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5

MCSHANE VON GLINOW Organizational


BEHAVIOR

C H A P T E R
F I V E

Stress
Management

Irwin/ McGraw-Hill 1 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2000


MCSHANE VON GLINOW Organizational
BEHAVIOR

What is Stress?
An adaptive response to a situation that is
perceived as challenging or threatening to the
persons well-being
Stressors- an environmental condition or
stimuli that places physical or emotional demand
on a person
Examples
Physical
Emotional

Irwin/ McGraw-Hill 2 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2000


MCSHANE VON GLINOW Organizational
BEHAVIOR

Types of stress
Episodic Stress- pattern of high stress
followed by intervals of relief
Chronic Stress- constant confrontation of
stressors without relief
Effects are:
constant
additive

Distress- stress that has a negative


consequence on a persons well-being

Irwin/ McGraw-Hill 3 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2000


MCSHANE VON GLINOW Organizational
BEHAVIOR

General Adaptation Syndrome


Automatic defense system to help cope with
with environmental demands
Three stages of adaptation
Alarm reaction- perception of stressor
Resistance- ability to cope rises above normal
because of activated defense mechanisms such as
adrenaline
Exhaustion- body must rest and recover from
heightened resistance stage
Prolonged resistance leads to system breakdown

Irwin/ McGraw-Hill 4 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2000


MCSHANE VON GLINOW Organizational
BEHAVIOR

General Adaptation Syndrome


Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3
Alarm Reaction Resistance Exhaustion

DANGER ZONE

Normal
Level of
Resistance

Irwin/ McGraw-Hill 5 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2000


MCSHANE VON GLINOW Organizational
BEHAVIOR

Stressors and Stress Outcomes


Work Individual Consequences
Stressors Differences of Stress

Physical
environment Physiological
Role-related Stress
Behavioral
over time
Interpersonal
Psychological
Organizational

Nonwork
Stressors

Irwin/ McGraw-Hill 6 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2000


MCSHANE VON GLINOW Organizational
BEHAVIOR

Role-Related Stressors
Role conflict
interrole conflict
intrarole conflict
person-role conflict
Role ambiguity
uncertain duties, authority
Role overload/underload
Task characteristics
decisions, monitoring, traffic
problems

Irwin/ McGraw-Hill 7 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2000


MCSHANE VON GLINOW Organizational
BEHAVIOR

Stress Research
Type A and complexity leads to cardiovascular
problems
Job Control, Job Complexity, Self-Efficacy
interact to influence blood pressure
Burnout as a process
Emotional Exhaustion - lack of energy and a
feeling that ones emotional resources are used up
Coping Strategy for emotional buffer
Sense of inadequacy

Irwin/ McGraw-Hill 8 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2000


MCSHANE VON GLINOW Organizational
BEHAVIOR

Job Burnout Process


Interpersonal and
Role-Related Stressors

Emotional
Exhaustion
Physiological,
psychological,
Depersonalization
and behavioral
consequences
Reduced Personal
Accomplishment

Irwin/ McGraw-Hill 9 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2000


MCSHANE VON GLINOW Organizational
BEHAVIOR

Antecedents
Job Characteristics - client interactions,
overload, ambiguity, conflict
Organizational Characteristics - reward and
punishment systems, job context (shift,
psych environment, etc.)
Personal Characteristics - Age, Social
Support, Marriage, Expectations, Career
progress

Irwin/ McGraw-Hill 10 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2000


MCSHANE VON GLINOW Organizational
BEHAVIOR

Consequences
Attitudinal
Behavioral
Interpersonal

Irwin/ McGraw-Hill 11 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2000


MCSHANE VON GLINOW Organizational
BEHAVIOR

Social Support and Undermining


Social Support- interpersonal transactions
with others that provide either emotional or
informational support
reduces effects of stress
feel valued
feel capable of handling a situation
buffers effects, someone to talk to, etc.

Social Undermining

Irwin/ McGraw-Hill 12 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2000


MCSHANE VON GLINOW Organizational
BEHAVIOR

Cognitive Dissonance Theory


Leon Festinger 1967
Three aspects of attitudes must follow each
other
cognitive aspect- knowledge about an object
affective aspect- liking of the object
behavioral aspect- behavior toward the object
If dissonance is present there is stress and a
need to change an aspect of the attitude to
produce agreement among the elements

Irwin/ McGraw-Hill 13 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2000


MCSHANE VON GLINOW Organizational
BEHAVIOR
Changing Aspects of Attitudes

Affected by level of control


can I control the aspects of my attitude?
Do I have a choice regarding performance of the
behavior?
Behaviors are set by habit and view of others
Ignore current knowledge
Seek knew knowledge
Alter beliefs
Hypocrasy effects level of dissonance

