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Muhammad Ijaz

Concept of Democracy and its Evolution
British Heritage of Democratic Institution
Pakistan inherited Colonial Legacy
Early Applications of Democracy in Pakistan.
Ideological Hindrance for Democratic Pakistan.
Social Aspects of failure of Democracy in Pakistan.
Civil-Military Conflicts in Pakistan
Reasons of Military Interventions
Slogans of Military Dictators
Governance in Pakistan
Bureaucratic decade (1947-58)
Praetorians Era ( 1958-71)
Era of Populism (1971-77)
Third man on Horseback (1977-88)
Rule of Troika (1988-99)
Bonaparte's glimpse and 21th Century (1999-2007)

Democracy-derived from Greek- Demos (People) and
Kratos (Rule). Means Rule of People.
Ancient concept of consensus- arriving at consensus in a
gathering where either all or a group selected by all-
considered the represent of whole of a society.
In Aryan-Panchiat system was also true reflection of this
In Greek-city States-Democracy was exercised through
citizens assemblies.
Interestingly-Greek Philosopher dislike and ridiculed this
democracy-like Aristotle said this is a Mobocracy (rule of
the crowd) instead of democracy.
Abraham Lincolns statement considered as a true
definition of democracy- government of the People, by
the people and for the People.
British slogan to justified the Indian
Colonial concept of direct and indirect rule in
Political institutions in Colonial India
Political Parties
Trade Unions
Legal Courts
Introduction of Western Democratic System.
Two school of thoughts emerged.
Secular school of Thought
Conservative and Religious School of Thought
AIML as a pioneer political party of Pakistan.
Week roots of AIML on the soil of Pakistan.
Growth and Establishment of the Institutions
in Pakistan.
Pakistan Military
Pakistan Judiciary
Civil administration
Leaders Personalities charisma
Liaquet Ali Khan
Constitutional task to PM
Compulsion of PM and Introduction of Objective Resolution-
Sovereignty over entire Universe belongs to Allah Almighty alone.
End of Personality Charismatic rule.
Death of Quaid
Murder of Liaquet Ali Khan
Absence of second row leadership in the AIML.
Bureaucratic element in the Pakistan Political structure.
Imposition of Governors rule and dismissal of the elected
Provincial governments by the Governor General.
Alliance of Feudal class +Religious Fundamental Class in the
favor of imposing the Shariah to derail the western based
Ideological tug of War.
Islamic / Secular
Objective Resolution
Ayub Period
Islamic cum Socialism slogan for democratic
Islamization in Pakistan-
Super Power Interest + National Ruling Class Interest+ Role
of Clergy.
Theocracys Rule-concept of Mullahism and Council of
Mullah to impose Shariah.

Over developed Post colonial state concept and

Social setup.
Social Structure designed by Colonial Masters
arranging the Elite, Middle and Lower Class.
Emergence of Feudal and Landed gentry Class.
Role of Clergy and Conservative class before and
after the Partition.
Emergence of Garrison State.
Development of Marshal Race.
Growth of Democratic structure within Society.
Pro-British and Anti-British Concept at each class
level linked with Nationalistic approach.
Social, Economic and Political injustice within
Pakistani Society and Democracy.
Major bone of contention between civil
government and military junta
Corruption based canvas of military painting.
Peoples blame game that cashed by Military
Distortion of hierarchal chain of Commands
Economy was about to collapse
Reaching a point of no return
Weak Institutional Framework
A Vacuum of Leadership
Leadership Potential in Army.
In Pakistan- Army become national Political
Institutional Imbalance
Political decay and degeneration
Professional disposition of Military
Minimal Political culture
Ideological takeover-
Communist/Capitalist Clash
Radical/secular Clash
Socialist/Islamic Clash
Liberal/Orthodox Clash
Patriotic Slogans against-
Individual Interest

Military intervention directly attached with socio-

economic development in state.
Security State Concept.
Captured high Portfolio.
Injection of senior and retired officers in the
civil bureaucracy.
Military Quota system in different
departments for administration.
Foreign Policy due to rivalry enemy-ship
Military as a corporate operator.
Militarys interest v/s Politician Interest
Jinnahs steps to rule as a Governor General and
origin of authoritative behavior.
Alliance of AIML with Feudal class and Landed Gentry.
Jinnahs greater trust on Bureaucracy rather than democratic
Role of trio under the patronage of Jinnah (Malik Ghulam
Muhammad, Ch. Muhammad Ali and Sikander Mirza)
Amendments in Indian Act of 1935.
Power of Governor General
Maintenance of Law and Order
Safeguarding of the financial stability and credit of the
federal govt.
Safeguarding of the rights and interest of minorities.
Delay in Constitutional work.
Tough time for AIML within the Pakistan territory.
Bureaucratic Decade 1947-1958.
Followings are the basic reasons due to which Pakistan
could not take off with democratic Peak flight
A powerful Central Government
Delay in the Constitution Making
Migration of the clergy from UP, East Punjab and Bihar in Pakistan.
(Shabbir Ahmed usmani, Mufti Muhammad Shafi, Muhammad Hassan,
Yusuf Banori, Idrees Kandalvi and Khair Muhammad Jullunduri)
Attachment many movements with them like Ahmedi, and Islamization etc.
Muslim League Leadership also look like a diaspora of Central Indian
To counter the Bengali majority, provincial elections 1954 were nullified.
Introduction of One Unit.
Ghulam Muhammads adventure with the dismissal of the Provincial and
Federal assemblies.
Handling the political class by the Bureaucracy.
Portfolio of Defense Ministry-kept by the PM.
Ayubs period (1958-69)
Contradictory Principles of Ayub Khan
Modern Economic system
Conservative Political System
Power center-Rise of Civil-Military bureaucracy.
Abrogation of 1956 Constitution
Emergence of Presidential System
Constitution of 1962 .
Political Policies-Introduction of EBDO (Elective Bodies Disqualification Order)
Controlled Media through Marshal law ordinance.
Massi Mahru Program on Lahore radio to ridiculed womens participation in
Controlled Literature
Controlled democracy
Control the society through civil servants
Bengali under representation
Bengali frustration due to Military-Bureaucracy Oligarchy (small group of people
having control over state).
National Conference 1966-Bengali representation 21 out of 700.
System of Basic Democracies
Two Prime objectives emerged
Self-perpetuation in the corridors of Power
Direct relationship between bureaucracy and rural elite.
Ayubs Industrial Strategy.
Land Reforms
Impact of 1965 war
Increase the sense of geographical isolation between East
and west wing.
Increase the sense of defenseless among Bengalis with
one infantry division with a squadron of koran war
fighting plane.
Put behind the bar-Bengali Leadership till 1966.
Emergence of Awami League demands
1=Government should be federal and Parliamentary.
2= Universal adult suffrage
3= Lose federation with two departments Foreign
affairs and Defense.
4= Each wing have its own currency and separate fiscal
5= own earnings of foreign exchange
6= each unit permitted to raise its own militia or
paramilitary forces.
Due to unrest among Bengali-till 1966, 4946
riots were reported.
Dictator lead to another Dictator.
Yahyahs Social Reforms
Redical reforms regarding education.
Nationalization of private educational institutions: universal literacy by 1980.
Replacement of English by Bengali and Urdu as official Language by 1975.
Teaching of Islamiat up to class X.

