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2_ Consumer
Motivation and
The way to get started is to
quit talking and begin doing.
-Walt Disney
What is Motivation?
Process which begins with a physiological or psychological need or
deficiency which triggers a behaviour or a desire that is aimed at a goal or
an incentive.
Needs Drives Incentives

All the internal conditions that stir up activity and sustain activity of an

Starts and sustain activities

Motivation is a driving force within individuals that impel them to action.

Force Action
Needs are the essence of the marketing
concept. Marketers do not create needs
but can make consumers aware of needs.

Motivation is the driving force within

individuals that impels them to action.
Every individual has needs.
Some are innate & others are
Types of Needs
Innate Needs
Physiological (or biogenic) needs that are considered primary
needs or motives.

Acquired Needs
Learned in response to our culture or environment. Are
generally psychological and are considered secondary needs.
Is a body spray an
acquired need?

A young Indian man who sued

Hindustan Unilever (HUL) over an
ineffective Axe effect? The report
said that Vaibhav Bedi was
accusing the FMCG giant of
cheating him and causing anguish
since, despite using the
deodorant for seven years, he had
been unable to attract a single
The sought-after results of motivated
Generic goals are general categories
of goals that consumers see as a way
to fulfill their needs.
Product-specific goals are
specifically branded products or
services that consumers select as
their goals
Goals Structure for Weight
What are Motives?
A motive corresponds to a want
or a preference that is sufficiently
strong that it moves us to action
or deliberate inaction.
Rational versus Emotional
Rationality implies that consumers select
goals based on totally objective criteria
such as size, weight, price.
Emotional motives imply the selection of
goals according to personal or subjective
Discussion Question
What products might be purchased
using rational and/or emotional
The Dynamic Nature of
Needs are never fully satisfied.
New needs emerge as old needs are satisfied.
People who achieve their goals set new and
higher goals for themselves.
What happens when you cant achieve the goals?
Substitute Goals
Are used when a consumer cannot attain
a specific goal.. he/she anticipates
substitute goal will satisfy a need.
The substitute goal will dispel tension.
Substitute goals may actually replace the
primary goal over time.
Failure to achieve a goal may result
in frustration.

Some adapt; others adopt defense

mechanisms to protect their ego.
Defense Mechanism
Methods by which people
mentally redefine frustrating
situations to protect their self-
images and their self-esteem
Aggressive : Most of the people who break and burn the
buses/cars and other private vehicles on some hartal (Closure of
shops) day, can not afford buying a car(Costly vehicles).

Rational : If one can not afford going to Switzerland for

vacation recreation, he may go to Kashmir (substitute).

Regression : reacting to frustration with childish or immature

behavior. When somebody cant afford buying a product, he or
she damages the product or misplace it

Withdrawal : frustration may be resolved by simply withdrawing

from the situation. A person who has difficulty achieving officer
status in some organization may simply quit the organization.
PROJECTION : redefining the frustrating situation by projecting
blame for his own failure on other people or object. The driver
who has a car accident may blame the other driver or the
condition of the road, weather, or other things.

IDENTIFICATION : sometime people resolve their feelings of

frustration by subconsciously identifying with other person or
situation they consider relevant. Example: It is not possible to
have time with the stars, so as they are using the soap in the ad,
therefore his/her fan also use it.

REPRESSION : another way of avoiding tension of frustration is

simply to repress the unfulfilled needs. A couple who can not
have children may surround themselves with plants or pets.
What type of
mechanism is this
using in
this ad?
Online buying behaviour
On YouTube, Viewers skip the ad in .seconds !
Motivational Theories

Internal Suggest that variables within the individual

give rise to motivation and behavior

Example: Maslows hierarchy of needs


External Focus on environmental elements to

explain behavior.

Example: Two-factor theory

Abraham Maslow sought to explain why people
are driven by particular needs at particular
times. His answer is that human needs are
arranged in a hierarchy from most to least

People will try to satisfy their most important

needs first. When a person succeeds in satisfying
an important need, he will then try to satisfy the
next important need.
For e.g.

