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INTRODUCTION TO

PHARMACY
PHARM I
Overview of the course of Pharmacy

Pharmacy - derived from Greek word Pharmakon


Means medicine or drug.
art of dispensing and preparing of medicines or drugs
establishment and place where drugs or medicines are
solved.
Pharmacist
also known as druggists or chemists, are
healthcare professionals who practice in pharmacy,
the field of health sciences focusing on safe and
effective medication use.
COMMON SYMBOLS USED IN
PHARMAC Y
BOWL OF HYGEIA
The bowl with a snake coiled around
it is called the bowl of Hygeia with the
serpent of Epidaurus, and is a variant
on the above. Hygeia was Aesculapiuss
daughter and a Greek Goddess of
health. Her symbol was a serpent
drinking from a bowl. The vessel is
usually depicted with a long stem and
a shallow, wide bowl as seen here. It
also is considered suitable for
pharmacy. The bowl of Hygeia with
serpent of Epidaurus shown here is
the symbol for Hungarian pharmacists.
CADUCEUS
The symbol of two
snakes on a staff is
called the Caduceus.
The staff, depicted with
wings, is that of Mercury
(Roman) or Hermes
(Greek), messenger of
the Gods and also God
of commerce. (The
Greek root of the Word
Caduceus means
heralds wand)
MORTAR AND PESTLE
The mortar and pestle has
long been used as a
pharmaceutical symbol in
Britain and on the European
mainland, and is still widely
employed as a pharmacy
shop sign in Scotland. The
mortar and pestle are tools
of traditional pharmacy,
hence their use as an easily
recognizable visual motif.
RECIPE
The recipe sign appears
at the start of
prescriptions. Although
universally accepted as
an abbreviation of
recipe (Latin for take
thou), it has also been
suggested that it is the
astronomical sign of the
planet Jupiter.
Chemical symbol meaning to compound
Helmet Denoting wisdom and surety of action
Unicorn Horn of which has medical effect
Secundum Artem according to art. Pharmacy is
both science and art.
1. Evolution of Pharmacy
Man have several characteristics on how to
treat ailments, physical and mental with
medicines.
Base on archeological evidence man always
search for other tools to treat his conditions
Pharmacy is and has been the art and later
science of fashioning one of our most
important tools--MEDICINE
Prehistoric Pharmacy
Since the dawn of humanity, pharmacy has been
part of everyday life.

By trial and error , folk knowledge of the healing


properties of certain natural substances grew.
Shamans
Faith Healers

Concept of outside force in the form of remedies or


Drugs influencing bodily functions may considered
one of humanitys greatest advances
Pharmacy in antiquity
Changes occurred gradually influence concepts
of disease and healing.
asu asipu

Babylonians medical practitioners


Father of Pharmacy Father of Botany

Greek Physicians:
prepared their own medicines and left
prescription behind for family members to
compound and administer
Dioscorides
Wrote and compiled materia medica the standard
Encyclopedia of drugs used for hundred of years
Pharmacy in the middle ages, 400AD to 1453
( Fall of Rome to fall Constantinople)
Pagan temples closed and replace by Churchs
teaching.

diseases and sin have an intimate relationship


Ancient monasteries became the centers for healing both
spiritual and corporal
Monks they have their classical medical text (epitomes) and
herbal garden , no longer available after the collapse of
trade and commerce
Mohamedanism new civilization arose
Greek writings about medicine were translated
to Arabic.
Works of Galen and Dioscorides was accepted
by Arabs.
Rhazes (860-932) Avicenna (980-1063)
They added to the writings of Greek .

Rejected the old idea that foul tasting worked best in medicine

they developed and exert effort in their dosage forms elegant and
palatable through silvering of pills and use of syrups .
In mid 13th century (1240) Frederick II codified the separate
practice of pharmacy from medicine.
Public pharmacies became relatively common in Southern
Europe

Practitioners of Pharmacy joined together within guilds.

Writings of Greek translated to Arabic were further


translated to Latin for the use of European schools.
Universities emerged in Europe and England in
Middle ages:

Paris (1111) Oxford ( 1201 )


Cambridge (1223)
Padua (1222)
The Renaissance:The beginning of the Modern
Period
1453 Constantinople fell to the conquering turks
and the remnants of Greek scholarly community
fled to the west.
Developed the first printing press and started information revolution
Discovered the world
Vasco
de Gama found a new route to India
Commerce based on money and banking was established
An important advocate of chemically prepared drugs from crude
plant and mineral substance
Paracelsus is referred to as the father of toxicology for his claim
that, All things are poison, and nothing is without poison.
Sparked the growth of modern Pharmaceutical Sciences
Process of distillation and extraction was introduce in the
laboratory research.
Quinine drug was discovered to treat malarial fevers.

