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Fluid Mechanics

Properties of Fluid

Fluid Mechanics & Hydraulics


Fluid Mechanics is a physical science dealing with the action of fluids at rest or in
motion, and with applications and devices in engineering using fluids. Fluid
mechanics can be subdivided into two major areas, fluid statics, which deals
with fluids at rest, and fluid dynamics, concerned with fluid in motion. The term
hydrodynamics is applied to the flow of liquids or to low-velocity gas flows where
the gas can be considered as being essentially incompressible.
Hydraulics deals with the application of fluid mechanics to engineering devices
involving liquids, usually water or oil. Hydraulics deals with such problems as the
flow of fluids through pipes or in open channels, the design of storage dams,
pumps, and water turbines, and with other devices for the control or use of
liquids, such as nozzles, valves, jets, and flowmeters.
Properties of Fluid

Types of fluid
Fluids are generally divided into two categories: ideal and real fluids.
Ideal fluids
Assumed to have no viscosity (and hence, no resistance to shear)
Incompressible
Have uniform velocity when flowing
No friction between moving layers of fluid
No eddy currents or turbulence
Real fluids
Exhibits infinite viscosities
Non-uniform velocity distribution when flowing
compressible
Experience friction and turbulence flow
Properties of Fluid

Mass
density ()
The density of a fluid is its mass per unit volume.

for ideal gas, its density can be found from the specific gas constant and
ideal gas law

Density of air @ STP = 1.29 kg/m3


Density of air @ sea level = 1.2 kg/m3
Density of water = 1000 kg/m3
Properties of Fluid


Specific Volume V
is the volume occupied by a unit mass of fluid

Specific Gravity
a dimensionless ratio of a fluids density to some standard reference density.
For liquids and solid, the reference density is water at 4oC

In gases, standard reference to calculate the s.g. is the density of air.


Properties of Fluid

Viscosity
the property of fluid which determine the amount of its resistance to
shearing forces. A perfect fluid has no viscosity.

Kinematic Viscosity is the ratio of viscosity of the fluid to its density.


Properties of Fluid

A reservoir of glycerin has a mass of 1,200 kg and a volume of 0.952 m 3 find its
(a) weight in kN (b) unit weight in kN/m3 (c) mass density (d) sp.gr.
Seatwork

1. The specific gravity of a certain oil is 0.82. Calculate its (a) specific weight,
in lb/ft3 and kN/m3, and (b) mass density in slugs/ft3 and kg/m3.
2. A liter of water weighs about 9.75N. Compute for its mass in kg.
Ideal Gas

An

ideal gas is ideal only in the sense that it conforms to the simple perfect gas
laws.
Boyles Law
If the temperature of a given quantity is held constant, the volume of the gas
varies inversely with the absolute pressure of during a change of state.
Ideal Gas

Charles
Law
If the pressure on a particular quantity of gas is held constant, then, with any
change of state, the volume will vary directly as the absolute temperature.

If the volume of a particular quantity of gas is held constant, then, with any
change of state, the pressure will vary directly as the absolute temperature.
Ideal Gas

Equation
of state or characteristic equation of a perfect gas
Combining Boyles and Charles laws

Where P = absolute pressure


V = volume
m = mass
T = absolute temperature
R = gas constant
Principles of Hydrostatics

Unit
Pressure or Pressure (p) Is the force per unit area exerted by a liquid or
gas on a body or a surface, with the force acting at right angles to the surface
uniformly in all directions.
Principles of Hydrostatics

Atmospheric Pressure - The earth is surrounded by an envelope of atmosphere or


air which extends upward from the surface of the earth to a distance of some 50
mi or more. Air has weight and, because of its weight, exerts a pressure on the
surface of the earth. (Standard Atmospheric Pressure at sea level 14.696Psi)
Pressure Gages. Pressure gages are instruments used to measure the fluid
pressure (either gaseous or liquid) inside a closed vessel. (Pgauge = gh)
Absolute and Gage Pressures - is understood to be the "total" or "true" pressure of
a fluid, whereas gage pressure is the pressure as indicated by a gage.
Principles of Hydrostatics

Patm is atmospheric pressure, which is also called the barometric pressure. P gauge is
the gauge pressure, and Pvac is vacuum. Once again, the following examples
relating the various pressures will be helpful in understanding the idea of gauge
versus absolute pressures.
Principles of Hydrostatics

Pressure gages commonly used in the industry are of two types: (1) manometer
and (2) bourdon tube.
1. Manometer is a tube usually in the form of a U, containing a liquid of known
specific gravity, the surface of which moves proportionally to changes of
pressure. Manometers are: (1) Open type and (2) Differential type
Manometers

y y
Fluid B y H 2O
M 4.0 3.2

Fluid A
H2O
Hg

Open Manometer Differential Manometer


Principles of Hydrostatics

Suggested steps in the solution of open manometers are:


1. Draw a sketch of the manometer approximately to scale.
2. Decide on the fluid in feet of which the heads are to be expressed.
3. Starting with the atmospheric surface in the manometer as the point of
known pressure head, number in order the levels of contact of fluids of
different specific gravities.
4. Starting with the atmospheric pressure head, proceed from level to level,
adding or subtracting pressure heads as the elevation decreases or increases,
respectively, with due regard for the specific gravities of the fluids.
Principles of Hydrostatics

Problem:
1. A 30 m vertical column of fluid (density = 1878kg/m3) is located where g =
9.65 mps2. Find the pressure at the base of the column.
2. Given the barometric pressure of 14.7 psia (29.92 in Hg abs) make these
conversion:
a) 80 psig to psia and to atmosphere,
b) 20 in. Hg vacuum to in Hg abs and to psia,
c) 10 psia to psi vacuum and to Pa
Principles of Hydrostatics

Variations in Pressure

F1

L
h

W

F2

P2-P1=h
Seatwork

1. If a depth of liquid of 1 m causes a pressure of 7 kPa, what is the specific


gravity of the liquid?
2.What is the pressure 12.5 m below the ocean? S.G. of salt is 1.03