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² Intro ² Market «Applications «Requirements ² Standardization ² Technical «Specification «Software stack «Integration
For NEC Internal Use Only
A very low cost, low power consumption two-way, wireless communications standard for automation, toys, & PC peripherals
For NEC Internal Use Only
For NEC Internal Use Only
control and entertainment devices requiring the lowest cost and lowest power consumption communications between compliant devices anywhere in and around the home. For NEC Internal Use Only .ZigBee Mission: To bring about the existence of a broad range of interoperable consumer devices by establishing open industry specifications for unlicensed. untethered peripheral.
The Need for ZigBee s Low Power consumption ² 6 months to 5 years battery life for most applications s Low Cost ² At least half the cost of Bluetooth solutions s High density of nodes per network ² 250 nodes per network. interoperability issues ² Pent up demand due to lack of standard For NEC Internal Use Only . Global Implementation ² 2.4GHz s Standard in a fragmented market ² Many proprietary solutions. multiple co-located networks s Data rate requirements ² Few bits to 250kbps sufficient s Simple protocol.
control and entertainment devicesLowest cost and lowest power consumption s Anywhere in and around the home For NEC Internal Use Only .Objective of ZigBee s Interoperable consumer devices s Open industry specification s Peripheral.
Nintendo.Traget Market: s A multimedia PC with interactive gaming options or a 32" television equipped with Home Theatre features. such as. These residents potentially have the need for advanced HID and toy solutions that could enhance their living or entertainment experiences. Internet access (e. Sony). Sega.g. s The Small Office/Home Office (SOHO) market may also find use for ZigBee products for controlling multimedia presentations. WebTV) or a video gaming console (e. conference rooms. TomoguchisExisting homes with installed security. home automation or HVAC systems.g. training rooms and automation or control functions. For NEC Internal Use Only . s Low cost solutions for interconnectivity between toys. and new homes with plans for these systems.
Must have features: s Saftey meets Government regulations: ² As safe as coordless phone s Unlicensed Band s Low Cost BOM s Reliability ² Throughput degrades gracefully s Ease of Use… s Ability to add/remove new devices ² Register once…authenticate each time s Global market s Minimum battery life 6months/2 years For NEC Internal Use Only .
Phone Fax. PC Printer Scanner.. Environmental Security Medical Domestic app… SATELLITE TERRESTRIAL AV Net MODEM CABLE OWN CONTENT PC Net xDSL PHONE Tel Net H.Network Clusters will grow in the Home Pre 2001 Model TV VCR Audio System STB Camcorder...Auto Net For NEC Internal Use Only ....
Auto Net Security Medical Domestic app… For NEC Internal Use Only GATEWAY Productivity .. Phone Fax Environmental H...Network Clusters will Interconnect/inter-operate in Home and Away 2001 Model and beyond TV VCR Audio System STB Camcorder.. SATELLITE TERRESTRIAL Entertainment CABLE xDSL PHONE BB Wireless PC Printer Scanner.
<300kps. <100kbps <2Mbps >22Mbps <300kbps <22Mbps <300kps.00 <22Mbps. Instat and BMA Communications $ 250 200 150 100 50 0 19 98 19 99 20 00 20 01 20 02 20 03 20 04 New technologies will lead to a sharp demand decrease in cost for the different applications Sharp demand decrease leads on the other hand to step increase in customer demand For 2000/1. BOM < $8-18 >22Mbps. BOM < $6.BOM/Node Price Development based on Dataquest. BOM < $60-70 For 2003/4. BOM < $2. BOM < $20-35 For NEC Internal Use Only . BOM < $20-30 >22Mbps.50 <22Mbps.
Market Size – Low Data Rate (No BT) Low Data Rate Market 600 500 Million units 400 300 200 100 0 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 Others Industrial Applications Home Environment Years Source: ABI. Dataquest. Internal For NEC Internal Use Only .
2004 Segment Market Share 2002 0% 48% 52% Home Industrial Others •Industrial Applications will drive initial market •Home Environment will become Important • Over time.Market Segmentation 2000 . there will be varied Applications (Other) Segment Market Share 2005 18% 13% Home Industrial 69% Others For NEC Internal Use Only .
Wireless connectivity outlook: For NEC Internal Use Only .
000 Bandwidth kbps 100.000 For NEC Internal Use Only .11b 802.11g ZigBee Bluetooth PAN technologies 10 10 100 1.000 Ricochet 1.000 10.Wireless Connectivity Industry Outlook Cellular technologies Range Meters GSM GPRS 10.000 WLAN technologies HomeRF 100 OpenAir 802.
