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form 4 chapter 2

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MOTION

MOTION IN A STRAIGHT LINE

( LINEAR MOTION )

Movement in a direction

ANALYSING LINEAR MOTION

Analysing motion involving in

distance, displacement,

speed, velocity,

and

acceleration.

Physical quantities consist of

scalar quantities and vector quantities

North

Distance, d

Displacement is a vector quantity. It has a magnitude and

direction.

displacement, s = 20.0 m due east

SPEED AND VELOCITY

Distance, d

Speed = distance / time taken

Velocity = displacement / time taken

QUESTION 1

Ani is jogging in Taman Tengku Anis. She jogs 400 m due east

and 100 m due north and finally turns to jog 300 m due west. It

takes her 10 minutes.

North

a. Find the total distance travelled.

East

b. Find average speed in ms-1.

= 800 m

300 m

b. Average speed = 800 / 10(60)

= 1.33 ms-1

100 m

400 m

QUESTION 2

20 m

5m

bounces back and moves 5 m before it stops.

a. Find the total distance travelled.

b. Find displacement.

c. If a ball takes 30 s to stop, find the average speed and velocity.

a. Total distance = 20 + 5 = 25 m

b. Displacement = 20 - 5 = 15 m

c. Average speed = 25 / 30 = 0.83 ms-1

KINEMATICS : Movement in a direction

RULES OF DIRECTION

POSITIVE

NEGATIVE

ANALYSING LINEAR MOTION

= 5 / 0.20

= 25 miles/hour

On the average, the car was moving with a speed of 25 miles per hour.

During a trip, there may have been times that it was stopped and other times that

its speedometer was reading 50 miles per hour; yet on the average the car was

moving with a speed of 25 miles per hour.

ANALYSING LINEAR MOTION

TICKER-TIMER An instrument to analyse motion

Increasing speed

ANALYSING TICKER TAPES Determine time taken for 1 tick

1 tick

Thus, a ticker timer will ticks with a frequency 50 Hz also

A frequency of 50 Hz means,

in 1 s, the ticker timer ticks 50 dots

So, the time taken for 1 tick ( or 1 dot ) is t = 1/50 s.

ANALYSING TICKER TAPES

Determine time taken for 10 ticks

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

10 ticks

10 ticks = ( 1/50 ) x 10

= 1/5

= 0.2 s

ANALYSING TICKER TAPES

Determine distance for 10 ticks

s

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

10 ticks

= displacement, s ( in a certain

direction)

ANALYSING TICKER TAPES

Determine velocity for 10 ticks

s

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

10 ticks

= displacement, s / time taken for 10 ticks

= s / (10 x (1/50))

= s / (1/5)

= s / 0.2

ANALYSING TICKER TAPES

Initial velocity and final velocity

10 dots 10 dots

.. .. .

x1 x2

n dots

= x1 / time taken for 10 ticks

= x2 / time taken for 10 ticks

ANALYSING TICKER TAPES

Determine motion

Direction of motion

Initial velocity = final velocity

Direction of motion

Initial velocity > final velocity

Direction of motion

Initial velocity < final velocity

The red car moves with a constant speed, covering the

same distance in each second

The green and blue cars are speeding up, thus covering

an increasing distance in each second

ACCELERATION, a

= ( Final velocity Initial velocity ) / change in time

motion with acceleration

motion with deceleration

ANALYSING LINEAR MOTION

ANALYSING TICKER TAPES to find acceleration

10 dots 10 dots

.. .. .

x1 x2

n dots

Initial Velocity, u

= displacement, x1 / time taken for 10 dots

Final Velocity, v

= displacement, x2 / time taken for 10 dots

Acceleration, a

= ( v u ) / time taken for n dots, t

ANALYSING TICKER TAPES

Uniform Velocity

equally distributed.

are of equal length.

uniform / constant velocity

ANALYSING TICKER TAPES

Increasing velocity

dots increases uniformly.

tape in the chart increase

uniformly.

increasing uniformly

constant acceleration.

ANALYSING TICKER TAPES

Decreasing velocity

decreases uniformly.

in the chart decreases

uniformly.

decreasing uniformly,

uniformly.

ANALYSING TICKER TAPES a ticker tapes chart

Displacement / 10 ticks

Acceleration

nonuniformly

Time

INCREASING WITH A

NONUNIFORM VELOCITY

ANALYSING TICKER TAPES a ticker tapes chart

Displacement / 10 ticks

Non uniform

Deceleration

Time

DECREASING WITH A NON

UNIFORM VELOCITY

Analysing Displacement - Time Graph

equal to the velocity of motion.

Gradient = 0

Hence, velocity = 0

The object is at rest

(not moving).