Irwin/ McGraw-Hill 14 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2000


MCSHANE VON GLINOW Organizational
BEHAVIOR

Emotional Labor
Experiencing dissonance as a part of an
individuals role
Presenting a friendly attitude while holding a
negative attitude
Mainly in service positions where employees
must always be happy
flight attendants
secretaries
Backstage areas
out of sight of customer
Irwin/ McGraw-Hill 15 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2000
MCSHANE VON GLINOW Organizational
BEHAVIOR

Interpersonal Stressor: Sexual Harassment

Unwelcome conduct -- detrimental effect on


work environment or job performance
Quid pro quo
employment or job performance is conditional
on unwanted sexual relations
Hostile work environment
an intimidating, hostile, or offensive working
environment

Irwin/ McGraw-Hill 16 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2000


MCSHANE VON GLINOW Organizational
BEHAVIOR

Interpersonal Stressor: Workplace Violence

2 million people experience some form of


violence at work each year
Most common cause of work-related death
for women; second most common for men
Severe distress after experiencing or
observing violence
Also stress from working in high-risk jobs

Irwin/ McGraw-Hill 17 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2000


MCSHANE VON GLINOW Organizational
BEHAVIOR

Work-Family Stressors
Time-based conflict
due to work schedule, commuting, travel
for women -- still do most household chores
Strain-based conflict
work stress affects home, and vice versa
Role behavior conflict
incompatible work and family roles

Irwin/ McGraw-Hill 18 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2000


MCSHANE VON GLINOW Organizational
BEHAVIOR

Top 10 Life Stressors


10. Retirement or quitting
9. Marital reconciliation
8. Fired from work
7. Marriage
6. Personal injury or illness
5. Death of a family member
4. Jail Term
3. Marital Separation
2. Divorce
1. Death
Irwin/ McGraw-Hill 19 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2000
MCSHANE VON GLINOW Organizational
BEHAVIOR

Stress and Occupations

Accountant Hospital manager Police officer


Artist Physician (GP) 911 operator
Auto Mechanic Psychologist U.S. president
Forester School principal Waiter/waitress

Low-Stress Medium-Stress High-Stress


Occupations Occupations Occupations

Irwin/ McGraw-Hill 20 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2000


MCSHANE VON GLINOW Organizational
BEHAVIOR

Individual Differences in Stress


Perceive the situation differently

Different threshold levels of resistance to stressor

Use different stress coping strategies


Personality Type

Irwin/ McGraw-Hill 21 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2000


MCSHANE VON GLINOW Organizational
BEHAVIOR

Personality Type
Type A- impatient, restless, competitive,
aggressive, under intense perceived time pressure,
always attempting to accomplish several things at
once
need job and career control
have more health problems and shorter careers
Type B- does not feel pressure, works slowly and
enjoyably on a variety of tasks

Important to match personality type with position


to avoid stress
Irwin/ McGraw-Hill 22 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2000
MCSHANE VON GLINOW Organizational
BEHAVIOR

Consequences of Distress
Physiological consequences
50%-75% of all illnesses
Lower for women
cardiovascular diseases
ulcers, sexual dysfunction, headaches
Behavioral consequences
work performance, accidents, decisions
absenteeism -- due to sickness and flight
workplace aggression
Psychological Consequences
moodiness, depression, emotional fatigue

Irwin/ McGraw-Hill 23 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2000


MCSHANE VON GLINOW Organizational
BEHAVIOR

Coping with STRESS


Individual Coping Strategies
Problem focused- solve the problem, dont
procrastinate
Time management- self-management
scheduling, rewards, punishments
Seeking Help
mentoring- process of senior performer coaching a
junior one
Change jobs

Irwin/ McGraw-Hill 24 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2000


MCSHANE VON GLINOW Organizational
BEHAVIOR

Coping....
Emotion-focused
Relaxation
meditation
napping
Exercise
Psychological
Employee Assistance Programs
Recreation
Companionship

Irwin/ McGraw-Hill 25 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2000


MCSHANE VON GLINOW Organizational
BEHAVIOR

Family-Friendly and Work/Life Initiatives

Flexible work time


Job sharing
Telecommuting
Personal leave
Childcare facilities

Irwin/ McGraw-Hill 26 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2000


MCSHANE VON GLINOW Organizational
BEHAVIOR

Other Stress Management Practices


Withdrawing from the stressor
person-job matching
work breaks, stabilization zones, sabbaticals
Changing stress perceptions
self-efficacy, self-leadership
Controlling stress consequences
relaxation and meditation
fitness and lifestyle programs
Social support
emotional and informational

Irwin/ McGraw-Hill 27 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2000