11b 100 Hiper LAN/1 Bluetooth Bandwidth kbps ZigBee 10 10 100 1.000 100.000 10.Wireless Connectivity Industry Outlook Range Meters GSM GPRS EDGE 10.000 Ricochet 1.000 For NEC Internal Use Only .000 OpenAir HomeRF 802.
0 Bluetooth Hiper LAN/2 10 10 100 1.Wireless Connectivity Industry Outlook Range Meters GSM GPRS EDGE 3G 10.000 For NEC Internal Use Only .000 Ricochet 1.000 HomeRF 802.000 Bandwidth kbps 100.11a 100 ZigBee OpenAir Bluetooth 2.000 10.
11a products on 802.11g the market standard ratified BT 2.11b standard ratified First 802.Industry Outlook RF-Lite (ZigBee) SIG created ZigBee ratified (802.0 initial specs released 1st BT devices on market.4) ZigBee Products on the market 802.11a standard ratified 2002/03 BT special interest group becomes public.1 standard rolled out HiperLAN 2 standard ratified in 2000 HiperLAN 2 will premier HiperLAN 1 products on the market HiperLAN 1 ratified in 1996 1999 2000 2001 For NEC Internal Use Only 2002 2003 . BT 1. and BT 1.0 standard rolled out 802.15.
² HID devices s Video conference equipment ² Remote control s Video gaming equipment ² Multi-player PC & video games ² Playing a PC DVD game in front of a TV monitor s Remote controls for audio and video equipment s PC Enhanced & stand alone toys ² In-room coverage ² Home+yard coverage For NEC Internal Use Only .Target Applications 1 s Desktop PCs and Home Entertainment Systems (Home Theatre TV) ² Computer peripherals.
and keyboards with built-in displays For NEC Internal Use Only . « Blinds/Shades « Pool/Spa equipment « Garage door openers ² Voice Control ² ² ² ² ² s New device categories that have not yet been developed. system control Wireless Keypads Smoke and flame detectors Lighting and remote control of appliances in the home.Target Applications 2 s Home appliances/general consumer electronic devices Existing home security systems. electrical & heating systems Wireless door and opening monitoring. such as news tablets.
Child Monitor. Fire Pull stations. Multi-player PC & video games Playing a PC DVD game in front of a TV monitor Remote controls for audio and video equipment Glass breakage monitoring (sensors). Fireplaces Pool/Spa equipment Garage door openers For NEC Internal Use Only . Smoke and flame detectors. Wireless Keypads.Device Examples: s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s HID devices Video gaming equipment. Lighting and remote control of appliances in the home. Personal transponders.
Target Market summary: · · · · · Monitors Sensors Automation Control · · · · TV VCR DVD CD Remote Industrial & Commercial Consumer Electronics PC Peripherals Personal Healthcare • Monitors • Diagnostics • Sensors Low Data Rate Radio Devices · · · · Mouse Keyboard Joystick Gamepad Toys & Games • PETs • Gameboys • Educational Home Automation • Security • HVAC • Lighting • Closures For NEC Internal Use Only .
Market Requirements s Global licence free ISM band operation s Unrestricted geographic use s RF penetration through walls & ceilings s Automatic/semi-automatic installation s Ability to add or remove devices s Possible voice support For NEC Internal Use Only .
5-$2. cont..Market Requirements.2kbps data throughput 10-75m coverage range (home/garden) Support for 32-255 nodes Support for 4 critical devices 4-100 co-located networks 0.5 in 2003! For NEC Internal Use Only .5-2 year battery life Up to 5ms-1 permitted mobility Module cost: $1.. s s s s s s s s 10k-115.
Applications: s Human Input Devices (HID) ² Keyboard ² Mouse / Pointing Device ² Remote Controls (controls for audio & video equipment) ² Gaming Device For NEC Internal Use Only .
Applications: s Home Automation and Control ² Automation Devices ² Control Devices s Home Security s Interactive Toys For NEC Internal Use Only .
Success Factors s s s s s s s s s s Low cost Data type support Ease of installation Reliable data transfer Short range operation Reasonable battery life Unlicensed band Unrestricted geographical use Global implementation Governmental regulations For NEC Internal Use Only .
STANDARDIZATION For NEC Internal Use Only .
July 2000 s Initial specification.History s Low-rate solution for HomeRF.15. March 2001 s Proposal accepted by IEEE. July 2001 For NEC Internal Use Only .4. September 2000 s Proposal to IEEE 802. v0. October 1998 s Initial RSI/TRD. October 1999 s Proposals submitted.2. January 1998 s Initial MRD.
temperature control. etc. toys. home security. For NEC Internal Use Only .00) consumer market ²Replaces wired solutions that require low data rates ²Replaces IrDA links with a low cost wireless network ²Simple MAC protocol: master-slave or virtual point-topoint applications.HomeRF-Lite -> Firefly -> RF-Lite -> ZigBee sDescription ²Low data rate (<250kbps). reduces system compexity ²Applications: peripherals to PC. very low cost (BOM<$6.
