)
Was it useful, what were deficiencies?
2. Learning criteria Assess how much was learned
Test following training
3. Behavioral criteria Evaluate whether training led to
measurable changes in job performance
May take before & after measures (look out for Hawthorne Effect)
4. Results criteria Monetary value of training to org
Cost of training vs. increase in efficiency of workers or other
monetary savings
Training Utility
Training Utility formula to establish the monetary
savings of conducting training.
U = T x N x dt x Sdy N x C
U = utility or total cost of training
T = Duration in years of training programs effect on
N = # of individuals trained
Dt = true mean difference in performance between trained and
untrained employees (in SD units)
Sdy = standard deviation of job performance in (dollars) of
untrained group
C = cost of training per individual
Four Levels of Validity of Training

Validity Did training accomplish what it was

intended to do?
1. Training Validity Did trainees master the
training (reach performance criteria)?
2. Transfer Validity Did trainees performance
improve on the job to expected criteria?
3. Intra-Organizational Validity Does training
generalize to other groups within org?
4. Inter-Organizational Validity Does training
program work for future employees?
Selection vs. Training
Given the high cost of training, should you select
those with average skills and train, or select those
who possess superior skills without training?
Can those with skills be recruited?
Do tasks need to be performed a specific way?
Can you afford to pay those who possess the skills?
What is cost of training skills to criteria?
How difficult are the skills to learn?
Does training lead to significantly more productive org?
Has a needs analysis verified the need for training?