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T Beijings National Stadium


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China
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SRISHTI
G SUSHANT SCHOOL OF ART AND SUGANDH
VARTIKA
N ARCHITECTURE, GURGAON, HARYANA YASHPRIYA
ZORAWAR
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T Introduction
R Name: National Stadium
U Location: Beijing, China
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Capacity: 91,000 and 80,000 (post Olympics)
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U Architect: Jacques Herzog & Pierre de Meuron. project architect Stefan Marbach,
R artist Ai Weiwei, and CADG which was led by chief architect Li Xinggang.
A Structural Engineer: Arup
L Construction Cost: USD $ 423 Million
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CONCEPT
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C The team wanted an
T inimitable design that would
U reflect both Chinas rich
R st
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cultural heritage and its 21
L century technological
S prowess. The distinctive roof
Y structure does that!
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The appearance is inspired by
E local crackle-glazed pottery
M veined scholar stones, defying
S structural logic.
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D Its an amazing display of
E architectural, engineering and
S The local people affectionately nicknamed it
construction innovation. the Birds nest
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T LOCATION
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THE STADIUM SITS AT
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THE NORTH END OF
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BEIJINGS MOST
R NATIONAL STADIUM
IMPORTANT LINE, THE
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L IMPERIAL AXIS
S IT CONNECTS THE GATES
Y OF CHINAS CULTURAL
S MONUMENTS, THE
T TIANANMEN SQUARE, AND THE FORBIDDEN CITY
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THE FORBIDDEN CITY.
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TIANANMEN SQUARE
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S China, sits on the junctions of
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several tectonic plates, including
Seismic Zoning of Beijing
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U the Pacific, the Eurasian and the
C Indian Ocean plates with at least
T 495 faults crisscrossing its
U topography.
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THE BOWL
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U Like most modern stadia, the Birds nest was designed inside out,
C beginning with the shape of the bowl. The form of the bowl and the
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U distribution of seating types, determine all the other aspects of the
R stadium, including the roof, the levels and the locations of the
A concourses and premium facilities, along with natural light and
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S ventilation in the playing area.
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GEOMETRY AND PROFILE
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U RADIAL GRID IN PLAN.
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S EAST-WEST SEATING
Y RADIUS VARIES FROM
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T 270m TO 320m WHILE
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M THE NORTH-SOUTH
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& SEATING RADIUS IS IN
D BETWEEN 60m AND
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S 110m.
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U TO SUIT THE ROOFS OVERALL
R SADDLE SHAPE, THE NUMBER OF
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L STORIES VARIES AT DIFFERENT
S PLACES, FROM A MAXIMUM OF
Y SEVEN (51m) ON THE EAST/WEST
S CENTRELINE TO FIVE (45m) ON THE
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E NORTH/SOUTH CENTRELINE.
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FOUNDATION
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C ALL VERTICAL LOAD BEARING
T ELEMENTS ARE SUPPORTED ON RCC
U PILE CAPS SUPPORTED BY CAST IN
R SITU CONCRETE BORED PILES WITH A
A DIAMETER BETWEEN 800mm AND
L 1000mm.
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Y THESE PILES ARE FOUNDED IN THE
S COBBLE/ GRAVEL STRATUM LAYER,
ABOUT 38m BELOW EXISTING
T GROUND.
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S A PLINTH WITH A ONE-STOREY 38m
& BASEMENT SURROUNDS THE
CONCRETE BOWL AREA, RESTING ON
D A SHALLOW PAD FOUNDATION.
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SUPERSTRUCTURE
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U THE BOWL IS SPLIT INTO SIX SEGMENTS WITH
C 200mm WIDE MOVEMENT JOINTS BETWEEN
T EACH OF THEM.
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R EACH SEGMENT FORMS AN INDEPENDENT
1 2
A STRUCTURE WITH ITS OWN STABILITY SYSTEM
L PROVIDED BY COLUMN-BEAM FRAME ACTION.
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Y THE MOVEMENT JOINTS ARE CONTINUOUS 6 3
S THROUGH EVERY FLOOR OF THE BOWL,
T INCLUDING THE TERRACING, BUT ARE NOT
E REQUIRED AT THE BASEMENT LEVEL.