Analysing Displacement - Time Graph

Gradient is constant,

Analysing Displacement - Time Graph

Gradient is increasing,

Gradient is decreasing,

Analysing Velocity - Time Graph

the changing rate in velocity

Gradient

= (change in velocity ) / (change in time)

Analysing Velocity - Time Graph

Uniform velocity

Uniform acceleration

Analysing Velocity - Time Graph

Increasing acceleration

Uniform deceleration

Analysing Velocity - Time Graph

Decreasing acceleration

CONSTANT POSITIVE VELOCITY

CONSTANT NEGATIVE VELOCITY

INCREASING VELOCITY - ACCELERATION

DECREASING VELOCITY - DECELERATION

EXERCISE 1

Decelerates from high speed to low speed. It stop and remain at rest

for a while. The accelerates until the trace ends.

accelerates until the trace ends

decelerates to a stop and remain at rest for some time. Then moves

with a constant speed which is slower than the first speed

ANALYSING MOTION GRAPHS

anytime, its position remain the

same.

velocity, v = 0

time,t

What can you say about its motion?

From graph,

What can you say about its velocity? velocity, v = gradient

=0

ANALYSING MOTION GRAPHS

velocity

velocity, v is contant

From graph,

velocity, v = gradient

time,t

What can you say about its motion?

ANALYSING MOTION GRAPHS

position,s velocity,v

velocity, v is contant

time,t time,t

From graph,

acceleration, a = gradient = 0

ANALYSING MOTION GRAPHS

velocity,v From,

v = displacement,s / time,t

v s=vt

displacement, s =

Area below graph v-t

t time,t

From graph,

acceleration, a = gradient = 0

EXERCISE 2 Describe the motion.

velocity, v

(ms-1)

10

0 20 time,t (s)

2 8

A body moves with an increasing velocity uniformly for 2 s until its velocity is

10 ms-1. Then it continues with a constant velocity for 6 s. The body then

moves with a decreasing velocity uniformly for 12 s.

EXERCISE 2 Find acceleration and deceleration.

velocity, v

(ms-1)

10

0 20 time,t (s)

2 8

A body moves with an increasing velocity uniformly for 2 s until its velocity is

10 ms-1. Then it continues with a constant velocity for 6 s. The body then

moves with a decreasing velocity uniformly for 12 s.

Acceleration, a = ( v - u ) / t

= ( 10 0 ) / 2

= 5 ms-2

EXERCISE 2 Find total displacement.

velocity, v

(ms-1)

10

A B C

0 20 time,t (s)

2 8

= area A + area B + area C

= ( ( 10)(2)) + (10 x (8-2)) + ( (10)(20-8))

= 10 + 60 + 60

= 130 m

EXERCISE 2 Find total displacement.

velocity, v

(ms-1)

10

0 20 22 time,t (s)

2 8

-5

= area A + area B + area C + area D

= 130 + ( ( -5)(22-20)

= 130 + ( -5 )

= 125 m

UNDERSTANDING

INERTIA

DYNAMICS : WAYS IN WHICH MOTION CAN BE

EXPLAINED

at a constant speed in a straight line.

described by saying that objects tend

to "keep on doing what they're doing

and resist changes in their state of

motion

What can you say about the ladder state of motion when a

truck moves down the road ?

As the truck moves down the road, the ladder moves with it

What will happen to the ladder when the truck abruptly stop

and the straps were no longer functioning ? Why ?

The ladder would slide off the top of the truck and be

hurled into the air because the ladder in motion would

continue in motion

NEWTONS FIRST LAW OF MOTION

to stay in motion with the same speed and in the same direction

unless acted upon by an unbalanced force.

There is no unbalanced

force acting upon the book

and thus the book

maintains its state of

motion.

acting upon the person and

thus the person maintains

his/her state of motion.

The force of gravity pulling downwards and the force of the table

pushing upwards on the book are of equal magnitude and in

opposite directions. These two forces balance each other.

However, there is no force present to balance the force of friction.

As the book moves to the right, friction acts to the left to slow the

book down. This is an unbalanced force; and as such, the book

changes its state of motion

It is the natural tendency of objects to keep on doing what they're

doing. All objects resist changes in their state of motion. In the

absence of an unbalanced force, an object in motion will maintain this

state of motion. This is often called the law of inertia.

stop

The force of the road on the locked

wheels provides the unbalanced force to

change the car's state of motion, yet

there is no unbalanced force to change

the state of motion.

Thus, an object will continue in motion, sliding forward along the seat.

A person in motion tends to stay in motion with the same speed and in the

same direction ...

unless acted upon by the unbalanced force of a seat belt.

Seat belts are used to provide safety for passengers whose motion is

governed by Newton's laws. The seat belt provides the unbalanced force

which brings the object from a state of motion to a state of rest.