Some Participants (22 Companies in total) For NEC Internal Use Only .
Technical: For NEC Internal Use Only .
Protocol Features s Master/slave topology s Automatic network configuration s Dynamic slave device addressing s Virtual peer-to-peer links (pairing) s Full handshaking for packet transfers s Power management features s Up to 254 (+ master) network nodes For NEC Internal Use Only .
.Protocol Features Cont. s CSMA-CA channel access mechanism s 28kbps (Optional) & 200kbps (actual) data throughput s Service discovery s Low impact internet capability For NEC Internal Use Only ..
ZigBee Protocol Stack Customer Application Application Interface Network Layer Data Link Layer MAC Layer MAC Layer PHY Layer Silicon ZigBee Stack Application ZigBee Alliance IEEE For NEC Internal Use Only .
i gn kr o w e N i t Service Discovery Protocol RFCOMM (Serial Port) HOST L2CAP Host Control Interface Link Manager Link Controller Baseband RF Silicon Bluetooth Stack Applications MODULE For NEC Internal Use Only .Bluetooth Protocol Stack User Interface t es dae H ss e d o C l r l aC v d aC r v e oN t v ll a C puo G r m cr e n o t I egass e M v Fax ec o V i Telephony Control Protocol OBEX pul a D .
Direct Sequence s Spread spectrum regulations allow higher transmit power ² Longer range ² Transmit power: -4 .11 For NEC Internal Use Only .+20dBm s Direct sequence ² Faster acquisition than frequency hopping ² Complexity in digital domain (cheaper) s Spread using length 11 bit Barker sequence ² Optimal autocorrelation properties ² Short sequence gives fast acquisition ² Used in IEEE802.
Raw Bit Rates s 250kbps s 28kbps low bit rate option : ² Trade data rate for extra range via coding ² Over air bit rate remains 200kbps ² Longer preamble and SOP «reliable synchronisation at low SNR For NEC Internal Use Only .
Range Estimation 0dBm 10dBm 20dBm 250kbps 28kbps 13 23 29 54 Approx. x2 Using Firefly TRD/RSI propagation model For NEC Internal Use Only 66 134 .
Network Topology Network coordinator Network node IEEE node Communications flow Virtual links For NEC Internal Use Only .
Other Network Forms Ad-hoc network Network coordinator Network node Gateway Communications flow Gateway enabled network For NEC Internal Use Only .
Supported Traffic Types s Periodic data ² Application defined rate s Intermittent ² Basic communication s Repetitive low latency data ² Allocation of guaranteed time slots For NEC Internal Use Only .
The Network Coordinator s Transmits network beacons s Sets up a network s Manages network nodes s Stores network node information s Routes messages between paired nodes s Receives constantly For NEC Internal Use Only .
The Network Node s Is generally battery powered s Searches for available networks s Transfers data from its application as necessary s Determines whether data is pending s Requests data from the network coordinator s Can sleep for extended periods For NEC Internal Use Only .
e.Stack System Requirements s 8-bit µ C.g. 80c51 s Full protocol stack <32k s Simple node only stack ~4k s Coordinators require extra RAM ² node device database ² transaction table ² pairing table For NEC Internal Use Only .
4GHz Receive Data PA Single Chip DSSS Radio + Modem Micro + MAC+ RAM/ROM Transmit Data Baseband Radio For NEC Internal Use Only .ZigBee Chip Set Solution Low Data Rate. DSSS @ 2.
4GHz ISM band s DSSS 2. VCO. VCO.8V) s Output power –4 to +20dBm (0dBm typical) s Digitally controlled RX gain control for DSSS s No off-chip components (LNA. Pre PA.Feature Set RF Front-End IC s Single chip direct conversion transceiver for ZigBee applications in the 2. synthesizer. VCC=1. preamplifier s 3-wire control bus interface s Direct conversion architecture from 2. LNA. PLL.45 GHz RF directly base band s Battery powered design (min.2Mchips/sec s Integrated antenna filter. Synthesizer) For NEC Internal Use Only .
ZigBee Base Band & MAC s Single chip Modem and MAC s 80C51 (or equivalent) 8-bit low power micro controller core s Interfaces: ² Full duplex UART for communication with host processor or other devices ² 2 3 wire buses for host and RF Front-end communication ² Master/slave I2C ² 2 analog inputs s Minimum external components for low BOM s CMOS 0.18 or other low cost similar capablity process For NEC Internal Use Only .
