You are on page 1of 96

Ch.

2_ Consumer
Motivation and
Personality
MOTIVATION
The way to get started is to
quit talking and begin doing.
-Walt Disney
What is Motivation?
Process which begins with a physiological or psychological need or
deficiency which triggers a behaviour or a desire that is aimed at a goal or
an incentive.
Needs Drives Incentives

All the internal conditions that stir up activity and sustain activity of an
individual.

Starts and sustain activities

Motivation is a driving force within individuals that impel them to action.

Force Action
NEEDS AND MOTIVATION
Needs are the essence of the marketing
concept. Marketers do not create needs
but can make consumers aware of needs.

Motivation is the driving force within


individuals that impels them to action.
NEEDS
Every individual has needs.
Some are innate & others are
acquired.
Types of Needs
Innate Needs
Physiological (or biogenic) needs that are considered primary
needs or motives.

Acquired Needs
Learned in response to our culture or environment. Are
generally psychological and are considered secondary needs.
Is a body spray an
innate
or
acquired need?

A young Indian man who sued


Hindustan Unilever (HUL) over an
ineffective Axe effect? The report
said that Vaibhav Bedi was
accusing the FMCG giant of
cheating him and causing anguish
since, despite using the
deodorant for seven years, he had
been unable to attract a single
girl.
GOALS
The sought-after results of motivated
behavior.
Generic goals are general categories
of goals that consumers see as a way
to fulfill their needs.
Product-specific goals are
specifically branded products or
services that consumers select as
their goals
Goals Structure for Weight
Control
What are Motives?
A motive corresponds to a want
or a preference that is sufficiently
strong that it moves us to action
or deliberate inaction.
Rational versus Emotional
Motives
Rationality implies that consumers select
goals based on totally objective criteria
such as size, weight, price.
Emotional motives imply the selection of
goals according to personal or subjective
criteria.
Discussion Question
What products might be purchased
using rational and/or emotional
motives?
The Dynamic Nature of
Motivation
Needs are never fully satisfied.
New needs emerge as old needs are satisfied.
People who achieve their goals set new and
higher goals for themselves.
What happens when you cant achieve the goals?
Substitute Goals
Are used when a consumer cannot attain
a specific goal.. he/she anticipates
substitute goal will satisfy a need.
The substitute goal will dispel tension.
Substitute goals may actually replace the
primary goal over time.
Frustration
Failure to achieve a goal may result
in frustration.

Some adapt; others adopt defense


mechanisms to protect their ego.
Defense Mechanism
Methods by which people
mentally redefine frustrating
situations to protect their self-
images and their self-esteem
DEFENSE MECHANISM
Aggressive : Most of the people who break and burn the
buses/cars and other private vehicles on some hartal (Closure of
shops) day, can not afford buying a car(Costly vehicles).

Rational : If one can not afford going to Switzerland for


vacation recreation, he may go to Kashmir (substitute).

Regression : reacting to frustration with childish or immature


behavior. When somebody cant afford buying a product, he or
she damages the product or misplace it

Withdrawal : frustration may be resolved by simply withdrawing


from the situation. A person who has difficulty achieving officer
status in some organization may simply quit the organization.
PROJECTION : redefining the frustrating situation by projecting
blame for his own failure on other people or object. The driver
who has a car accident may blame the other driver or the
condition of the road, weather, or other things.

IDENTIFICATION : sometime people resolve their feelings of


frustration by subconsciously identifying with other person or
situation they consider relevant. Example: It is not possible to
have time with the stars, so as they are using the soap in the ad,
therefore his/her fan also use it.

REPRESSION : another way of avoiding tension of frustration is


simply to repress the unfulfilled needs. A couple who can not
have children may surround themselves with plants or pets.
What type of
defense
mechanism is this
spokesperson
using in
this ad?
Online buying behaviour
On YouTube, Viewers skip the ad in .seconds !

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_4gaNWIspjk
Nivea
Motivational Theories

Internal Suggest that variables within the individual


give rise to motivation and behavior

Example: Maslows hierarchy of needs


theory

External Focus on environmental elements to


explain behavior.

Example: Two-factor theory


HIERARCHY OF NEEDS THEORY
Abraham Maslow sought to explain why people
are driven by particular needs at particular
times. His answer is that human needs are
arranged in a hierarchy from most to least
processing.

People will try to satisfy their most important


needs first. When a person succeeds in satisfying
an important need, he will then try to satisfy the
next important need.
For e.g.

