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Recipes and Cooking method

Using Standardized Recipes

Standardizing Recipes

Standardized recipes = must follow a

format that is clear to anyone who uses
Standardized Recipe Includes:
Ingredients (amount and order which they are used)
Yield number of servings the recipe will make
Temperature oven or stove top temperature
(preheating ?)
Equipment include size and type of pans and other
equipment needed
Measuring Methods
Before you begin to prepare a recipe, you
must understand the two basic systems of
Customary units = most commonly used system in
U.S. ex. teaspoons, gallons, ounces etc.
Metric units = based on multiples of 10 ex milliliters,
liters, milligrams etc.
Pint : pt
Quart : qt
Galon : gal

Fl oz: Fluid Ounce

Pound : lb
Measuring Ingredients
In a recipe, amounts of ingredients can be
measured in several ways:
Volume = is the amount of space an ingredients
takes up (most ing. measured this way)
Weight or heaviness
Count or number of items

How would I measure bananas, flour, fish,

bread, oil, melons and ground beef?
Heaping measuring, means that you scoop up the
ingredient with your measure, but do not level it off!

What sizes do dry measuring cups usually come in?

Converting Recipes
Yield = means the number of servings or
portions a recipe makes?
Formula for increasing or decreasing recipe
1. Decide how many servings you need (desired yield)
2. Use the following formula:
Desired yield
Original yield = conversion
factor (# to multiply ing. by)
3. Multiply each ing. amount by the conversion factor.
4. Convert answers into logical measuring amounts
5. Make any necessary adjustments to equipment,
temperature and time.
Getting Ready to Cook
Mise en Place

Mise en place = is French for to put in

place and it means the preparation and
assemble of ingredients, pans, utensils,
and equipment or serving pieces needed
for a particular dish or service.
Assemble your tools
Assemble you ingredients
Wash, trim, cut, prepare, and measure your ingredients
Prepare your equipment (preheat oven, line baking
sheets, etc.)

* Planning ahead (break each menu item

down to stages)
Pg. 192
Cooking Methods
Cooking Methods
There are three general types of cooking
1. Dry-heat cooking = prepared
w/no liquid or fat
2. Moist-heat cooking = uses
steam or liquid to cook
3. Combination cooking = uses
both dry and moist heat
Food is cooked by direct heat
(grilling) or by indirect heat closed
environment (like an oven)
Any food prepared must be naturally
tender (marinating can help)
Barbequing = another
form of grilling, basted
repeatedly w/a sauce
during grilling

Grilling = very simple dry-

heat method that is
excellent for cooking
smaller pieces of food.
Special wood can be added,
marinades can also give
unique flavor, appearance
important, crosshatch
Broiling = rapid cooking method
that uses high heat from a source
located above the food. Food
becomes browned on top
Roasting and baking =
cook food by
surrounding the items
w/hot, dry air in the

As the outer layers of

the food become
heated, the foods
natural juices turn to
steam and are absorbed
into the food.

Roasting requires
longer cooking times
and often used
w/large cuts of meat.
Baking is uncovered,
helps to develop a
golden brown color
on top
Dry Heat Cooking Methods
with Fat
Sauting = method cooks food rapidly in a
small amount of fat over relatively high
Fat/oilused adds to the flavor as to the moisture
of the pan
Juices released during cooking form a sauce
Stir-Frying = very
small amount of oil is
used in a pan over high
heat. Food cut into
bite size pieces, food is
stirred constantly.
Pan-frying = often
coated w/batter or
breading and then
cooked in an oil over
less intense heat.
Object is to produce a
flavorful exterior w/a
crisp, brown crust,
which helps retain the
foods juices and flavor
Deep-frying = food is
breaded or batter-
coated, immersed in
hot fat and fried until
done.. The outside of
the food item develops
a crispy coating, while
the inside stays most
and tender, foods deep
fried must me naturally
Recovery time =
amount of time it
takes oil to reheat to
the correct cooking
temperature once
food is added.
Smoking point = is
temperature at which
fats and oils begin to
smoke, which means
that the fat has begun
to break down

There are 3 slightly different methods for deep-frying foods:

1. Swimming method batter coated foods are dropped into hot
oil, once food surface, turned over once and done.
2. Basket method breaded, placed in basked and lowered into
hot oil
3. Double-basket method used for certain foods that nee to be
full submerged in hot oil for a longer period
Moist-heat techniques produce foods
that are delicately flavored and moist
with a rich broth
Boil = to cook food in a
liquid that has reached
boiling point (can break up
delicate food.

Poaching and simmering = food is

completely submerged in a liquid that is kept
at a constant moderate temperature. The
liquid needs to be well flavored, cooked
between 160-180F
Blanching = food is placed in a
pot of cold water and the liquid
is then brought to a boil. Food is
only boiled for a short time and
then shocked in ice cold water.
Shallow poaching =
cooks food by using a
combination of steam
and a liquid bath.
Best suited to foods
that are cut into
portion-sized pieces.
The food is partially
covered by a liquid
containing an acid and
herbs and spices in a
covered pan.
Steaming = method cooks food over, but not directly in, boiling liquid. In
steaming the food is placed on a rack above boiling liquid within a closed
cooking port. Steamed foods retain their color, shape, nutrients and flavor
better. Steamed foods should be cooked until just done, but not overdone.
Combination Cooking
Combination cooking = using both dry-heat and
moist-heat cooking methods.
Braising = food item is first seared in hot oil,
then slowly cooked tightly covered in a small
amount of liquid, and then finished in the
oven or on the stovetop until it is tender.

Stewing = similar to braising, but the main

food items is first cut into bite-sized pieces,
requires more liquid.
Others cooking method
Thank you