Low Data Rate Roadmap One Chip Radio+BB Single Chip Solutions Low Cost One Chip Radio+BB Slave Device One Chip Radio+ BB RF CMOS Two Chip Solutions Single Chip DSSS Radio + Modem BB Slave Device Cost reduced Microprocessor+ Housekeeping+MAC Base Band Slave Device 2002 2003 For NEC Internal Use Only 2004 2005 .
s s s s s s s Master/slave topology Automatic network configuration Dynamic slave device addressing Virtual peer-to-peer links (pairing) Full handshaking for packet transfers Power management features Up to 254 (+ master) network nodes
For NEC Internal Use Only
Protocol Features Cont...
s s s s s s CSMA-CA channel access mechanism 15ms frame structure TDMA slots can be allocated 28kbps & 250kbps data throughput Service discovery Low impact internet capability
For NEC Internal Use Only
s 2.4GHz ISM band
² Channel spacing: 4MHz ² F = 2404 + 4k MHz with k = 0, 1, …, 25 ² Common band: « USA, Europe including France and Spain « 2446.5 – 2475.0 MHZ « k = 15, …, 22; equals 8 channels
s 915MHz ISM band USA only s 868MHz Europe
Common * Harmonization with FCC in progress
For NEC Internal Use Only
Raw Bit Rates s 250kbps s 28kbps low bit rate option: ² Trade data rate for extra range via coding ² Over air bit rate remains 250kbps ² Longer preamble and SOP «reliable synchronisation at low SNR For NEC Internal Use Only .
Range Estimation (meters) 0dBm 250kbps 28kbps 13 23 10dBm 29 54 20dBm 66 134 Approx. x2 Using Firefly TRD/RSI propagation model For NEC Internal Use Only .
2 years on 2 AA batteries.) s Network Solution For NEC Internal Use Only .Summary Solution that effectively addresses the needs of the target market place with: s Low data rate (<250Kbps) s Low cost (~ BT/2) s Very low power (6 months .
ZigBee vs. Bluetooth For NEC Internal Use Only .
Bluetooth Network Topology Pico-net • 1 master: • 7 active slaves • 200+ parked slaves • Each network has a unique hopping pattern / ID A M P P P M A P A P A s Radio Design ² All radios are symmetric (can be master or slave) Scatternet • Multiple pico-nets co-located • Device can be on multiple pico-nets (Performance tradeoff) For NEC Internal Use Only .
Networking ZigBee: • Large master-slave networks. with fast access • Slave .initiated communication. (minimises slave energy requirements) • Virtual peer-peer device pairing links Bluetooth: • Dynamic ad-hoc transient Pico-nets • Dynamic master role negotiation • Extensive profiles to ensure compatibility • Active / Park modes For NEC Internal Use Only .
pictures… • File transfer For NEC Internal Use Only .Typical Applications ZigBee: • Static networks between low cost devices • Sensors • Automation and control • Data exchange Bluetooth: • Ad-hoc networks between capable devices • Handsfree audio • Screen graphics.
reply channel access • Very low latency frame structure (<1ms) For NEC Internal Use Only .Control Applications Bluetooth .Audio ZigBee: • Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum • 250kb/s • Optimised for short packets • CSMA channel access • TDMA slots can be allocated for critical devices Bluetooth: • Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum(1600 hop/s) • 720kb/s (for voice. audio and bulk data) • Poll .Air Interface ZigBee .
Power Considerations ZigBee: • 2+ years from ‘normal’ batteries • Designed to optimise slave power requirements Bluetooth: • Power model as a mobile phone (regular charging) • Designed to maximise ad-hoc functionality For NEC Internal Use Only .
Timing Considerations ZigBee: • New slave enumeration = 30ms typically • Sleeping slave changing to active = 15ms typically • Active slave channel access time = 15ms typically Bluetooth: • New slave enumeration = >3s • Sleeping slave changing to active = 3s typically • Active slave channel access time = 2ms typically For NEC Internal Use Only .
Error / Security Considerations ZigBee: • Error detection / re-transmissions • Fully handshaked protocol • Application level security Bluetooth: • Forward error correction • 0. 40 & 64-bit encryption For NEC Internal Use Only .
no host platform • System design for eventual single-chip antenna-to-application realisation Bluetooth: • Low added cost connectivity • Take advantage of host processor power (ARM7…) • 802.f.Cost Standpoint ZigBee: • Minimum slave cost • Minimum software and processing (80C51). specifications For NEC Internal Use Only .11 functionality but with simplified r.
Solution Prices Two different solutions optimised for different applications….$25 • Price 2003 .$1..$6 • Price 2003 .$5 For NEC Internal Use Only .5-2..5 Bluetooth: • Price Now . ZigBee: • Price 2002 .