A poor man (need 1) will not take an interest in latest

happening in the art work (need 5), nor in how he is
viewed by others (need 3 or 4), nor even in whether he is
breathing clean air (need 2); but when he has enough
food & water, the next most important need will become
Physiological Needs

Physiological needs are those required to sustain life, such

According to Maslow's theory, if these fundamental needs
are not satisfied then one will surely be motivated to satisfy
them. Higher needs such as social needs and esteem are
not recognized until one satisfies the needs basic to
E.g. Vegetables, any product for growing newborn-
Johnson & Johnson
Safety Needs
Once physiological needs are met, one's attention turns to
safety and security in order to be free from the threat of
physical and emotional harm. Such needs might be fulfilled
Living in a safe area
Medical insurance
Job security
Financial reserves
According to the Maslow hierarchy, if a person feels
threatened, needs further up the pyramid will not receive
attention until that need has been resolved.
e.g. 1BHK Flat for just married couple.
Helmet, Medicines, Basic Mobile- on Kids watch, TOP
security guard for home, PCI Pest control
Social Needs

Once a person has met the lower level physiological and

safety needs, higher level needs awaken. The first level
of higher level needs are social needs. Social needs are
those related to interaction with others and may include:

Belonging to a group
Giving and receiving love

E.g. Archies products, Gadgets with skype, Facebook,

Parker Pen, Magzines, Linkedin
Esteem Needs
Once a person feels a sense of "belonging", the need to feel
important arises. Esteem needs may be classified as
internal or external. Internal esteem needs are those related
to self-esteem such as self respect and achievement.
External esteem needs are those such as social status and
recognition. Some esteem needs are:
E.g. Highly Expensive Products-Rolex, Mercedes, world
tour with cox & kings, Phillips-55 3D TV, living in

Self-actualization is the summit of Maslow's hierarchy of

needs. It is the quest of reaching one's full potential as a
person. Unlike lower level needs, this need is never fully
satisfied; as one grows psychologically there are always
new opportunities to continue to grow.
Self-actualized people tend to have needs such as:

The most obvious example of HoN in action is in advertising
Biological and Physiological needs - wife/child-abuse help-
lines, social security benefits, roadside recovery
Safety needs - home security products (alarms, etc), house
and contents insurance, life assurance, schools
Belongingness and Love needs - dating and match-making
services, chat-lines, clubs and membership societies
Esteem needs - cosmetics, fast cars, home improvements,
furniture, fashion clothes, drinks, lifestyle products and
Self-Actualization needs The need for challenging jobs,
need for highest level of promotion comes, peak experience
through more aware of the truth, justice.
Identify which need the brand
Marlboro tries to satisfy?

Warning: Smoking is injurious to health !

Warning: Smoking is injurious to health !
Two-factor theory
Frederick Herzberg proposed a two-factor model of motivation, based on the
notion that the presence of one set of job characteristics or incentives leads to
worker satisfaction at work, while another and separate set of job
characteristics leads to dissatisfaction at work.

Thus, satisfaction and dissatisfaction are not on a continuum with one

increasing as the other diminishes, but are independent
He called Satisfiers as motivators and dissatisfiers as hygiene factors
Practical implication: To improve job attitudes and productivity, administrators
must recognize and attend to both sets of characteristics and not assume that
an increase in satisfaction leads to decrease in un-pleasurable dissatisfaction.

Herzberg often referred to hygiene factors as "KITA" factors, which is an acronym for "kick in
the a_ _", the process of providing incentives or threat of punishment to make someone do
Two-factor theory
Two-factor theory
Two-factor theory
Motivation factors
Company policy & increase job satisfaction
Interpersonal Relations
Working conditions Achievement
Salary Achievement recognition
Status Work itself
Security Responsibility

Hygiene factors avoid

job dissatisfaction
(Likewise in case of products)
Two-factor theory

It ignores situational variables.

No overall measure of satisfaction

was utilized.

The reliability of Herzberg

methodology was questioned.
Stay Motivated !!
Theories of Personality

Personality is defined as a sum total of outer

physiological as well as the inner psychological
characteristics that determine and reflect how a
person reacts to his environment.
The inner
characteristics that
What is
both determine and
reflect how a person
responds to his or her
The Nature of Personality

Personality reflects individual differences

Personality is consistent and enduring

Personality can change

Theories of Personality

Freudian theory
Unconscious needs or drives are at the heart of human motivation

Neo-Freudian personality theory

Social relationships are fundamental to the formation and
development of personality

Trait theory
Quantitative approach to personality as a set of psychological traits
Father of Psychoanalysis

Sigmund Freud
Freudian Theory
Sigmund Freuds psychoanalytic theory is one of the cornerstones
of modern psychology. He proposed that human personality
consist of 3 interacting systems:
Warehouse of primitive or instinctual needs for which individual seeks
immediate satisfaction.