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THE LOWER GROUND LEVEL IS OF 500mm 5 4
THICK FLAT SLAB CONSTRUCTION, ACTING AS A
D FLOOR DIAPHRAGM TO TIE TOGETHER THE
E FOUNDATIONS.
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SEISMIC DESIGN OF THE BOWL
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U COMPARED TO THAT OF ROOF,
C THE SEISMIC DESIGN OF THE BOWL
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U STRUCTURE WAS MORE
R STRAIGHTFORWARD.
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S IT IS SUPPORTED ON A SINGLE
Y CONTINUOUS PILE FOUNDATION.
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E THE BOWL IS DIVIDED INTO SIX
M SEGMENTS BY MOVEMENT JOINTS,
S WIDE ENOUGH TO ACCOMODATE
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D BOTH THERMAL EXPANSION AND
E SEISMIC MOMENTS.
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IN EACH INDEPENDENT SEGMENT, TWO LIFT CORES ECCENTRICALLY LOCATED
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T AT THE BACK FORM TWO STRUCTURAL SHEAR WALL CORES, RESISTING BOTH
R GRAVITY FORCES AND MOST OF THE LATERAL FORCES DELIVERED TO THEM BY
U THE FLOOR DIAPHRAGMS.
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L THE MOMENT RESISTING FRAMES PRIMARILY SUPPORT GRAVITY LOADS AND, TOGETHER
S WITH THE CORES AND DIAPHRAGMS, FORM A COMBINED RCC MOMENT FRAME/ SHEAR
Y WALL LATERAL FORCE RESISTING SYSTEM.
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S THE ROOF
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G SUSHANT SCHOOL OF ART AND SUGANDH
VARTIKA
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INITIAL DESIGN CONCEPT
S (RETRACTABLE ROOF) FINAL ROOF DESIGN
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VARTIKA
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ZORAWAR
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A RETRACTABLE ROOF DESIGN AND DETAIL
L The retractable roof structure geometry comprised two halves, each spanning 75m
and 70m long. At the back edge of each half (ie the ends furthest from the opening),
S the perimeter followed the same curve (in plan) as the fixed roof perimeter so that
Y back edge of the retractable roof would merge with the fixed roof when in the open
position. At the front of each half, the edge was a more complex curve: when the two
S halves moved from open to closed, they would form the distinctive yin-yang shape
T at the halfway line .
E The adopted design split each half-roof into five different triangular panels so that
each half of the roof would move as a train of connected panels .
M Separating the roof into discrete panels had significant benefits:
CONTINUITY BETWEEN CONTINUOUS AND
RETRACTABLE ROOF
S Supporting the three corners of each triangular panel meant that the supports
were always in contact with the main roof. This statically determinate condition
& allowed the support conditions to be simplified.
D The separate panels also allowed the retractable roof to articulate, meaning that
the fixed roof did not need to conform to strict displacement criteria; vertical
E movements in it would be easily accommodated.
S Separating the roof into smaller panels meant that it could be built on the ground and lifted in,
reducing the amount of in situ construction.
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Mechanisation system:
S This comprised the bogies and drive components needed to move the
T retractable roof.

R Bogie design
support the corners of the triangular roof panels. At the interface between the
U bogie and panels, proprietary plain spherical thrust and sliding bearings would
C accommodate the movements and carry the lateral loads induced by the drive
T system and inclined tracks. The bogies also had to provide stability in an extreme
U seismic event, and additional restraint was provided by sliding restraints
transferring loads onto the fixed roof structure. These tie-downs also transferred
R any uplift loads induced by wind.
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L Drive system
The gradient of the curved track on the fixed roof (10 at its steepest) meant that a
S powered railway-type bogie system could not be driven reliably without a rack-
Y and- pinion drive or winch-driven system. While there was sufficient space within
S the bogie to package the former, the design progressed using a wire rope (cable)
T winch system as this was the most cost-effective option.
The reeving arrangement chosen conveniently houses the winches within the
E retractable roof, reducing the amount of exposed equipment on the fixed roof.