advocate of chemical medicines displaced the therapeutic


agreement of Galenism which had lasted for nearly 1,500
years
Pharmacy Developments Summary
Dispensatorium of
Cooperation between Valerus Cordus first
Pharmacy practitioners pharmaceutical guilds and pharmacopeia
joined together to form government bodies led to adopted by the govt
guilds standardization of medicines of Nuremberg,
( Pharmacopeias) Germany in 1546

Discovery of chemicals
Pharmacist investigation of Many use in preparing
botanical drugs during pharmacist medicines, Pharmacist
1700s and 1800s. Isolation worked as force to learn new
of pure, crystalline Chemist methods drug
chemicals in lab research preparations

After 1850, scientific


Isolation of crude
disciplines in pharmacy
opium by Serturner
began to become more 19th century Pharmacy
(19th century) ,
professionalized in became almost similar to
Isolation of quinine
colleges and physicians by professions
and several alkaloids
manufacturing, Drug
by Pelletier &
research develop
Coventou in1820
Transition to Modern Profession 1870 to 1920:
Transitional for both pharmacy and Pharmacy education.

5%of pharmacy practitioners had finished formal


schooling in Pharmacy of night courses to supplement
apprenticeship
1870 state laws were passed requiring the examination
and registration of pharmacist.
Prestige attached to the diploma attracted students
Schools affiliated with local pharmaceutical
organizations provided students with excellent
practical education combining formal education
with apprenticeship.
Corner drugstores became features in American
society
Pharmacist rely on Rx compounding for his
professional identity
National Association of Retail Druggist in 1898
American Pharmaceutical Association welcomed
and cooperated with retail druggist first but later
on they split.
Existing developments in Medicine occurred
the period:

1. Germ theory of disease by Pasteur and Koch


( 1880-1890)
2. Pasteurs rabies vaccine and Emil Von Behring
diphtheria antitoxin can arise from the
Laboratory
3. Paul Ehrlichs Salvarsan in 1910---first
discovered chemotherapeutic agents.
4. Industrial research in drugs produced analgesics
and antipyretics in laboratory, sedative as chloral
hydrate.

5. Passage of Pure Foods and Drug Act in 1906 mainly


In response to poor food production methods
expanded to problems in the drug trade
Pharmacist abandoned their in-shop manufacturing
of the ingredients in the prescriptions.
Pharmaceutical Industry progressed
The Era and count and Pour
20th century dramatic change for medical care
including Pharmacy.

(1928 )
cortisones, tranquilizers, antihypertensives,
radioisotopes and oral contraceptives was also
discovered
High technology was applied to the production of
medicines after WWII ( 1941-1942 )
pharmaceutical Industries became one of the most
advanced industries in the world.
1930s 75% of Rx required compounding by a
pharmacist
1950s 25% of Rx required compounding by a
pharmacist
1960s only 4% (1 in 25 Rx) needed compounding
1970s only 1% ( 1 in 100 Rx ) needed compounding
skills
Pharmacist were not a loss for work as the number
of prescriptions grew, or new effective drugs came
into the market.
Chain drugstores displacing independent corner
drugstores especially in urban areas.
Laws regulating the production of drugs and
pharmacy were modernized.
BS Pharmacy was extended to 5 years and
curriculum continued to emphasize physical
sciences which underlie the making of
medicines.
Pharmacy Practice Today- Clinical Pharmacy
Pharmacy took over the an aspect of medical care
partially abandoned by physicians
Drug utilization
survey polls that Pharmacist is one of the trusted in
the field of medicines administration
Pharmacy Practice Today- Clinical Pharmacy
Pharmacy took over the an aspect of medical care
partially abandoned by physicians
Drug utilization
survey polls that Pharmacist is one of the trusted in
the field of medicines administration
ATDPS(Automatic Tablet Dispensing & Packaging System)
History Of Philippine Pharmacy
Pre-historic Period:
1. Mythical period
2. Superstitious
3. Empiric
1. Mythical Period:
a. In Tagalog Bathala supreme like
La-on visayans
b. Captan who shared with Bathala the creative
power.
c. Bagobos - - Daragao, Tiruray - Balbol and Saitan
d. Patianak
e. Katalonan or Babaylan
f. Early Filipinos believed in the incarnation of their ancestors
II.The Superstitious Period:
III.The Empiric Period

Pre Spanished era there were herbolarios men skilled


in the use of healing herbs
Pharmaceutical forms adopted by the early
cuarenderos or quack doctors were confined to:

1. Macerations in cold and hot water


2. Infusions or decoctions in oil of the curative plant
parts
3. Poultices and some powders
4. Resinous plasters and salves with a waxy base
5. inhalations and fumigations and a few
empyreumatic products.
B. Philippine Pharmacy During The Spanished
Period
C. The University of Santo Tomas and the
Development of Pharmacy in the Philippines