A poor man (need 1) will not take an interest in latest


happening in the art work (need 5), nor in how he is
viewed by others (need 3 or 4), nor even in whether he is
breathing clean air (need 2); but when he has enough
food & water, the next most important need will become
main.
Physiological Needs

Physiological needs are those required to sustain life, such


as:
Air
Water
Food
Sleep
According to Maslow's theory, if these fundamental needs
are not satisfied then one will surely be motivated to satisfy
them. Higher needs such as social needs and esteem are
not recognized until one satisfies the needs basic to
existence.
E.g. Vegetables, any product for growing newborn-
Johnson & Johnson
Safety Needs
Once physiological needs are met, one's attention turns to
safety and security in order to be free from the threat of
physical and emotional harm. Such needs might be fulfilled
by:
Living in a safe area
Medical insurance
Job security
Financial reserves
According to the Maslow hierarchy, if a person feels
threatened, needs further up the pyramid will not receive
attention until that need has been resolved.
e.g. 1BHK Flat for just married couple.
Helmet, Medicines, Basic Mobile- on Kids watch, TOP
security guard for home, PCI Pest control
Social Needs

Once a person has met the lower level physiological and


safety needs, higher level needs awaken. The first level
of higher level needs are social needs. Social needs are
those related to interaction with others and may include:

Friendship
Belonging to a group
Giving and receiving love

E.g. Archies products, Gadgets with skype, Facebook,


Parker Pen, Magzines, Linkedin
Esteem Needs
Once a person feels a sense of "belonging", the need to feel
important arises. Esteem needs may be classified as
internal or external. Internal esteem needs are those related
to self-esteem such as self respect and achievement.
External esteem needs are those such as social status and
recognition. Some esteem needs are:
Self-respect
Achievement
Attention
Recognition
Reputation
E.g. Highly Expensive Products-Rolex, Mercedes, world
tour with cox & kings, Phillips-55 3D TV, living in
Hiranandani
Self-Actualization

Self-actualization is the summit of Maslow's hierarchy of


needs. It is the quest of reaching one's full potential as a
person. Unlike lower level needs, this need is never fully
satisfied; as one grows psychologically there are always
new opportunities to continue to grow.
Self-actualized people tend to have needs such as:

Truth
Justice
Wisdom
Meaning
EXAMPLES ON HoN
The most obvious example of HoN in action is in advertising
Biological and Physiological needs - wife/child-abuse help-
lines, social security benefits, roadside recovery
Safety needs - home security products (alarms, etc), house
and contents insurance, life assurance, schools
Belongingness and Love needs - dating and match-making
services, chat-lines, clubs and membership societies
Esteem needs - cosmetics, fast cars, home improvements,
furniture, fashion clothes, drinks, lifestyle products and
services
Self-Actualization needs The need for challenging jobs,
need for highest level of promotion comes, peak experience
through more aware of the truth, justice.
Identify which need the brand
Marlboro tries to satisfy?

Warning: Smoking is injurious to health !


Warning: Smoking is injurious to health !
Two-factor theory
Frederick Herzberg proposed a two-factor model of motivation, based on the
notion that the presence of one set of job characteristics or incentives leads to
worker satisfaction at work, while another and separate set of job
characteristics leads to dissatisfaction at work.

Thus, satisfaction and dissatisfaction are not on a continuum with one


increasing as the other diminishes, but are independent
phenomena.
He called Satisfiers as motivators and dissatisfiers as hygiene factors
Practical implication: To improve job attitudes and productivity, administrators
must recognize and attend to both sets of characteristics and not assume that
an increase in satisfaction leads to decrease in un-pleasurable dissatisfaction.

Herzberg often referred to hygiene factors as "KITA" factors, which is an acronym for "kick in
the a_ _", the process of providing incentives or threat of punishment to make someone do
something.
Two-factor theory
Two-factor theory
Two-factor theory
Motivation factors
Company policy & increase job satisfaction
administration
Supervision
Interpersonal Relations
Working conditions Achievement
Salary Achievement recognition
Status Work itself
Security Responsibility
Advancement
Growth

Hygiene factors avoid


job dissatisfaction
(Likewise in case of products)
Two-factor theory
PROBLEMS

It ignores situational variables.

No overall measure of satisfaction


was utilized.

The reliability of Herzberg


methodology was questioned.
Stay Motivated !!
Theories of Personality
Personality:

Personality is defined as a sum total of outer


physiological as well as the inner psychological
characteristics that determine and reflect how a
person reacts to his environment.
The inner
psychological
characteristics that
What is
both determine and
Personality?
reflect how a person
responds to his or her
environment.
The Nature of Personality

Personality reflects individual differences

Personality is consistent and enduring

Personality can change


Theories of Personality

Freudian theory
Unconscious needs or drives are at the heart of human motivation

Neo-Freudian personality theory


Social relationships are fundamental to the formation and
development of personality

Trait theory
Quantitative approach to personality as a set of psychological traits
Father of Psychoanalysis

Sigmund Freud
Freudian Theory
Sigmund Freuds psychoanalytic theory is one of the cornerstones
of modern psychology. He proposed that human personality
consist of 3 interacting systems:
Id
Warehouse of primitive or instinctual needs for which individual seeks
immediate satisfaction.

