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Biodiversity is

Short for
Biological

Diversity
The presence of
air and water
makes life
possible on
the earth.
How do we Define Biodiversity?
Biodiversity includes all organisms, species, and
populations; the genetic variation among these;
and all their complex assemblages of communities
and ecosystems.

It also refers to the inter-relatedness of


genes, species, & ecosystems
and
their interactions with the environment.
Ecosystem diversity
Forests
This refers to
the variety
of habitats
which Deserts
includes
climate,
vegetation
and
geography
of a region. Wetlands
Oceanic
NATURAL CAUSES
FOR LOSS OF BIODIVERSITY
Floods
Earthquakes
Landslides
Natural competition between species
Lack of pollination
Diseases
Meteorite strike
MAN-MADE CAUSES
FOR LOSS OF BIODIVERSITY

Destruction of Habitat
Pollution
Hunting
Indiscriminate use of Toxic chemicals
Genetic Erosion
Threats to Biodiversity 1

Habitat loss and destruction : Deforestation


Usually as a direct result of
human activity and population
growth, is a major force in the
loss of species, populations, and
ecosystems.
Industrialisation
Urbanisation
Threats to Biodiversity
Alterations in ecosystem composition

such as the loss or decline of a


species, can lead to a loss of
biodiversity.
Elimination of coyotes in the
canyons of southern California are
linked to decreases in song bird
populations.
Threats to Biodiversity

The over-exploitation
(over-hunting,
over-fishing, or
over-collecting)
of a species or
population can
lead to its demise.
Threats to Biodiversity
Trade in wild life
Timber -
100,000
Billion $ Fisheries - 50,000
Billion $ Mammal Furs - 750
Million $ Ornamental Plants-
250 Mil. $ Edible snails -
460 Million $

Illegal
Trade
Threats to Biodiversity 7

Global Warming induced


Climate change can
alter environmental
conditions. Species and
populations may be lost
if they are unable to
adapt to new conditions
or relocate.
Medicine
Ecosystem Services
Biotechnology
Environmental Monitoring
Food & Crop Security
Recreation & Aesthetics
Pets & Domestic animals
Political & Social issues
Ecosystem Security & Resilience
Rate of Extinction of Species
90 vertebrate species have become extinct in
every century.
1 species of higher plants has become extinct
in every 27 years.
75% of birds & mammals have become
extinct in recent years were island dwelling
species.
It is estimated that th worlds biodiversity
is under risk of extinction in next 20-30
years.
In last 40 yrs, 120 species of mammals & 225
of birds have become extinct in the world.
BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION
After studying the need for biodiversity and
the loss of biodiversity it becomes
evident that ultimately the survival of the
Human race itself is threatened.
Therefore the conservation of biological
diversity is of paramount importance to the
survival of man and only he can initiate and
sustain a strategy for the same.
Biodiversity conservation Treaties
Ramsar Convention, 1971 [Wetlands] -146 countries
World Heritage Convention (WHC), 1972
[Cultural & Natural Heritage] -180 countries
Convention on international Trade in
endangered species of Wild flora & Fauna
(CITES), 1973 [endangered species ] -166
countries
Convention on conservation of Migratory
species of wild animals (CCMS), 1979 & 2005
[Migratory species ] -90 countries
Convention on Law of the Seas (UNCLOS),1971
BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION
Ex- situ conservation- conserving
biodiversity outside the areas where they
naturally occur is known as ex-situ
conservation. Here animals and plants are
reared or cultivated in areas like Zoological or
Botanical parks.

In-situ conservation- conserving the animals


and plants in their natural habitats is known as
in-situ conservation. E.g. Sanctuaries,
national parks, reserved forests, biosphere
reserves etc.
Projects to save Threatened species

Project Tiger- initiated in 1973 with 9 tiger reserves


Crocodile Breeding Proj-started in 1975 with UNDP
Lesser Cats Project launched in 1976 with WWF
Manipur Brow-antlered deer Proj- launched in 1981
Project Elephant- launched in 1991
Project Rhino- launched in 1987 in Kaziranga.
Himalayan musk deer project- launched in 1981
Project Hangul - launched in 1970 in Kashmir valley
Conservation
Protecting the environment is everyones responsibility.
There is an increased awareness among the people
towards conservation of ecology.

Greenpeace movement has resulted in ban on whaling.


Chipko movement by Sunderlal Bahuguna and later by
Chandiprasad Bhatt stopped felling trees in parts of
Himalayas.

In our own small way each of us can contribute to


conserving biodiversity in one form or other.
Conservation Every body's Concern
Peoples movement
Some of the activities in environment conservation include :
Holding rallies for mass awareness on deforestation, construction
of Dams or factories in sensitive areas.
Spreading awareness through mass media like TV radio and
publications.
Creating awareness through environmental training programme,
folk art media like street plays etc.
Introducing Environmental legislation to tackle the sensitive
environmental issues.
Mass movement like Chipko, Appiko,Beej Bachao Andolan
etc.
What can we do to save biodiversity ?
Reject products made of animal parts like skin, fur,
ivory, bones, nails etc.
Adopt vegetarianism to reduce animal slaughtering
and more plants to be grown for food.
Plant trees wherever possible as they are beneficial.
Avoid insecticides, pesticides & chemical fertilizers.
Recycle the waste like paper, glass and plastic.
Follow environment friendly agricultural practices.
Make use of sustainable technologies [improved
chulhas, wind energy, solar power, ground water recharging
When will We Realize?
Till when last river is polluted
Till when last lake is dried-up
Till when last game is hunted down
Till when last tree is chopped off
We will not realize that
The money cant be eaten
What do we leave for our children?