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survey design

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higher-quality and more cost-effective seismic surveys,

greater emphasis is being placed on the design process

information that is expected to be retrieved and the cost of

data acquisition and processing.

alter the limitations placed on survey designers.

Ex : increasing numbers of channels

Survey Design

objectives in a cost-effective manner, within the

given time schedule.

Factors controlling survey design

(cannot be constrained by people)

2. Shallowest depth of interest

3. Dip

4. Noise

5. Dominant frequency

Geophysical Problem

Redefining geological problem that can be related to

field measurements

Structure

Bed thickness

Target depth

Lithology

Max dip to be resolved

Target depth

Max

Vertical resolution

dip to be resolved

Vertical

Horizontal resolution

resolution

Horizontal resolution

Resolution

trap on our seismic section, the

dimensions (width and thickness) of

the trap must exceed the limitations of

both the reflection method and the

acquisition and processing parameters

we are using.

Resolution (continued)

Lateral Resolution

Fresnel Zone - the portion of a reflector

from which reflected energy can reach

a detector within one-half wavelength

of the first reflected energy.

Each reflection is a summation of

responses within a circular area with

the centre of the circle being the

"understood" point reflector.

Resolution (continued)

Mathematically, we can

approximate the radius, r,

of the Fresnel zone as

VRMS T0

RF

2 f dom

where

VRMS= the rms velocity to

the reflecting surface,

T0 = the two-way

traveltime, and

f dom= the dominant

frequency of the seismic

signal

Resolution (cont.)

Vertical Resolution :

It is a function of the thickness of the

subject layer, the frequency of the source

wavelet as it propagates through the layer,

and the velocity of the layer

V

Rz

4 f max cos i

Shooting Direction :

direction.

economical

area, unsuitable terrain, shallow water,

currents

Basic Parameters for 2D Seismic

Survey

Source Parameters :

Source Effort

Source Type

Source Interval

Receiver Parameters :

Number of Channels

Number of Receivers per Station

Receiver Interval

Data Parameters :

Nominal Fold

CMP Interval

Min Offset

Max Offset

Basic Parameters For 3D Seismic

Survey

Patch:

Source Parameters :

Source Point Interval

Source Line Interval

Source Points per Swath

Source Density per sq. km

Source Line Direction

Receiver Parameters :

Number of Channels

Receiver Line

Receiver Interval

Receiver Line Interval

Receiver Density per sq. km

Basic Parameters For 3D Seismic Survey

(continued)

Patch:

Other Parameters :

Patch Length

Patch Width

Inline Fold Taper

Cross Line Fold Taper

Roll inline

Roll Cross-line

Source Line Bearing (azimuth)

Receiver Line Bearing (azimuth)

Basic Parameters For 3D Seismic Survey

(continued)

Geophysical Attributes :

Bin Size

Inline Fold

Cross-line Fold

Nominal Fold

Minimum Offset

Largest Minimum Offset

Inline Maximum Offset

Cross-line Maximum Offset

Maximum Offset

Introduction

Terminology

crossline: direction orthogonal receiver lines

CMP bin: a small rectangle all the traces of which

are stacked and contribute to fold

box (unit cell): area bounded by two adjacent

receiver lines and two adjacent source lines

patch (template): area of all live receivers

recording from the same source

swath: length over which sources are recorded

without crossline roll

Introduction

Introduction

Introduction

SI

RI

Controlling Factors

(cannot be constrained by people)

2. Shallowest depth of interest

3. Dip

4. Noise constrained by equipment

5. Dominant frequency

Survey Parameters

Parameters of 3-D survey design

(can be constrained by people)

2. Fold

3. Fold taper

4. Xmin

5. Xmax

6. Bin size

7. Record length

Survey Parameters (cont.)

Migration aperture (apron) is affected by:

1. Fresnel zone:

- defined as the portion of a reflector from which

reflected energy can reach a detector within one-half

wavelength from the first reflected energy.

- Radius of first Fresnel zone:

Vrms T0

RF

2 f dom

T0: zero-offset TWTT to reflector

fd: dominant frequency at reflector

Survey Parameters (cont.)

Migration aperture (apron)

Survey Parameters (cont.)

Migration aperture (cont.):

1. Fresnel zone (cont.):

Survey Parameters (cont.)