M Mounting the haul ropes, drums and winches on the bogies also reduced the
S overall length of steel cables required and improved positional control. The cable
& would not move relative to the fixed roof, so additional sheave rollers on the roof
or return pulleys would not be needed. Based on the scheme selected, either
D hydraulic motor drives or three-phase electric induction motor systems (around
E 150kW) could be used to move the roof.
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G SUSHANT SCHOOL OF ART AND SUGANDH
VARTIKA
N ARCHITECTURE, GURGAON, HARYANA YASHPRIYA
ZORAWAR
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R FINAL GEOMETRY:
A Reasons for the elimination of retractable roof:
L Larger opening
S Cost reduction/the reduction in the amount of steel used.
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T Centreline geometry definition:
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Most the geometry can be assigned to three categories:
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S Primary: This comprised the space truss lines and the main structural
& system.
D Secondary: This was used to break up the panel size created by the main
structural system to facilitate the cladding system panels.
E Stairs: The access stairs to the top tier of the bowl were integrated into the
S walls supporting the roof structure.
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VARTIKA
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ZORAWAR
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A Initial design sketch for the roof ETFE Membrane
L ROOF SPAN: 313m x 266m
Envelopes the bowl and concourses to form both faade and roof. The
S faade incorporates the Stadiums main staircases. The result is a compact
Y and sinuous external form uninterrupted by masts, arches, or stair cores.
S While the faade is open, a roof covering made of single-layer ETFE
T membranes stretched between the steelwork sections protects the
spectators from wind and rain.
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E Left the faade uncladed, allowing the staircases that form part of
the roof structure to remain open. It resulted in a great
S architectural experience.
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S Twisting curved box-section.
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ROOF STRUCTURAL COMPONENTS:
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T 24 Column-Truss structure
R 2 inclined truss elements
1 vertical-diamond shaped element
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C At their lower portions, the three column truss elements
T are very close to each other, and detailed so that all
U three members merge to form a single large steel
element. The column truss structures were assumed to
R be fixed to the pilecaps with the foundation spring Column head showing principle elements
A stiffness estimated based on the pile load test results.
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D Interface between retractable and fixed roofs
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A Each of the faades steel members retains a 1.2m wide external profile as it
L twists and bends to follow the saddle shaped geometry of the Stadium. The
steel structure is painted light grey, contrasting with the red-painted external
S concrete wall of the bowl, which is clearly visible through the faade. This
Assuming the material is in the elastic stage, the results
Y of the calculations were Expressed in the von Mises creates a variety of impressive effects, particularly when lit at night.
S stress diagram.
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S The construction stage analyses that reflected the
actual erection sequence included 78 installation
T support points for falsework for the roof structure
R erection.
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C Based on the loading stage of the structure, four
key construction phases were determined for the
T static construction stage analysis, as follows:
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R Phase1:Construct 24 columns, faade
A secondary structure, ring trusses in the middle,
and the primary truss (with temporary support).
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S Phase2:Remove the temporary support after
Y assembly of primary trusses in sections
(completion of the main structure).
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T Phase3:Construct secondary structure on the
E top surface and facade stairs.
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Phase4:Install the pipelines for cladding
S structure, catwalks, light fittings, and drainpipes.
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VARTIKA
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R Load Resistance on the structure
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C The Beijing National Stadium is designed to resist both typical
T building loads and earthquake loads.
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R Horizontal Loads
A The structure must resist a total of 56,625 tons of vertical load. The
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Steel structure itself must resist its own load of 42,000 tons and
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Y 11,625 tons of live load, totaling in 53,625 tons. The Plinth type of
S the foundation is essential to carry such a load, which is fairly
T evenly distributed.
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M Each member of the steel Nest is designed carefully to carry its
S own weight of 42, 000 tons loads. The overall shape appears to be
& random, but in reality it follows strict geometric rules.
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R The core portion of the building carries the dead load of the
U concrete structure as well as the live load of people totaling to
C 13,122 tons. The load is transferred directly to the plinth foundation
T as distributed load as shown below.
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U Lateral Loads
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T The massive steel structure resists lateral loads in a similar manner
U as the horizontal ones. In addition, instead of the loads hitting the
R structure and following it downwards and upwards it is broken
A down through the lattice of steel while being weakened and
L providing natural ventilation in the building.
