HRD Planning, Design and Evaluation MHR1043 WEEK 4 Changing Role of the Trainer

Masters in HRD
(Dr. Nur Mansor- Tuesday afternoon)

A summary of MHR 1043 topics (Semester 1) 

Employee development contribution 

introduction, national, international context it s role, integration with business strategy learning strategy, learning organisation approaches to ED strategy motivation, reward strategies, quality, coaching & mentoring training plans, managing a training function role of managers, costs and benefits, value, evaluation competence and competencies 

Individual, Team & Business Development 

Performance Management  



CPD & CIPD & individual development Organisational learning & change management Equal Ops, managing diversity, special needs

Outcomes for today    

To briefly discuss the example exam question To discuss the history of learning and development To share views on the changing role of the trainer To discuss L&D within your organisations To look at challenges to L&D

Example exam question .
Discuss the theory behind learning and it s usefulness in understanding how to maximise the potential of employees within the workplace. Use examples. We will look at this as a group, at the next lesson

ENERGISER - A little look at your communication preferences

Questionnaire - Which animal do you mostly communicate like?

Taken from: Risner, N (2002) It s a Zoo Around Here! UK:Forest Oak

The differences


Lots of ideas Get bored easily Have fun, enjoys jokes Creative, extrovert Short greetings Include stories Be prepared to argue Praise them in public

Driven by results Efficient/effective Like to be in charge Demanding Be brief/main points Don t waste time Get to point quickly Not much detail



The differences


Tuned in Sensitive/caring Sharing/supportive Patient Quiet tone/gentle Show interest Express your emotions Ask them questions

Collects info Need information Like analysing Cautious/formal Logical argument Give them detail Don t talk for too long Be precise



Your preference? But the most important role ?
better at rapport building better at questioning better at goal setting

better at listening

The Zoo Keeper

As HR Professionals or People Developers , you should be good at all 4
better at goal setting

better at rapport building better at questioning

better at listening

Employee Learning and Development
Where are we now (in UK In Malaysia? Where do we want to be?



1945-1951 Education & Employment linked 1963-1973 Old School Elitism 1967 Open University started 1975 Ruskin College, Oxford first Vocational College started 1995 Ministry of Education & Ministry of Employment merged 1998 Govt. Green Paper on the Learning Age 1998 Lifelong learning. Union Learning Fund started 2000 Corporate Social Responsibility 2003 Govt. White Paper on 21st Century Skills 2006 Leitch Review 2007 what next? What are the key challenges for L&D in next 10 years?

Quotes and terminology

Learning is a lifelong activity which involves 3 processes   

Education prime purpose to impart knowledge and develop the way mental faculties are used. Not primarily concerned with job performance Training endeavours to impart knowledge, skills and attitudes necessary to perform job related tasks, to directly improve job performance Development learn through experience. Use skills and knowledge that above has given them for current and future jobs. Increased confidence, psychological growth and greater maturity

Quotes showing the shift in thinking about the term L&D
Nadler (1970) a series of organised activities conducted within a specific time and designed to produce behavioural change Hall (1984) the identification of needed skills and active management of learning for the long range future in relation to explicit corporate and business strategies Burack (1991) HRD people have been charged to blueprint and lead the way to organisation and individual renewal. Darling, Darling & Elliott (1999) L&D is affected by the confusion of meanings and boundaries between such terms as hrm, hrd, training, learning and development L&D at work involves processes of observation, planning, action and review to manage the cognitive capacities, capabilities and behaviours to enable and improve individual, team and organisational performance in work organisations (Gibb 2002 p.7) The primary purpose of learning and development, as an organisational process, is to aid collective progress through the collaborative and expert stimulation and facilitation of learning and knowledge that support business goals, develop individual potential and respect and build on diversity. (Harrison 2005) L&D is about maximising potential and establishing positive patterns.

