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FORCES AND

MOTION
MOTION IN A STRAIGHT LINE
( LINEAR MOTION )

Movement in a direction
ANALYSING LINEAR MOTION
Analysing motion involving in
distance, displacement,
speed, velocity,
and
acceleration.
Physical quantities consist of
scalar quantities and vector quantities
North

DISTANCE AND DISPLACEMENT East

Distance, d

Distance is a base quantity. It has a magnitude only.


Displacement is a vector quantity. It has a magnitude and
direction.

Example : distance, d = 20.0 m


displacement, s = 20.0 m due east
SPEED AND VELOCITY

Distance, d

Speed is a base quantity. It has a magnitude only.


Speed = distance / time taken

Velocity is a vector quantity. It has a magnitude and direction.


Velocity = displacement / time taken
QUESTION 1

Ani is jogging in Taman Tengku Anis. She jogs 400 m due east
and 100 m due north and finally turns to jog 300 m due west. It
takes her 10 minutes.
North
a. Find the total distance travelled.
East
b. Find average speed in ms-1.

a. Total distance = 400 + 100 + 300


= 800 m

300 m
b. Average speed = 800 / 10(60)
= 1.33 ms-1
100 m

400 m
QUESTION 2

20 m
5m

A ball moves at a distance of 20 m before it hits a wall. A ball then,


bounces back and moves 5 m before it stops.
a. Find the total distance travelled.
b. Find displacement.
c. If a ball takes 30 s to stop, find the average speed and velocity.
a. Total distance = 20 + 5 = 25 m
b. Displacement = 20 - 5 = 15 m
c. Average speed = 25 / 30 = 0.83 ms-1

Velocity = 15 / 30 = 0.5 ms-1


KINEMATICS : Movement in a direction
RULES OF DIRECTION

POSITIVE

NEGATIVE
ANALYSING LINEAR MOTION

The average speed = Total distance / time taken


= 5 / 0.20
= 25 miles/hour

On the average, the car was moving with a speed of 25 miles per hour.
During a trip, there may have been times that it was stopped and other times that
its speedometer was reading 50 miles per hour; yet on the average the car was
moving with a speed of 25 miles per hour.
ANALYSING LINEAR MOTION
TICKER-TIMER An instrument to analyse motion
Increasing speed
ANALYSING TICKER TAPES Determine time taken for 1 tick

1 tick

The power supply used in our lab has a frequency 50 Hz.


Thus, a ticker timer will ticks with a frequency 50 Hz also

A frequency of 50 Hz means,
in 1 s, the ticker timer ticks 50 dots
So, the time taken for 1 tick ( or 1 dot ) is t = 1/50 s.
ANALYSING TICKER TAPES
Determine time taken for 10 ticks

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

10 ticks

If 1 tick = 1/50 s = 0.02 s


10 ticks = ( 1/50 ) x 10
= 1/5
= 0.2 s
ANALYSING TICKER TAPES
Determine distance for 10 ticks

s
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

10 ticks

Distance of 10 ticks = length of ticker tapes of 10 ticks


= displacement, s ( in a certain
direction)
ANALYSING TICKER TAPES
Determine velocity for 10 ticks

s
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

10 ticks

velocity for 10 ticks


= displacement, s / time taken for 10 ticks
= s / (10 x (1/50))
= s / (1/5)
= s / 0.2
ANALYSING TICKER TAPES
Initial velocity and final velocity

10 dots 10 dots

.. .. .
x1 x2
n dots

Initial velocity, u = velocity during the first (10) ticks


= x1 / time taken for 10 ticks

Final velocity, v = velocity during the last (10) ticks


= x2 / time taken for 10 ticks
ANALYSING TICKER TAPES
Determine motion

Direction of motion

Motion with a constant velocity


Initial velocity = final velocity
Direction of motion

Motion with a decreasing velocity


Initial velocity > final velocity
Direction of motion

Motion with a increasing velocity


Initial velocity < final velocity
The red car moves with a constant speed, covering the
same distance in each second
The green and blue cars are speeding up, thus covering
an increasing distance in each second

The blue car changing its velocity at a more drastic rate

The blue car has a greater acceleration


ACCELERATION, a

Rate of change of velocity

Change in velocity / change in time


= ( Final velocity Initial velocity ) / change in time

If final velocity > initial velocity , ( increasing velocity )


motion with acceleration

If final velocity < initial velocity , ( decreasing velocity )


motion with deceleration
ANALYSING LINEAR MOTION
ANALYSING TICKER TAPES to find acceleration

10 dots 10 dots

.. .. .
x1 x2
n dots

Initial Velocity, u
= displacement, x1 / time taken for 10 dots

Final Velocity, v
= displacement, x2 / time taken for 10 dots

Acceleration, a
= ( v u ) / time taken for n dots, t
ANALYSING TICKER TAPES
Uniform Velocity

The distance of the dots is


equally distributed.