Migration aperture (cont.):

2. Diffracted energy:

- Scattering angles of 300 contain 95% of

the diffracted energy. Therefore,

migration aperture should be XDE:

Z: target depth

Survey Parameters (cont.)

Migration aperture (cont.):

2. Diffracted energy (cont.):

300 scattering

angle

Survey Parameters (cont.)

Migration aperture (cont.):

3. Migration lateral displacement:

- Migrating a point on a dipping reflector

moves the point in the updip direction a lateral

distance DX:

DX Z tan

Z: target depth

: reflector true dip

Rule: choose the migration aperture as the

largest of RF, XDE, and DX.

Survey Parameters (cont.)

Fold:

It is the number of traces in a CMP bin.

Stacking M traces enhances the S/N by an amount of M1/2.

Inline fold :

NumberOf Re ceivers*RI

2*SLI

InlinePatchDimension

2*SLI

X-line fold :

SourceLine Length CrosslineP atchDimension

2 * Re ceiverLineInterval 2 * RLI

2 * RLI 2

Survey Parameters (cont.)

Fold

Total Fold :

Survey Parameters (cont.)

Fold:

Inline fold (FI) = (NSL - 1) / 2.

Crossline fold (FX) = (NRL 1) / 2.

Total fold (F) = FI * FX = (NSL -1) * (NRL 1) /

4.

NSL: number of source lines in the patch

NRL: number of receiver lines in the patch

greater than half the nominal 2-D fold.

Survey Parameters (cont.)

Fold taper:

It is the area around the edges of the full-fold

area where the fold builds-up from minimum to

full-fold.

InlinePatchSize SLI

Inline fold taper (FTI)

4 2

4 2

of patch dimension.

Survey Parameters (cont.)

Fold taper (cont.):

- Relation between migration aperture and fold

taper

Survey Parameters (cont.)

Fold taper (cont.):

- Relation among areas covered by

acquisition, processing, and interpretation

Survey Parameters (cont.)

Xmin:

- The largest minimum offset in a survey.

- It is the minimum offset that belongs to the

CMP bin at the exact center of a box.

- In an orthogonal survey:

X min ( RLI SLI )

2 2

of the shallowest depth of interest.

Survey Parameters (cont.)

Xmin (cont.):

RLI

SI

SLI RI

Survey Parameters (cont.)

Xmax:

- The maximum recorded offset in a

survey.

- It is the length of the diagonal of

the patch in an orthogonal survey:

Survey Parameters (cont.)

Xmax (cont.):

Xmax

Survey Parameters (cont.)

Xmax (cont.): It is affected by:

1. Target depth:

Choose Xmax target depth.

2. Direct-wave interference:

Given sufficiently large offset, the direct wave

will interfere with the primary reflection from

the target reflector at an offset Xd given by:

VRMSV1[TmVRMS T V T (V

2 2 2 2

V ) ]

2

Xd m 1 0 RMS 1

VRMS V1

2 2

Survey Parameters (cont.)

Xmax (cont.):

2. Direct-wave interference (cont):

VRMS: RMS velocity to target

reflector

V1: velocity of near-surface layer

Tm: mute time (~ 0.2 s)

T0: zero-offset TWTT to target

reflector

Survey Parameters (cont.)

Xmax (cont.):

3. Head-wave interference:

The head wave will interfere with the primary

reflection from the target reflector at an offset

Xh given by:

V )]

2

Xh m 2 0 RMS 2

VRMS V2

2 2

Choose Xmax < Xh.

Survey Parameters (cont.)

Xmax (cont.):

Survey Parameters (cont.)

Xmax (cont.):

4. Deep-horizon head waves:

A deep horizon will have its head wave at an offset

Xhd:

2

T0VRMS

X hd

V 2 VRMS

2

VRMS: RMS velocity to top of deep horizon

T0: zero-offset TWTT to top of deep horizon

We would like to include as much of the reflections of

the deep horizons as possible. Therefore, choose Xmax

>X .

Survey Parameters (cont.)

Xmax (cont.):

5. Maximum allowable NMO stretch:

The stretch introduced by the NMO correction

is given by: 2

X

S NMO ( X ) 2 2

2T0 VRMS

X mute T0VRMS 2 S NMO

Traces with offsets > Xmute at the target horizon

will be muted.

Choose Xmax < Xmute.

Survey Parameters (cont.)

