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# Principle of the process

Metal
Structure
forming

Process modeling

Drawing Defects

## Design For Manufacturing (DFM)

Process variation
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Bulk Drawing: Engineering Analysis

1. Introduction

## In the bulk deformation processes, drawing is an

operation in which the cross section of a bar, rod, or
wire is reduced by pulling it through a die opening, as
shown in Figure 1.

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Extrusion Drawing

## Has pushing force Has pulling force

Figure 1 here

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Bulk Drawing: Engineering Analysis
2. Objectives of the Analysis

## Torque (force) Pulling force

Power Power
Velocity (productivity) Pulling velocity
Max draft Max draft

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3. Mechanics Phenomenon

## There is a tensile stress due to pulling force, but

compression still plays a significant role since the
metal is squeezed down as it passes through the
die opening.

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4. Parameters

r=(A0-Af)/A0

## r: area reduction Contact length

A0: initial area of work Die angle
Af: final area Friction between work
and die
d=D0-Df, draft
Force
Drawing stress
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5. Drawing stress, drawing force, power

## Accounts for inhomogeneous deformation

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5. Drawing stress, drawing force, power

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6. Limit of Drawing Allowable power
Yield stress

## If not, material goes into

Maximum stress < Yield stress plastic region & no drawing
occurs, just elongation

## Entire reduction not done in a single pass (done in steps)

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6. Finding Max draw stress & Max reduction (1 pass)

## Assumption: no friction, no strain hardening (n=0),

no redundant work (perfectly plastic)

## Max. draw stress = Yield Strength

d Y
Also,

Yf Y because (n=0)

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d Y

A0 A0 1
d Y f ln Y ln Y ln Y
Af Af 1 r

A0 1 e 1
e e rmax
Af 1 r e

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Example

## Wire stock of initial diameter = 0.125 in. is drawn

through two dies each providing a 0.20 area reduction.
The staring metal has a strength coefficient = 40,000
lb/in.2 and a strain hardening exponent =0.15. Each die
has an entrance angle of 12o, and the coefficient of
friction at the work-die interface is estimated to be 0.10.
The motors driving the capstans at the die exists can
each deliver 1.50 hp at 90% efficiency. Determine the
maximum possible speed of the wire as it exits the
second die.

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From this calculation, the velocity of the second die is the
limiting velocity. That is to say, the velocity of the whole
system should take 3.47 ft /s. As a result,
1. the first operation would have to be operated at well
below its maximum possible speed; or