Fr. Miguel de Benavides, a s

The UST was the first great institution of learning


established in the Philippines.
Colegiode Nuestra Senora del Rosario de Santo Tomas located in
Intramuros.
Pre-pharmacy Period
The work of the Catholic Missionaries
Fr. Fernando Santa Maria (1704-1774)
Dominican priest, native of madrid
Medicinas Caseras 1st ed. 1786 contained
suggestions for treatment of certain diseases.
3 Topics of the book:
1. Medicinal barks and herbs
2. Various sickness
3. Various secrets and rareties worth knowing
Fr. Blanco , OSA and his botanical masterpiece
Flora de Filipinas
Post- Pharmacy Period
Once the was firmly established in July, 1871 its
work and teaching mission started smoothly.
Professors had to be contracted from Spain.
1871 there were about 8 students enrolled and
out of these 6 were graduated as Bachelors in
1875 and as Licenciates in 1876.
Doctor s degree were granted by the Govt , this
was reserved only to Universidad Central de.
Madrid.
Foreign Pharmacist come to Philippines
to do business or to practice their
profession.
Rector should approve first before the
Foreign Pharmacist to practice here in
the Philippines.
Examination was given to them
Foreign Pharmacist was a blessing
for the Philippines
Admission of Spanish and Foreign Pharmacists to
Practice in the Philippines:
Govt and University immediately took steps to
solve first in connection with the admission of
foreign pharmacists.
Establishment of the school of Practicantes
de Medicina y Farmacia
The purpose is to protect the health of the
Filipinos by producing well-trained practitioners to
help the physicians and pharmacist.
there were lot of students flocked to the
university to enroll in the new course.
Superior Gobierno approve and granted the official permit in
December , 1879.
Rules and Regulation was promulgated by the Rector and
administration of the University among which were the following
important points:
1. The course will be given in 4 semesters
2. Classes shall be daily
3. Students must be able:
a. to read and write and possess a knowledge of the catholic
doctrine
b. 18 years old shown in baptismal certificate and an affidavit of
nationality
c. Must undergo and pass an entrance examination that will include
arithmetic
4. Students must practice in any drug store or laboratory during the
last 3 semester of the course
5. After completion of four semesters study, must pass both
theoretical and a practical examination
The Hospitals and Drugstores in the
Philippines During the Spanish Era
Many hospitals were already in operation in the
islands during the Pharmacy Period and in this
respect, the Spanish government deserved some
credit.
The first hospital built by the Spaniards was the
Military Hospital in Cebu, built by Legaspi in
1565.
1. Hospital de San Juan de Dios constructed in
1577
by the Franciscans
2. San Lazaro also built by the Franciscans in the
same year
3. Hospital de San Gabriel in Binondo 1588-
managed by Dominicans
4. Hospital de Aguas Santas at Los Banos-1596
5. Hospital de Antipolo - 1602
6. Hospital de San Jose at Cavite 1641
7. The Foundling Hospital de San Jose 1782
8. Hospital for Lepers in Cebu 1850
The Boticas or Drugstore during Spanish
period

Started as a small apothecary shop at Escolta, Manila in 1830 by a


Spanish Pharmacist and physician, Don Lorenzo Negrao.
Botica de Santa Cruz established in 1861, located at Plaza de Goiti
Original name Farmacia y Drogueria D. Pablo Schuster
It passed through several hands until 1902 it was purchase Dr.
Carlos Jarhling, a German-Filipino Pharmacist and Mr. Luis Santos, A
Philippine born Spaniard
Besides from the two drug establishment , there were
smaller business concerns in the City of Manila and
other big cities of the country

1. Botica Zobel, Botica Von Borrie and Botica de la


Divisoria (1878)
2. Farmacia de Quiapo (1883 )
3. Botica Nino in Cebu
4. Botica De Lalloc in Cagayan de Luzon
5. Botica de D. Mariano Kuhnell
6. Botica de D. Oscar Reyman in Binondo
7. Botica de Fernnadez
C. Pharmacy In the Philippines During The
American Occupation Until Its
Independence
Establishment of the Board of pharmaceutical
Examiners
The military government by the American Army
organized the Board of Pharmaceutical Examiners
under a military order in 1903.
later converted into Act No. 597 of the Philippine
Commission
Board of examiners composed of a chairman, and
two chairman took charge of the registration of
the pharmacists and supervision of their practice
1904 Started as a review class organized by Dr. Alejandro Albert
through
the request of some UST graduates to help them in board
examinations
1915- converted into the Manila College of Pharmacy by Atty.
Felimon Tanchoco
1929- Manila College of Pharmacy and Dentistry
1947 Manila Central University ( MCU )
1911 Dr. Andrew Dumez was its first director upon the
recommendation late Dr. Edwards Kremers of the University of
Winconsin.
succeeded by Dr. Manuel del Rosario and was passed on to Dr.
Partocinio Valenzuela
Dr. Alfredo Abcede, Dr. Jesusa Concha, Dr. Natividad de Castro, Dr
Amorita Castillo, Dr. Magdalena Cantoria.