Xmax (cont.):

6. Head-wave from a deep LVL:

If a deep LVL (low-velocity layer) exists, then its

critical offset XLVL must be taken into account such

that: Xmax > XLVL.

7. NMO discrimination:

To discriminate NMO effects, we need an offset XNMO:

2

Xmax > XNMO.

Survey Parameters (cont.)

Xmax (cont.):

8. Multiple cancellation:

In order to cancel multiples, we need an offset

Xmult:

d

2

Tmult: zero-offset TWTT of multiple

Choose Xmax > Xmult.

Survey Parameters (cont.)

Xmax (cont.):

9. AVO effects:

If AVO (amplitude variation with offset)

analysis is expected, larger offsets should be

used.

For a maximum incidence angle of 300, the

offset required for AVO analysis XAVO is given

by:

VRMST0

X AVO Target depth

3

Choose Xmax > XAVO.

Survey Parameters (cont.)

Xmax (cont.):

10.Dip effects

Offset is larger in the downdip direction for a

dipping layer.

Choose Xmax large enough to allow true dip

measurement.

Offset increase due to dip

S Rh Rd

CMP

Survey Parameters (cont.)

Xmax (cont.):

criteria.

Survey Parameters (cont.)

Bin size (B):

Its dimensions are: SI/2 * RI/2.

The most preferable bin shape is square.

The S/N ratio is proportional to bin size.

Survey Parameters (cont.)

Bin size (B):

Survey Parameters (cont.)

Bin size (cont.): It is affected by:

1. Target size:

Normally, three traces are needed across a target in order to

define it on the seismic section.

Choose: Bt target size / 3.

Survey Parameters (cont.)

Bin size (cont.):

2. Maximum unaliased frequency:

For a dipping target, the optimum bin size is given by:

Vi

Bf

4 f max sin

Vi: interval velocity at target depth

fmax: maximum frequency at target depth

: target dip

Choose: B Bf.

Survey Parameters (cont.)

Bin size (cont.):

3. Lateral resolution:

Choose: min / 4 Br min / 2

min: minimum wavelength at target depth

Bf, and Br.

Survey Parameters (cont.)

Group Interval

2. Spatial aliasing constraints depends on dip, velocity,

dominant frequency

3. Short enough to sample variations in static corrections

Survey Parameters (cont.)

Source Interval

Stack array approach uses SI = RI

6 sec (record) +2 sec (writing) = 8 sec cycle

Minimum Vessel speed for streamer stability 8 Km/hr

Therefore Minimum SI = 18m

Survey Parameters (cont.)

Record length (TR): It must satisfy the following:

1. It has to include the deepest event of interest (Td) and allow for

its:

- NMO correction (+ 0.3 s)

- DMO correction (+ 0.4 s)

- Migration (+ 0.5 s)

2. It has to allow for maximum static shifts (+ 0.1 s).

3. It has to allow for equipment delays (+ 0.2 s)

Survey Parameters (cont.)

Input parameters :

Determine the following parameters from exploration objectives and from

existing 2-D seismic data:

Fold of good 2-D data

Steepest dip

Target depth and mute distance

Target two-way time

Vint immediately above the target horizon

fdom at the target horizon

fmax at the target horizon

Lateral target size

Area to be fully imaged

Layout method.

Survey Parameters (cont.)

Calculated parameters

Aspect Ratio

It is defined as:

Crossline patch dimension NRL * RLI

R

Inline patch dimension NSL * SLI

patches have R > 0.5.

Narrow-azimuth patches are good for analyzing DMO,

AVO, and lateral heterogeneities.

Wide-azimuth patches are good for velocity analysis, static

correction, and multiple attenuation.

Aspect Ratio (cont.)

Aspect Ratio (cont.)

The 85% rule:

Xmute defines a circle, while Xmax defines a rectangle.

If we inscribe the Xmute circle inside an Xmax rectangle, we

record 27% more traces than we need.

If we inscribe the Xmax rectangle inside the Xmute circle, we

discard 36% of our recorded data.

The optimum compromise is the 85% rule defined as:

- Choose inline patch dimension = 0.85 * Xmute.

- Choose crossline patch dimension = 0.85 * inline patch dimension.

- Therefore; R = 0.85.

Aspect Ratio (cont.)

The 85% rule (cont.):

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