All lengths of tape in the chart


are of equal length.

The object is moving at a


uniform / constant velocity
ANALYSING TICKER TAPES

Increasing velocity

The distance between the


dots increases uniformly.

The length of the strips of


tape in the chart increase
uniformly.

The velocity of the object is


increasing uniformly

The object is moving at a


constant acceleration.
ANALYSING TICKER TAPES
Decreasing velocity

The distance between the dots


decreases uniformly.

The length of the strips of tape


in the chart decreases
uniformly.

The velocity of the object is


decreasing uniformly,

The object is decelerating


uniformly.
ANALYSING TICKER TAPES a ticker tapes chart
Displacement / 10 ticks

Acceleration
nonuniformly

Time

INCREASING WITH A
NONUNIFORM VELOCITY
ANALYSING TICKER TAPES a ticker tapes chart
Displacement / 10 ticks

Non uniform
Deceleration

Time
DECREASING WITH A NON
UNIFORM VELOCITY
Analysing Displacement - Time Graph

the gradient of the graph is


equal to the velocity of motion.

Gradient = 0
Hence, velocity = 0
The object is at rest
(not moving).
Analysing Displacement - Time Graph

Gradient is constant,

hence, velocity is uniform / constant

Gradient is negative and constant,

hence velocity is uniform

and in opposite direction


Analysing Displacement - Time Graph

Gradient is increasing,

hence velocity is increasing.

Gradient is decreasing,

hence velocity is decreasing.


Analysing Velocity - Time Graph

The gradient gives a value of


the changing rate in velocity

Gradient
= (change in velocity ) / (change in time)

which is the acceleration of the object


Analysing Velocity - Time Graph

Uniform velocity

Uniform acceleration
Analysing Velocity - Time Graph

Increasing acceleration

Uniform deceleration
Analysing Velocity - Time Graph

Decreasing acceleration
CONSTANT POSITIVE VELOCITY

Velocity = gradient of Position Vs Time graphs

Acceleration = gradient of Velocity Vs Time graphs


CONSTANT NEGATIVE VELOCITY

Velocity = gradient of Position Vs Time graphs

Acceleration = gradient of Velocity Vs Time graphs


INCREASING VELOCITY - ACCELERATION

Velocity = gradient of Position Vs Time graphs

Acceleration = gradient of Velocity Vs Time graphs


DECREASING VELOCITY - DECELERATION

Velocity = gradient of Position Vs Time graphs

Acceleration = gradient of Velocity Vs Time graphs


EXERCISE 1

Describe the characteristics of the motion below.

Decelerates from high speed to low speed. It stop and remain at rest
for a while. The accelerates until the trace ends.

Travels at a constant speed during the first time interval, then


accelerates until the trace ends

Travels at a constant speed during the first time interval, then


decelerates to a stop and remain at rest for some time. Then moves
with a constant speed which is slower than the first speed
ANALYSING MOTION GRAPHS

position,s The body is not moving at all ! At


anytime, its position remain the
same.

The body is at rest.

velocity, v = 0

time,t
What can you say about its motion?
From graph,
What can you say about its velocity? velocity, v = gradient
=0
ANALYSING MOTION GRAPHS

position,s The body moves with a constant


velocity

velocity, v is contant

From graph,
velocity, v = gradient

time,t
What can you say about its motion?

What can you say about its velocity?

What can you say about its acceleration?


ANALYSING MOTION GRAPHS

position,s velocity,v

velocity, v is contant

time,t time,t

What can you say about its acceleration?

From graph,
acceleration, a = gradient = 0

What can you say about its displacement?


ANALYSING MOTION GRAPHS
velocity,v From,
v = displacement,s / time,t

v s=vt

displacement, s =
Area below graph v-t

t time,t

What can you say about its acceleration?

From graph,
acceleration, a = gradient = 0

What can you say about its displacement?


EXERCISE 2 Describe the motion.
velocity, v
(ms-1)

10

0 20 time,t (s)
2 8

A body moves with an increasing velocity uniformly for 2 s until its velocity is
10 ms-1. Then it continues with a constant velocity for 6 s. The body then
moves with a decreasing velocity uniformly for 12 s.
EXERCISE 2 Find acceleration and deceleration.
velocity, v
(ms-1)

10

0 20 time,t (s)
2 8

A body moves with an increasing velocity uniformly for 2 s until its velocity is
10 ms-1. Then it continues with a constant velocity for 6 s. The body then
moves with a decreasing velocity uniformly for 12 s.

