Fluid Mechanics

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Fluid Mechanics

© All Rights Reserved

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Properties of Fluid

Fluid Mechanics is a physical science dealing with the action of fluids at rest or in

motion, and with applications and devices in engineering using fluids. Fluid

mechanics can be subdivided into two major areas, fluid statics, which deals

with fluids at rest, and fluid dynamics, concerned with fluid in motion. The term

hydrodynamics is applied to the flow of liquids or to low-velocity gas flows where

the gas can be considered as being essentially incompressible.

Hydraulics deals with the application of fluid mechanics to engineering devices

involving liquids, usually water or oil. Hydraulics deals with such problems as the

flow of fluids through pipes or in open channels, the design of storage dams,

pumps, and water turbines, and with other devices for the control or use of

liquids, such as nozzles, valves, jets, and flowmeters.

Properties of Fluid

Types of fluid

Fluids are generally divided into two categories: ideal and real fluids.

Ideal fluids

Assumed to have no viscosity (and hence, no resistance to shear)

Incompressible

Have uniform velocity when flowing

No friction between moving layers of fluid

No eddy currents or turbulence

Real fluids

Exhibits infinite viscosities

Non-uniform velocity distribution when flowing

compressible

Experience friction and turbulence flow

Properties of Fluid

Mass

density ()

The density of a fluid is its mass per unit volume.

for ideal gas, its density can be found from the specific gas constant and

ideal gas law

Density of air @ sea level = 1.2 kg/m3

Density of water = 1000 kg/m3

Properties of Fluid

Specific Volume V

is the volume occupied by a unit mass of fluid

Specific Gravity

a dimensionless ratio of a fluids density to some standard reference density.

For liquids and solid, the reference density is water at 4oC

Properties of Fluid

Viscosity

the property of fluid which determine the amount of its resistance to

shearing forces. A perfect fluid has no viscosity.

Properties of Fluid

A reservoir of glycerin has a mass of 1,200 kg and a volume of 0.952 m 3 find its

(a) weight in kN (b) unit weight in kN/m3 (c) mass density (d) sp.gr.

Seatwork

1. The specific gravity of a certain oil is 0.82. Calculate its (a) specific weight,

in lb/ft3 and kN/m3, and (b) mass density in slugs/ft3 and kg/m3.

2. A liter of water weighs about 9.75N. Compute for its mass in kg.

Ideal Gas

An

ideal gas is ideal only in the sense that it conforms to the simple perfect gas

laws.

Boyles Law

If the temperature of a given quantity is held constant, the volume of the gas

varies inversely with the absolute pressure of during a change of state.

Ideal Gas

Charles

Law

If the pressure on a particular quantity of gas is held constant, then, with any

change of state, the volume will vary directly as the absolute temperature.

If the volume of a particular quantity of gas is held constant, then, with any

change of state, the pressure will vary directly as the absolute temperature.

Ideal Gas

Equation

of state or characteristic equation of a perfect gas

Combining Boyles and Charles laws

V = volume

m = mass

T = absolute temperature

R = gas constant

Principles of Hydrostatics

Unit

Pressure or Pressure (p) Is the force per unit area exerted by a liquid or

gas on a body or a surface, with the force acting at right angles to the surface

uniformly in all directions.

Principles of Hydrostatics

air which extends upward from the surface of the earth to a distance of some 50

mi or more. Air has weight and, because of its weight, exerts a pressure on the

surface of the earth. (Standard Atmospheric Pressure at sea level 14.696Psi)

Pressure Gages. Pressure gages are instruments used to measure the fluid

pressure (either gaseous or liquid) inside a closed vessel. (Pgauge = gh)

Absolute and Gage Pressures - is understood to be the "total" or "true" pressure of

a fluid, whereas gage pressure is the pressure as indicated by a gage.

Principles of Hydrostatics

Patm is atmospheric pressure, which is also called the barometric pressure. P gauge is

the gauge pressure, and Pvac is vacuum. Once again, the following examples

relating the various pressures will be helpful in understanding the idea of gauge

versus absolute pressures.

Principles of Hydrostatics

Pressure gages commonly used in the industry are of two types: (1) manometer

and (2) bourdon tube.

1. Manometer is a tube usually in the form of a U, containing a liquid of known

specific gravity, the surface of which moves proportionally to changes of

pressure. Manometers are: (1) Open type and (2) Differential type

Manometers

y y

Fluid B y H 2O

M 4.0 3.2

Fluid A

H2O

Hg

Principles of Hydrostatics

1. Draw a sketch of the manometer approximately to scale.

2. Decide on the fluid in feet of which the heads are to be expressed.

3. Starting with the atmospheric surface in the manometer as the point of

known pressure head, number in order the levels of contact of fluids of

different specific gravities.

4. Starting with the atmospheric pressure head, proceed from level to level,

adding or subtracting pressure heads as the elevation decreases or increases,

respectively, with due regard for the specific gravities of the fluids.

Principles of Hydrostatics

Problem:

1. A 30 m vertical column of fluid (density = 1878kg/m3) is located where g =

9.65 mps2. Find the pressure at the base of the column.

2. Given the barometric pressure of 14.7 psia (29.92 in Hg abs) make these

conversion:

a) 80 psig to psia and to atmosphere,

b) 20 in. Hg vacuum to in Hg abs and to psia,

c) 10 psia to psi vacuum and to Pa

Principles of Hydrostatics

Variations in Pressure

F1

L

h

W

F2

P2-P1=h

Seatwork

gravity of the liquid?

2.What is the pressure 12.5 m below the ocean? S.G. of salt is 1.03

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