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VARTIKA
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S The loads at each
T intersection are split
R between the
U members and
C transferred
T downward as
U indicated below.
R The red points
A indicate the transfer
L connections were
S load impact is felt
Y most significantly. The
S below image
T identifies the primary
E and secondary
M members. the
S secondary members
& had to be welded on
D two sides of primary
E members.
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VARTIKA
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U Initial nonlinear computer
C simulations indicated that, in
T some analysis cases, collapse
U may occur when subjected to
R the strong ground shaking of
A
the level 3 earthquake. Arup
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examined the collapse process
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in these computer runs and
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S identified the critical primary
T truss members that needed to
E be strengthened. After a few
M iterations, the collapse
In the damage states of the roof truss members, most primary members
S prevention performance remained elastic (green), but some sustained moderate damage (blue: the
& objective was achieved in all immediate occupancy damage state), entering slightly into the post-
D buckling range of response. Only a few reached the significant damage
analysis cases. state (yellow: the life safety damage state), responding well into the post-
E buckling range of response but without reaching the point at which
S strength starts to degrade.

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VARTIKA
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Thermal comfort in the Stadium
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Y The Beijing Olympics were promoted as green.. To make Beijing National Stadiums
S green design work, the thermal condition inside was critical, especially when in its
T Olympic mode, with up to 91000 spectators. Thermal comfort in a semi-open space
E is a subjective measure of peoples physiological response.
M During the design process, the following optimisations were performed to improve the
S thermal comfort level cost-effectively, without any active mechanical systems: increase
& the distance between the highest seats and the false ceiling from 4m to 8m, so that the
D occupants of these seats are below the stratified hot air layer under the roof reduce the
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area of the outer transparent membrane layer at the sides so as to enlarge the opening
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for natural ventilation.
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R Wind conditions in the Stadium
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T Wind tunnel measurements were made
U for the external plaza surrounding it, and
R for the concourses and key seating areas
A within. These wind speeds were used in
L assessing pedestrian safety and comfort
S in and around the Stadium . Wind
Y conditions in the Stadium and external
S plaza are generally suitable to strolling or
T for short periods of standing or sitting
E No areas would be uncomfortable for strolling, which was entirely acceptable for the
M intended usage. The results showed wind conditions in the athletic arena during the
S summer months to be, on average, very benign. In addition, wind speed measurements
& were made over the turfed areas of the field so as to develop appropriate turfing
D strategies for the Stadium. If gust wind speeds would exceed around 2m/sec on the
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track, notably for the sprint and horizontal jumps area would interfere with
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performance.
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S IN ADDITION, WIND SPEED
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R MEASUREMENTS WERE MADE
U OVER THE TURFED AREA OF THE
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T FIELD SO AS TO DEVELOP
U APPROPRIATE TURFING
R STRATEGIES FOR THE STADIUM.
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S ASSUMING ACCEPTABLE
Y VENTILATION TO BE 1-2m/s, THE
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ADJOINING FIGURE SHOWS THAT
E THE SOUTH-WEST AND NORTH-
M WEST CORNER ZONES (ORANGE)
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& ARE BETTER VENTILATED THAN
D OTHER AREAS OF THE FIELD.
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U Fire engineering concepts
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T All viewing accommodation spaces are separated
U from adjacent areas or voids, and all the
R stairways, dormitories, and passageways were
A designed to comply with the Chinese codes. The
L concessions and high-risk areas are protected
S locally by using the cabin concept, which
Y makes use of sprinklers, smoke barriers and a
S dynamic smoke control system. It was concluded
T that additional fire protection was only needed
E for the critical structural steel roof members
M within 6m of the spectators. Most of the
S structural members of the roof, therefore, did
& not require fire protection.
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G SUSHANT SCHOOL OF ART AND SUGANDH
VARTIKA
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U The retractable roof design
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T Development of this concept
U led to a retractable roof
R structure that reflected the
A seemingly irregular Birds
L Nest structure of the fixed
S roof.
Y . Its design dominated much of
S the Stadiums early The retractable roof concept
T development before it was
E finally omitted as a cost-saving
M measure in June 2004, due
S both to the rising cost of steel
& and political pressures to keep
D the Olympic budget under
E control.
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