Acceleration, a = ( v - u ) / t
= ( 10 0 ) / 2
= 5 ms-2
EXERCISE 2 Find total displacement.
velocity, v
(ms-1)

10

A B C
0 20 time,t (s)
2 8

Total displacement, s = Total area below graph


= area A + area B + area C
= ( ( 10)(2)) + (10 x (8-2)) + ( (10)(20-8))
= 10 + 60 + 60
= 130 m
EXERCISE 2 Find total displacement.
velocity, v
(ms-1)

10

0 20 22 time,t (s)
2 8
-5

Total displacement, s = Total area below graph


= area A + area B + area C + area D
= 130 + ( ( -5)(22-20)
= 130 + ( -5 )
= 125 m
UNDERSTANDING

INERTIA
DYNAMICS : WAYS IN WHICH MOTION CAN BE
EXPLAINED

The tendency of an object to remain at rest, or keep on moving


at a constant speed in a straight line.

The behavior of all objects can be


described by saying that objects tend
to "keep on doing what they're doing
and resist changes in their state of
motion
What can you say about the ladder state of motion when a
truck moves down the road ?
As the truck moves down the road, the ladder moves with it

What will happen to the ladder when the truck abruptly stop
and the straps were no longer functioning ? Why ?
The ladder would slide off the top of the truck and be
hurled into the air because the ladder in motion would
continue in motion
NEWTONS FIRST LAW OF MOTION

An object at rest tends to stay at rest and an object in motion tends


to stay in motion with the same speed and in the same direction
unless acted upon by an unbalanced force.
There is no unbalanced
force acting upon the book
and thus the book
maintains its state of
motion.

There is no unbalanced force


acting upon the person and
thus the person maintains
his/her state of motion.
The force of gravity pulling downwards and the force of the table
pushing upwards on the book are of equal magnitude and in
opposite directions. These two forces balance each other.
However, there is no force present to balance the force of friction.
As the book moves to the right, friction acts to the left to slow the
book down. This is an unbalanced force; and as such, the book
changes its state of motion
It is the natural tendency of objects to keep on doing what they're
doing. All objects resist changes in their state of motion. In the
absence of an unbalanced force, an object in motion will maintain this
state of motion. This is often called the law of inertia.

Experiencing inertia in an automobile while it is braking to a


stop
The force of the road on the locked
wheels provides the unbalanced force to
change the car's state of motion, yet
there is no unbalanced force to change
the state of motion.

Thus, an object will continue in motion, sliding forward along the seat.
A person in motion tends to stay in motion with the same speed and in the
same direction ...
unless acted upon by the unbalanced force of a seat belt.
Seat belts are used to provide safety for passengers whose motion is
governed by Newton's laws. The seat belt provides the unbalanced force
which brings the object from a state of motion to a state of rest.
What motion would the passengers undergo if they failed to use
their seat belts and the car were brought to a sudden and abrupt
halt by a collision with a wall?

The passengers in motion would continue in motion. The


passengers would likely be propelled from the car and be
hurled into the air
If the motorcycle were to abruptly stop, then the rider in motion
would continue in motion. The rider would likely be propelled from
the motorcycle and be hurled into the air.
APPLICATIONS

The head of a hammer can be tightened onto


the wooden handle by banging the bottom of
the handle against a hard surface.

To dislodge ketchup from


the bottom of a ketchup
bottle, the bottle is often
turned upside down, thrust
downward at a high speed
and then abruptly halted.
MASS AND INERTIA

Inertia is the resistance an object


has to a change in its state of
motion.

The tendency of an object to resist changes in


its state of motion is dependent upon its mass
MASS AND INERTIA
The figure shows a child and
his mother sitting on two
identical swings.

They are pushed with the


same amount of forces.

Which is more difficult to be moved ?

The swing which the mother sits on is more difficult


to be moved because she has more mass.
The tendency of an object to resist changes in its
state of motion is higher
MASS AND INERTIA

The swing which the mother sits on is more difficult to be


moved because the tendency of her to resist changes in her
state of motion ( which is at rest ) is higher

HIGHER MASS SHOWS A HIGHER RESISTANCE TO CHANGE

HIGHER MASS HAS A HIGHER INERTIA


Quiz

Truck X carries petrol in one big tank while truck Y carries


petrol in 3 small tanks. Which is safer ? Explain
Y, because Y has a smaller inertia.