General Role of the Trainer  


Help management identify needs, problems, opportunities Identify training available Identify means of learning Devise training and learning methods Implement training with line managers Monitor training and learning Evaluate results & plan future activities

General Roles of the Trainer
(Trainer roles 

MSC Decisions about Training 1983) 


Help management identify needs, problems, opportunities Consultant Identify training available Managing Identify means of learning Devise training and learning methods Implement training with line managers Monitor training and learning Evaluate results & plan future activities
Planning & organising

Direct training

The Training Cycle

Reid & Barrington (1988)

TNA/LNA at organisational, job & personal level

Reaction, immediate, intermediate, ultimate levels (Kirkpatrick 1967)

Different methods for different circumstances & different people

3 Trainer Roles (Nadler 1970) 

Learning Specialist 

Facilitator Curriculum builder Instructional strategist Developer Supervisor Arranger Advocate Expert Stimulator Change Agent 



Maintenance to Change Agent and Role in Transition (Pettigrew, Jones & Reason 1982 Stewart pg 85)  Trainer to Consultant (Role in Transition) Phillips & Shaw 1987  The People Developer 

The People Developers

People Development Profession
The role of the people development professional has become one of Supporting, accelerating and directing learning interventions that meet organisational needs and are appropriate to the learner and the context . Those who are adopting good practice are: 

Showing a clear understanding of the business drivers in their organisation Helping their organisations add value and move up the value chain Establishing a clear vision and strategy for people development Involving others and engaging stakeholders in a transparent way Having both a good overview of what is needed to advance in the long-term and also of the short-time priorities Using processes and techniques appropriately Applying metrics to demonstrate value

And above all  Understanding the legacy that learners bring with them and adjusting their interventions accordingly

culture Vs context debate?

Some new vocabulary 

Intervention: the learning that the organisation requires will not necessarily happen as a consequence of day-to-day activity. Contingent: the appropriate intervention will depend on the circumstances of the organisation and the nature of its business. Different interventions will be required in knowledge industries, manufacturing, administration and personnel services. Alignment: brings interventions and contingency together a critical role for the development professional is to ensure that the resources committed to the learning, training and development effort reflect and reinforce business priorities. Partnership: all parties must understand what is required and have the necessary skills. Senior management, line managers and the learner themselves must understand what is required and be prepared to meet their obligations. Time to competence: ensure that critical groups of staff acquire the knowledge and skills to meet business needs in the shortest possible time. This is especially true in manufacturing and administration processes. Support and challenge: encouraging the recipient to display confidence in their capabilities and to construct their own learning agenda and also to demand that a wide range of options are considered and objectives are stretching. Validation: to confirm, corroborate, substantiate support; ensure that the intervention achieves its objective and delivers value to the business. This term is preferable to evaluation, which is trainer-centred and focuses too much on events

The Partnership Model

The culture Vs context debate

Training Consultant Competencies
developed from Hamlin & Davies (1999) & Strategis (1993) 

Excellent communicator at all levels Less directive facilitator/problem solver Advising/Coaching training not only solution Credibility with the business positive impact Analytical skills measurement, LNA etc Shaping, influencing Results focussed, embedding solutions Project Planning & organising workload control Team working Interpersonal skills feedback skills Flexibility Expert learning theory knowledge Organisational knowledge, local knowledge Customer service & marketing. networking skills Knowledge and use of consulting cycle

8 phases of consultancy cycle
(using Strategis Model, 1993)
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Entry Diagnosis Strategic input Project planning Contracting Project delivery Exiting Client Development

The future L&D Specialist? 

Trainer role; consultant, change agent Professionalism; flexibility, management Qualifications; CIPD and beyond Experience; range & variety Business needs, facilitation, coaching and mentoring, continuous improvement and employee involvement Standards, strategies and results Above all; understanding of others

Consider your own organisation    

Where does L&D fit into the organisation structure? What is the culture of the organisation in respect to L&D? What power/influence does L&D have in the organisation? What are the key roles that L&D play?

Suggested Reading 


Darling, J. Darling, P & Elliott, J (1999) The changing role of the trainer London:CIPD Harrison, R (2005) Learning & Development 4th edition London: CIPD (chap 1 & 3) Reid. M A & Barrington. H (2004) Beyond Training Interventions London: CIPD Leitch, S. (2006) Prosperity for all in the global economy - world class skills: final report: Leitch review of skills. London: Stationery Office. CIPD Factsheet Training: a short history 2nd edition 2007 Shaky start for Leitch s skills pledge. (2007) People Management. Vol. 13, No. 11, 31 May. p9. Sloman, M. (2003) Training in the age of the learner. London: CIPD Sloman, M. (2007) The changing world of the trainer: emerging good practice. Oxford: Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann &

Example exam question .
Discuss the changing role of the trainer and the changing trends in approaches to employee learning and development. In your opinion, which has influenced which and why? Use examples and show evidence of further reading we can discuss this at the next lesson

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