Abolition of One Unit .

LFO 30th March 1970.
Role of Parliament-
313 total seats
169 for Bengal and
Punjab had 85-
NWFP-19 and
Balochistan had 5
Islam as an instrument of Legitimacy.
Elections 1970
Military Alliance with Minority
Partition of Pakistan.
Socialistic Approach in the Country through
Democratic way.
Roti, Kapra, Makan
Emergence of Civilian Authoritative rule and Civilian
Marshal Law.
Constitution of 1973.
Communal Issue with in rest of Pakistan- Ahmedi
and anti-Ahmedi sentiments.
Civilian Supremacy concept during this era.
Role of FSF.
Land Reforms
PNAs allegation over rigging in Election and
Declaring Marshal Law.
Postponement of Election and call for
Islamization of the state.
Emergence of Regional Political Parties
Breakdown of the National and Collective
Approach through Political breakdown of the
major Political parties.
Proxy War elements and Horse mans interest.
Referendum of 1984 and Non-Party Election
Election and Bibi as PM
PPP win 92 out of 207
Emergence of Regional Politics
Central-Punjab confrontation.
Worsening of Relations with Army.
Role of ISI and IJIs Politics
Asgher Khan Case
Zardari-A point of Controversy
Corruption Charges
Nawaz Sharifs Rule 1990-93.
MQM factor
Opration Clean up in Karachi and Nawaz Sharifs
COAS-Asif Nawaz Janjuas relation with PM
CMR during this Era.
Yellow Cab Scam
MCB issue
Eighth Amendment and Role of President
Nawaz Govt. steps
Privatization the institutes
Encouragement of Private Sector
Sharia Bill for Islamization
Dismissal of PM Nawaz Govt due to
Role of Supreme court over usage of Power by
the President.
COAS interference
Interim govt. of Moin Qureshi and resignation
of both PM and President.
Law and order situation
Political breakdown at provincial levels
Karachi issue
Weak CMR during this era
Role of President and 58-2b
Charges of PPP own President on the Peoples
Mismanagement of the Economy
Extrajudicial killings in Karachi
Clean Sweep in Election
Economic Issue
Judiciary Crisis during Nawaz Era
One sided anti-corruption campaign
targeting opposition political parties.
Restricted Press- Arrest of the Senior Journals
and beat them.
Power of President snubbed through amendment.
New President with New PM
Making his Power to appoint Military chiefs.
Bill against Floor Crossing.
COAS Resignation
Nuclear Test
Kargil Issue
Musharaf as a new COAS and PM
Finally flag again into the hands of Sword based
Musharaf s seven point agenta
Rebuild national confidence and morale.
Strengthen the federation, remove inter provincial
disharmony and restore national cohesion.
Revive the economy and restore investor confidence.
Ensure law and order and dispense speedy justice.
Depoliticise state institutions.
Devolution of power to the grass roots level.
Ensure swift and across the board accountability.
Passed PCO
Declared a state of Emergency
Eight Members- National Security Council
Civilian Cabinet
National Reconstruction Bureau
Local Self Government- 3 tiers government (District, Tehsil and union
2002 Elections
Devolution Plan regarding Education and Health.
Police Order 2002.
Divisions were abolished

17th Amendment
Second Stint of Presidency
NRO and welcome again corrupt democracy
Musharraf and Judiciary
Foreign Policy
Murder of Bibi
Election 2008
Sunset of Musharaf
Zero Sum Game
A Coalition govt. with JUI and MQM.
Musharrafs resign from President ship
18th amendment.
Abolished the Reform Package
Two term PM
Restricts the President over Judicial appointments
Re-organize Center-Province relations
Empower Provincial Assemblies to elect their C.M
Changed the name of NWFP into KPK
Concurrent list was abolished-subjects referred to the Provincial
Load-shedding Issue
Rental Power Problem
Swat insurgency and Swat operation
Corruption Charges by Media-