Individuals conscious control that balances the demands of the id and

Individuals internal expression of societys moral and ethical codes of
Personality evolves as a result of our efforts to resolve conflicts between our biological
impulses(id) and social restraints(Superego).
A Representation of the Interrelationships
among the Id, Ego, and Superego
Id, Ego, and Superego in Marketing and Advertising
Id, Ego and Superego combine to create
the complex behavior of human beings
Id: Meeting Basic Needs
Instant gratification for our wants and needs.
-A hungry baby cried until he was fed.
- Michael needed money so he stills money when no one is around

Ego: Dealing with Reality

Meet the desires of the id in a way that is socially acceptable in the world
- Even though Michael needed money, he decided not to steal the money from the
cash register because he didnt want to get in trouble.

Superego: Adding Morals

Based on morals and judgments about right and wrong. Even though the
superego and the ego may reach the same decision about something, the
superegos reason for that decision is more based on moral values, while the
egos decision is based more on what others will think or what the consequences
of an action could be.
- Sarah knew that she could steal the supplies from work and no one would know
about it. However, she knew that stealing was wrong, so she decided not to take
anything even though she would probably never get caught.
the Forces
of the ________?
the Forces
of the

Why are we learning Personality ?

Brand Personality
People dont merely buy products. They buy into their
aspirations; or as described in this great article by Fast
Company, they buy better versions of themselves.

Brand personality is a set of human characteristics that are

attributed to a brand name. A brand personality is something to
which the consumer can relate, and an effective brand will
increase its brand equity by having a consistent set of traits.

There are five main types of brand personalities: excitement,

sincerity, ruggedness, competence and sophistication.
BREAKING DOWN 'Brand Personality'

Customers are more likely to purchase a brand if its

personality is similar to their own. Examples of traits for the
different types of brand personalities:

Excitement: carefree, spirited, youthful

Sincerity: genuine, kind, family-oriented, thoughtful
Ruggedness: rough, tough, outdoors, athletic
Competence: successful, accomplished, influential, a leader
Sophistication: elegant, prestigious, pretentious

Brand Personality: Examples

Protector Emperor personality: Warren Buffet

Original thinking, vision, artistry and creativity are values
embodied by imaginer brands. These brands help their
customers to create; examples include Lego, YouTube and
Freudian Theory and
Brand Personality
Consumer researchers using Freuds personality theory see
consumer purchases as a reflection and extension of the
consumers own personality

Personality-like traits associated with brands

Volvo - safety
Nike - the athlete
BMW - performance
Levis 501 - dependable and rugged
Read the
(Why we talk
psychology so
much ?)
Karen Horney
German psychoanalyst who practiced in the United States during her later

Her theories questioned some traditional Freudian views. This

was particularly true of her theories of sexuality and of the
instinct orientation of psychoanalysis.

She disagreed with Freud about inherent differences in the

psychology of men and women, and she traced such
differences to society and culture rather than biology

As such, she is often classified as Neo-Freudian.

Horneys CAD Theory
Using the context of child-parent relationships, individuals can be
classified into:

Compliant individuals
Aggressive individuals
Detached individuals

(Upon investigating the ten neurotic needs, Horney found she was able
to condense them into three broad categories)
One who desires to
Compliant be loved, wanted,
Personality and appreciated by
Compliant Personality
This category is seen as a process of joining, submitting, or
self-effacement. Under Horney's theory children facing
difficulties with parents often use this strategy. Fear of
helplessness and abandonment occursphenomena Horney
refers to as "basic anxiety".

Those within the compliance category tend to exhibit a need

for affection and approval on the part of their peers. They may
also seek out a partner, somebody to confide in, fostering the
belief that, in turn, all of life's problems would be solved by
the new cohort(supporter). A lack of demands and a desire for
inconspicuousness both occur in these individuals.

(Inconspicuousness : The quality of being not easily seen)

One who moves
against others (e.g.,
Aggressive competes with
Personality others, desires to
excel and win
Aggressive Personality
Neurotic children or adults within this category often exhibit
anger or basic hostility to those around them.

That is, there is a need for power, a need for control and
exploitation, and a maintenance of a facade of omnipotence.

Neurosis: emotional disorder

One who moves
away from others
(e.g., who desires
independence, self-
sufficiency, and
freedom from
Detached Personality
Neither aggression nor compliance solve parental indifference,
Horney recognized that children might simply try to become

The withdrawing neurotic may disregard others in a non-

aggressive manner, regarding solitude and independence as
the way forth.