Ego
Individuals conscious control that balances the demands of the id and
superego.

Superego
Individuals internal expression of societys moral and ethical codes of
conduct.
Personality evolves as a result of our efforts to resolve conflicts between our biological
impulses(id) and social restraints(Superego).
A Representation of the Interrelationships
among the Id, Ego, and Superego
Id, Ego, and Superego in Marketing and Advertising
Id, Ego and Superego combine to create
the complex behavior of human beings
Id: Meeting Basic Needs
Instant gratification for our wants and needs.
-A hungry baby cried until he was fed.
- Michael needed money so he stills money when no one is around

Ego: Dealing with Reality


Meet the desires of the id in a way that is socially acceptable in the world
- Even though Michael needed money, he decided not to steal the money from the
cash register because he didnt want to get in trouble.

Superego: Adding Morals


Based on morals and judgments about right and wrong. Even though the
superego and the ego may reach the same decision about something, the
superegos reason for that decision is more based on moral values, while the
egos decision is based more on what others will think or what the consequences
of an action could be.
- Sarah knew that she could steal the supplies from work and no one would know
about it. However, she knew that stealing was wrong, so she decided not to take
anything even though she would probably never get caught.
Ad
Portraying
the Forces
of the ________?
(Id/Ego/Superego)
Ad
Portraying
the Forces
of the
________?
(Id/Ego/Superego)

Why are we learning Personality ?


Brand Personality
People dont merely buy products. They buy into their
aspirations; or as described in this great article by Fast
Company, they buy better versions of themselves.

Brand personality is a set of human characteristics that are


attributed to a brand name. A brand personality is something to
which the consumer can relate, and an effective brand will
increase its brand equity by having a consistent set of traits.

There are five main types of brand personalities: excitement,


sincerity, ruggedness, competence and sophistication.
BREAKING DOWN 'Brand Personality'

Customers are more likely to purchase a brand if its


personality is similar to their own. Examples of traits for the
different types of brand personalities:

Excitement: carefree, spirited, youthful


Sincerity: genuine, kind, family-oriented, thoughtful
Ruggedness: rough, tough, outdoors, athletic
Competence: successful, accomplished, influential, a leader
Sophistication: elegant, prestigious, pretentious

Ref: http://www.investopedia.com/terms/b/brand-personality.asp
Brand Personality: Examples

Protector Emperor personality: Warren Buffet


Original thinking, vision, artistry and creativity are values
embodied by imaginer brands. These brands help their
customers to create; examples include Lego, YouTube and
Photoshop.
Freudian Theory and
Brand Personality
Consumer researchers using Freuds personality theory see
consumer purchases as a reflection and extension of the
consumers own personality

Personality-like traits associated with brands

Volvo - safety
Nike - the athlete
BMW - performance
Levis 501 - dependable and rugged
Read the
last
Paragraph
(Why we talk
about
psychology so
much ?)
Karen Horney
German psychoanalyst who practiced in the United States during her later
career

Her theories questioned some traditional Freudian views. This


was particularly true of her theories of sexuality and of the
instinct orientation of psychoanalysis.

She disagreed with Freud about inherent differences in the


psychology of men and women, and she traced such
differences to society and culture rather than biology

As such, she is often classified as Neo-Freudian.


Horneys CAD Theory
Using the context of child-parent relationships, individuals can be
classified into:

Compliant individuals
Aggressive individuals
Detached individuals

(Upon investigating the ten neurotic needs, Horney found she was able
to condense them into three broad categories)
One who desires to
Compliant be loved, wanted,
Personality and appreciated by
others.
Compliant Personality
This category is seen as a process of joining, submitting, or
self-effacement. Under Horney's theory children facing
difficulties with parents often use this strategy. Fear of
helplessness and abandonment occursphenomena Horney
refers to as "basic anxiety".

Those within the compliance category tend to exhibit a need


for affection and approval on the part of their peers. They may
also seek out a partner, somebody to confide in, fostering the
belief that, in turn, all of life's problems would be solved by
the new cohort(supporter). A lack of demands and a desire for
inconspicuousness both occur in these individuals.

(Inconspicuousness : The quality of being not easily seen)


One who moves
against others (e.g.,
Aggressive competes with
Personality others, desires to
excel and win
admiration).
Aggressive Personality
Neurotic children or adults within this category often exhibit
anger or basic hostility to those around them.

That is, there is a need for power, a need for control and
exploitation, and a maintenance of a facade of omnipotence.

Neurosis: emotional disorder


One who moves
away from others
(e.g., who desires
Detached
independence, self-
Personality
sufficiency, and
freedom from
obligations).
Detached Personality
Neither aggression nor compliance solve parental indifference,
Horney recognized that children might simply try to become
self-sufficient.