Big tank has a large mass. A large mass has a large


inertia. The heavy tank will continue to move if the truck
stops suddenly. It will collide with the drivers cabin.
ANALYSING
MOMENTUM

By

Pn. Aminah bt. Ab. Rahman


Physicss Teacher
SM Sains Tengku Muhammad Faris Petra,
16100 Pengkalan Chepa, Kelantan.
Tendency of an object to keep on moving with the
MOMENTUM same speed in the same direction

Momentum, p = m v
m = mass
v = velocity

Vector Quantity

Same direction of the velocity

Unit : Kgms-1
MOMENTUM

A mass of an object which traveling with a certain velocity has momentum

Momentum, p = m v

The momentum of an object will increase if


the mass of the object increase
the velocity of the object increase
MOMENTUM

Which has more momentum ? Why ?


The Principle of Conservation of Momentum

In any collision or interaction between two or


more objects in an isolated system,
the total momentum of the system will remain constant;
that is,
the total initial momentum will
equal the total final momentum
A 15-kg medicine ball is thrown at a velocity of 20 km/hr to a 60-kg person
who is at rest on ice. The person catches the ball and subsequently slides
with the ball across the ice

Before the collision, the ball has momentum and the person does not

The collision causes the ball to lose momentum and the person to gain
momentum. After the collision, the ball and the person travel with the same
velocity ("v") across the ice
What is the total initial momentum ?

Initial momentum of the ball = mv


= ( 15 ) ( 20 )
= 300 kgkmh-1

Initial momentum of the girl = mv


= ( 60 ) ( 0 )
= 0 kgkmh-1
What is the total final momentum ?

Total final momentum = m1 v + m2 v


= 15 v + 60 v
= ( 15 + 60 ) v

Find final velocity, v.


Find final velocity, v.

total initial momentum = total final momentum

(60 + 15 ) v = 300
75v = 300
v = 4 km/hr
Granny (m1=80 kg) whizzes around the rink with a velocity of 6 m/s. She
suddenly collides with Ambrose (m2=40 kg) who is at rest directly in her path.
Rather than knock him over, she picks him up and continues in motion without
"braking."
Determine the final common velocity of Granny and Ambrose
COLLISION

Three types of collisions :


i. Elastic collision
ii. Inelastic collision
iii. Explosion
Elastic
collision
Characteristics of Elastic Collision
The objects will separate and move off with
different velocities after they do collide

The total system kinetic energy before the


collision equals the total system kinetic energy after
the collision

m2 v2
u2 m1 v1
m1 u1 m2

BEFORE AFTER
Elastic Collision

m2 v2
u2 m1 v1
m1 u1 m2

BEFORE AFTER

total initial momentum = total final momentum


m1u1 + m2u2 = m1v1 + m2v2
Inelastic
collision
Characteristics of Inelastic Collision
The objects will move together with the same
velocity after they do collide
The total kinetic energy before the collision is not
equal to the total kinetic energy after the collision. A
portion of the kinetic energy is converted to other forms
of energy such as sound energy and thermal energy

m2 v
m2 u2 m1
m1 u1

BEFORE AFTER
Inelastic Collision

m2 v
m2 u2 m1
m1 u1

BEFORE AFTER

total initial momentum = total final momentum


m1u1 + m2u2 = m 1v + m 2v
m1u1 + m2u2 = (m1 + m2 ) v
Explosion
The separation of objects which are initially at rest

BANG !

m1 m2

At rest ; u = 0

After collision, each moves in different direction and velocities

M1V1+M2V2 = 0
Balloon moves
upwards

air
balloon

Air moves
downwards

Momentum of the air downwards, is moving the balloon upwards.


Initial velocity of bullet and gun = 0

Gun moves Bullet


backwards moves
forwards

Momentum of gun backwards = Momentum of bullet forwards

canon
Man steps forward out of a boat and onto the nearby river bank

Momentum of man forwards moves boat


backwards

Man moves
forwards

Boat moves
backwards
A mixture of
Rocket propulsion hydrogen gas and
oxygen is burnt in a
combustion chamber.
The exhaust gases
are discharged
downwards at a high
Liquid velocity
hydrogen
Liquid oxygen The jet of exhaust
gases have a large
momentum
downwards.
exhaust gases push
the rocket upward

Combustion
chamber
exhaust

ROCKET
How an airplane moves forwards ?

Atmospheric air is drawn into the engine and compressed by a


compressor
The compressed air is fed into the combustion chamber and produce
gases with a high temperature.
Kerosene fuel is injected and the mixture is ignited.