The stringent needs for perfection comprise another part of

this category; those withdrawing may strive for perfection
above all else, to the point where being flawed is utterly
Ad Applying
Use of Personality in Marketing

Other times,
Sometimes consumers use
consumers choose products to bolster an
products that fit their area of their
personality. personality where they
feel weak.
Use of Personality in Marketing
Brand image is what people think of and feel when
they hear or see a brand name.

Brand personality is a set of human

that become associated with a brand and are a
particular type of image that some brands
Ex. Allen Solley brand speaks the personality and
makes the individual who wears it stand apart
from the crowd.
Trait Theory
Personality theory with a focus on psychological characteristics
called Traits.

Trait - any distinguishing, relatively enduring way in which one

individual differs from another.

Personality is linked to how consumers make their choices or to

consumption of a broad product category - not a specific brand
Personality Traits and Consumer

Innovativeness Optimum
Dogmatism stimulation level
Social Character Variety-novelty
Need for seeking
The degree to which
consumers are
Consumer receptive to new
Innovativeness products, new
services or new
A Consumer Innovativeness Scale
1. In general, I am among the last in my circle of friends to buy a new (rock
albuma) when it appearsb.

2. If I heard that a (new rock album) was available in the store, I would be
interested enough to buy it.

3. Compared to my friends, I own few (rock albums).b

4. In general, I am the last in my circle of friends to know the (titles of the

latest rock albums).b

5. I will buy a new (rock album), even if I havent heard it yet.

6. I know the names of (new rock acts) before other people do.
A personality trait that
reflects the degree of
rigidity a person
displays toward the
Dogmatism unfamiliar and toward
information that is
contrary to his or her
own established
Consumers low in dogmatism (open-minded) are
more likely to prefer innovative products to
established or traditional alternatives.

Highly dogmatic consumers tend to be more

receptive to ads for new products or services that
contain an appeal from an authoritative figure.
Figure- Ad
New Product
Social Character
(How much consumer relies on others in making decision)

Inner-Directed Other-Directed
Consumers who tend Consumers who tend
to rely on their own to look to others for
inner values direction
More likely to be Less likely to be
innovators innovators
Tend to prefer ads Tend to prefer ads
that stress product that feature social
features and benefits acceptance
Ex- Peter England
Social Character(inner or
Outer directed ) ?
Social Character(inner or
Outer directed ) ?

And a vdo(Horlicks).
Consumers who avoid
appearing to
Need for
conform to
Uniqueness expectations or
standards of others.
Splendour advertisement(vdo)
A personality trait that
measures the level or
amount of novelty or
complexity that
Optimum individuals seek in their
Stimulation personal experiences.
Levels (OSL) High OSL consumers
tend to accept risky
and novel products
more readily than low
OSL consumers.
A personality trait
characterized by the
need for varied, novel,
Sensation and complex sensations
Seeking and experience, and the
(SS) willingness to take
physical and social risks
for the sake of such
A personality trait similar to
OSL, which measures a
consumers degree to
Variety- variety seeking
Seeking Examples:
Exploratory Purchase
Use Innovativeness
Self and Self-Image
Self-image: A persons perceptions of his/her self

People have multiple selves

Different selves in different situations
Different Self-Images

Actual Self-Image Ideal Self-Image

Ideal Social Social Self-Image


Different Self-Images
Actual Self-Image
How you see your self
Ideal Self-Image
How you would like to see yourself
Social Self-Image
How you think others see you
Ideal Social Self-Image
How you would like others to see you
Different Self-Images- Contd
Expected Self-Image
How you expect to be in the future

Ought-to Self
The qualities that you think you should possess
Possessions Act as Self-
By allowing the person to do things that otherwise would be
very difficult
By making a person feel better
By conferring status or rank
By bestowing feelings of immortality
By endowing with magical powers
Altering Self Images
If actual and ideal self-images are different, consumers may
use products to alter their selves

Personality vanity: self interest or admiration for ones own

Internet Insight: Virtual Self
Online individuals have an opportunity to try on different

Virtual personalities may result in different purchase

Self Concept and Marketing
Use self-concept for segmentation and positioning

Market to consumers actual or ideal self-images

Depends on the nature of the product

Promote products as ways of altering or extending self-image

And weve just finished Ch#2