The withdrawing neurotic may disregard others in a non-


aggressive manner, regarding solitude and independence as
the way forth.

The stringent needs for perfection comprise another part of


this category; those withdrawing may strive for perfection
above all else, to the point where being flawed is utterly
unacceptable.
Ad Applying
Horneys
_____?_______
Personality
Use of Personality in Marketing
Practice

Other times,
Sometimes consumers use
consumers choose products to bolster an
products that fit their area of their
personality. personality where they
feel weak.
Use of Personality in Marketing
Practice
Brand image is what people think of and feel when
they hear or see a brand name.

Brand personality is a set of human


characteristics
that become associated with a brand and are a
particular type of image that some brands
acquire.
Ex. Allen Solley brand speaks the personality and
makes the individual who wears it stand apart
from the crowd.
Trait Theory
Personality theory with a focus on psychological characteristics
called Traits.

Trait - any distinguishing, relatively enduring way in which one


individual differs from another.

Personality is linked to how consumers make their choices or to


consumption of a broad product category - not a specific brand
Personality Traits and Consumer
Innovators

Innovativeness Optimum
Dogmatism stimulation level
Social Character Variety-novelty
Need for seeking
uniqueness
The degree to which
consumers are
Consumer receptive to new
Innovativeness products, new
services or new
practices.
A Consumer Innovativeness Scale
1. In general, I am among the last in my circle of friends to buy a new (rock
albuma) when it appearsb.

2. If I heard that a (new rock album) was available in the store, I would be
interested enough to buy it.

3. Compared to my friends, I own few (rock albums).b

4. In general, I am the last in my circle of friends to know the (titles of the


latest rock albums).b

5. I will buy a new (rock album), even if I havent heard it yet.

6. I know the names of (new rock acts) before other people do.
A personality trait that
reflects the degree of
rigidity a person
displays toward the
Dogmatism unfamiliar and toward
information that is
contrary to his or her
own established
beliefs.
Dogmatism
Consumers low in dogmatism (open-minded) are
more likely to prefer innovative products to
established or traditional alternatives.

Highly dogmatic consumers tend to be more


receptive to ads for new products or services that
contain an appeal from an authoritative figure.
Figure- Ad
Encouraging
New Product
Acceptance
Social Character
(How much consumer relies on others in making decision)

Inner-Directed Other-Directed
Consumers who tend Consumers who tend
to rely on their own to look to others for
inner values direction
More likely to be Less likely to be
innovators innovators
Tend to prefer ads Tend to prefer ads
that stress product that feature social
features and benefits acceptance
Ex- Peter England
Social Character(inner or
Outer directed ) ?
Social Character(inner or
Outer directed ) ?

And a vdo(Horlicks).
Consumers who avoid
appearing to
Need for
conform to
Uniqueness expectations or
standards of others.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jR8RQuef4iA
Splendour advertisement(vdo)
A personality trait that
measures the level or
amount of novelty or
complexity that
Optimum individuals seek in their
Stimulation personal experiences.
Levels (OSL) High OSL consumers
tend to accept risky
and novel products
more readily than low
OSL consumers.
A personality trait
characterized by the
need for varied, novel,
Sensation and complex sensations
Seeking and experience, and the
(SS) willingness to take
physical and social risks
for the sake of such
experience.
A personality trait similar to
OSL, which measures a
consumers degree to
Variety- variety seeking
Novelty
Seeking Examples:
Exploratory Purchase
Behavior
Use Innovativeness
Self and Self-Image
Self-image: A persons perceptions of his/her self

People have multiple selves


Different selves in different situations
Different Self-Images

Actual Self-Image Ideal Self-Image

Ideal Social Social Self-Image


Self-Image

Expected
Self-Image
Different Self-Images
Actual Self-Image
How you see your self
Ideal Self-Image
How you would like to see yourself
Social Self-Image
How you think others see you
Ideal Social Self-Image
How you would like others to see you
continued
Different Self-Images- Contd
Expected Self-Image
How you expect to be in the future

Ought-to Self
The qualities that you think you should possess
Possessions Act as Self-
Extensions
By allowing the person to do things that otherwise would be
very difficult
By making a person feel better
By conferring status or rank
By bestowing feelings of immortality
By endowing with magical powers
Altering Self Images
If actual and ideal self-images are different, consumers may
use products to alter their selves

Personality vanity: self interest or admiration for ones own


appearance/achievements
Internet Insight: Virtual Self
Online individuals have an opportunity to try on different
personalities

Virtual personalities may result in different purchase


behaviour
Self Concept and Marketing
Strategy
Use self-concept for segmentation and positioning

Market to consumers actual or ideal self-images


Depends on the nature of the product

Promote products as ways of altering or extending self-image


And weve just finished Ch#2