What motion would the passengers undergo if they failed to use

their seat belts and the car were brought to a sudden and abrupt

halt by a collision with a wall?

passengers would likely be propelled from the car and be

hurled into the air

If the motorcycle were to abruptly stop, then the rider in motion

would continue in motion. The rider would likely be propelled from

the motorcycle and be hurled into the air.

APPLICATIONS

the wooden handle by banging the bottom of

the handle against a hard surface.

the bottom of a ketchup

bottle, the bottle is often

turned upside down, thrust

downward at a high speed

and then abruptly halted.

MASS AND INERTIA

has to a change in its state of

motion.

its state of motion is dependent upon its mass

MASS AND INERTIA

The figure shows a child and

his mother sitting on two

identical swings.

same amount of forces.

to be moved because she has more mass.

The tendency of an object to resist changes in its

state of motion is higher

MASS AND INERTIA

moved because the tendency of her to resist changes in her

state of motion ( which is at rest ) is higher

Quiz

petrol in 3 small tanks. Which is safer ? Explain

Y, because Y has a smaller inertia.

inertia. The heavy tank will continue to move if the truck

stops suddenly. It will collide with the drivers cabin.

ANALYSING

MOMENTUM

By

Physicss Teacher

SM Sains Tengku Muhammad Faris Petra,

16100 Pengkalan Chepa, Kelantan.

Tendency of an object to keep on moving with the

MOMENTUM same speed in the same direction

Momentum, p = m v

m = mass

v = velocity

Vector Quantity

Unit : Kgms-1

MOMENTUM

Momentum, p = m v

the mass of the object increase

the velocity of the object increase

MOMENTUM

The Principle of Conservation of Momentum

more objects in an isolated system,

the total momentum of the system will remain constant;

that is,

the total initial momentum will

equal the total final momentum

A 15-kg medicine ball is thrown at a velocity of 20 km/hr to a 60-kg person

who is at rest on ice. The person catches the ball and subsequently slides

with the ball across the ice

Before the collision, the ball has momentum and the person does not

The collision causes the ball to lose momentum and the person to gain

momentum. After the collision, the ball and the person travel with the same

velocity ("v") across the ice

What is the total initial momentum ?

= ( 15 ) ( 20 )

= 300 kgkmh-1

= ( 60 ) ( 0 )

= 0 kgkmh-1

What is the total final momentum ?

= 15 v + 60 v

= ( 15 + 60 ) v

Find final velocity, v.

(60 + 15 ) v = 300

75v = 300

v = 4 km/hr

Granny (m1=80 kg) whizzes around the rink with a velocity of 6 m/s. She

suddenly collides with Ambrose (m2=40 kg) who is at rest directly in her path.

Rather than knock him over, she picks him up and continues in motion without

"braking."

Determine the final common velocity of Granny and Ambrose

COLLISION

i. Elastic collision

ii. Inelastic collision

iii. Explosion

Elastic

collision

Characteristics of Elastic Collision

The objects will separate and move off with

different velocities after they do collide

collision equals the total system kinetic energy after

the collision

m2 v2

u2 m1 v1

m1 u1 m2

BEFORE AFTER

Elastic Collision

m2 v2

u2 m1 v1

m1 u1 m2

BEFORE AFTER

m1u1 + m2u2 = m1v1 + m2v2

Inelastic

collision

Characteristics of Inelastic Collision

The objects will move together with the same

velocity after they do collide

The total kinetic energy before the collision is not

equal to the total kinetic energy after the collision. A

portion of the kinetic energy is converted to other forms

of energy such as sound energy and thermal energy

m2 v

m2 u2 m1

m1 u1

BEFORE AFTER

Inelastic Collision

m2 v

m2 u2 m1

m1 u1

BEFORE AFTER

m1u1 + m2u2 = m 1v + m 2v

m1u1 + m2u2 = (m1 + m2 ) v

Explosion

The separation of objects which are initially at rest

BANG !

m1 m2

At rest ; u = 0

M1V1+M2V2 = 0

Balloon moves

upwards

air

balloon

Air moves

downwards

Initial velocity of bullet and gun = 0

backwards moves

forwards

canon

Man steps forward out of a boat and onto the nearby river bank

backwards

Man moves

forwards

Boat moves

backwards

A mixture of

Rocket propulsion hydrogen gas and

oxygen is burnt in a

combustion chamber.

The exhaust gases

are discharged

downwards at a high

Liquid velocity

hydrogen

Liquid oxygen The jet of exhaust

gases have a large

momentum

downwards.

exhaust gases push

the rocket upward

Combustion

chamber

exhaust

ROCKET

How an airplane moves forwards ?

compressor

The compressed air is fed into the combustion chamber and produce

gases with a high temperature.

Kerosene fuel is injected and the mixture is ignited.

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