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LP BY PASS

SYSTEM

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Presentation outline
Introduction of LP Bypass system
Overview of LP Bypass
System details and lay out
Control scheme of LP bypass system

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L.P. BYPASS SYSTEM

LP bypass bypasses steam to IPT & LPT & maintain flow


through RH.
Function of LP bypass:-
1. To monitor the pressure in reheat system and to control it
under certain operating condition.
2. The volume of steam not utilized by the IPT & LPT during
start up & shut down must pass through condenser.

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LP BYPASS SYSTEM

LP Bypass system provide a very effective means of


controlling reheat steam flow during

Startup
Low-load / part load operation
Sudden load rejection

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LP BYPASS SYSTEM

It enhances fast starting capability of turbines from all


initial conditions e.g.

Cold condition
Warm condition
Hot Condition

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LP BYPASS SYSTEM
LP steam-bypass system operates in parallel with the
turbine

Protects Condenser from excessive temperature and


pressure that could result from sudden injection of
superheated steam

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LP BYPASS SYSTEM

The controls for LP Bypass system are combination of electrical


and well proven hydraulic system

Electro-hydraulic converter provides the necessary link


between hydraulic actuator and electrical system

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SEQUENCE OF EVENTS RESULTING FROM LOAD
REJECTION
Upon receiving load rejection signal from electrical
system:
Turbine Speed Controller assumes control of
the TG set

It initiates fast closure of HP & IP turbine


control valves through position controller

Fast closure of turbine control valves cause an


immediate decrease in HP 1st. Stage pressure

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SEQUENCE OF EVENTS RESULTING FROM LOAD
REJECTION
Pressure increases in main and reheat steam
systems

These pressure changes are sensed by HP and LP


Bypass controllers

Respective bypass valves are opened

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If LP steam- bypass system fails or the
condenser cannot accept LP bypass
steam , Safety Valves open and dump
steam to atmosphere

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System details and layout
The controls for LP Bypass system are combination
of electrical and well proven hydraulic system

Electro-hydraulic converter provides the necessary


link between hydraulic actuator and electrical
system

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Control scheme

Set point formation


Pressure control for LP bypass system
LP bypass HYDRAULIC System
Protection system

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Control scheme
The LPBypass Controller acts as a maximum
pressure Controller

It regulates the reheater pressure either to the


fixed set value or suitably derived variable set
value

If the reheater pressure exceeds this set value,


the Controller causes the electro-hydraulic
converter to operate and initiate bypass
operation

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Set Value formation

The Two set values fixed and variable are formed for the
LPBypass control system
set value to be used is determined by a maximum value
selector
For the formation of variable set point, a pressure
transducer is used to measure the steam pressure in HP
turbine

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Bypass Controller Block Diagram

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LP Bypass System

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Features of LPBP Controller
LPBP controller maintains pressure after reheater
by controlling LP bypass valves
It acts on the coil of the LPBP E-H converter to
position the control valves.
Two setpoints, fixed and variable are used in
maximum selection circuit
Variable setpoint is derived from HP first stage
pressure
Water spray is in two stages depending on steam
flow through LPBP stations.
LPBP valves cannot open until adequate spray
water pressure and required vacuum is there and
condenser wall temp is not high.
Valves can also be operated manually
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LP BYPASS SETPOINTS

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Hydraulic Mode of Operation

The controller controls plunger coil of Electro Hydraulic


Converter
With increase in voltage, the jet pipe is deflected towards
right
Converter piston moves downwards leading to generation
of LPB signal oil through Follow-up pistons provided in the
hydraulic control system

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Hydraulic Mode of Operation

Two Follow-up Pistons actuate and open first stage of


water injection valve
Remaining two Follow-up Pistons generate signal oil for
opening LPBypass stop and control valve

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Design of LPBypass Valves for 210 MW
Steam Turbine

Controlled by 8
bar mineral oil

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Design of LPBypass Valve for 500
MW Steam Turbine

Controlled by 36 bar
FRF

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Protection Devices

Low Vacuum Condensor Protection


Spray Water Pressure Switch
Condensor Temperature Protection

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Protection Devices cause closure of
bypass station in case of following
eventualities

a) Condensor vacuum is low ( > 0.6 bar absolute )


b) Spray water pressure is low (< 8.5 / 9.5 bar )
c) Temperature of condenser body is high (> 90 C )

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Water Injection Valves operate in two stages

Second stage Water Injection Valves open


when steam flow through LPBypass Valves
increases more than 45 %

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CURVE FOR LPBYPASS
CONTROLLER

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Actuator Bypass
Stop Valve
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Actuator
LPBPCV
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Pilot valve
for Water
Injection Valve

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Water
Injection
Valve

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Combined Bypass
Stop & Control
Valve 210 MW

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Feedback for Pilot valve of
Bypass Control Valve 210 MW

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THANK YOU

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