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IS- 875 (PART 1-5)
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SRISHTI
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VARTIKA
N ARCHITECTURE, GURGAON, HARYANA YASHPRIYA
ZORAWAR
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(DEAD LOADS)
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T DEFINITION
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U The dead load includes loads that are
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relatively constant over time, including the
U weight of the structure itself, and immovable
R fixtures such as walls, plasterboard or built-in
A cupboards. The roof is also a dead load.
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Dead loads are also known as permanent or
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Y static loads. Building materials are not dead
S loads until constructed in permanent
T position. IS875(part 1)-1987 give unit weight
E of building materials, parts, components.
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T FEATURES OF DEAD LOAD
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DEAD LOADS ARE THE SELF WEIGHT OF THE STRUCTURE.
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R IT REMAINS THE SAME/ STATIC OVER TIME.
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VARTIKA
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R IT DEPENDS ON THE BUILDING MATERIALS USED. (VOLUME AND
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& more volume Less volume
D more dead load less dead load
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VARTIKA
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R AS THE LOAD EXISTS DUE TO GRAVITY, IT IS EXERTED IN A
U VERTICAL PLANE.
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TOTAL DEAD LOAD OF A STRUCTURE IS THE ALGEBRAIC SUM OF
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DEAD LOADS OF ITS COMPONENTS.
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T CALCULATION OF DEAD LOADS
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C FLOOR/ COLUMNS/ BEAMS/ SLAB/ ROOF
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U Most floor, roof, and wall systems have fairly uniform density and their
R weights can be expressed in terms of weight per unit area/ volume.
A
L Dead load for such a component is the UNIT WEIGHT PER VOLUME/
S AREA multiplied by the VOLUME/ AREA of that component.
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VARTIKA
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S EXAMPLE CALCULATE DEAD LOAD
T EXERTED BY RCC COLUMN
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U VOLUME OF COLUMN = 0.6M*O.6M*3M
R = 1.08 m^3
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S UNIT WEIGHT OF RCC = 25 kN/m^3
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S = VOLUME OF COLUMN* UNIT WT. OF RCC
& = 1.08 * 25
D = 27 kN
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SRISHTI
G SUSHANT SCHOOL OF ART AND SUGANDH
VARTIKA
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T CALCULATION OF DEAD LOADS
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C Miscellaneous Load
T
U These are minor electrical and mechanical items such as wiring and plumbing
R whose exact location is unknown during design, as well as added density at the
A connections to supporting structures.
L To account for these items an additional "miscellaneous" load may be
S applied. The magnitude of the miscellaneous load generally varies depending on
Y what you expect the extent of these items to be.
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VARTIKA
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(IMPOSED LOADS)
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VARTIKA
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T Definition
R Weight of everything superimposed on, or
U temporarily attached to, a structure
C (people, machinery and equipment,
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furniture, appliances, etc.) but not that
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R of the material utilized in its
A construction or of anything permanently
L attached to it.
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Y The IS code specifies 4 pointers of Imposed
S Loads
T -IMPOSED LOADS ON FLOORS DUE TO USE AND

E OCCUPANCY
- IMPOSED LOADS ON ROOFS
M - IMPOSED HORIZONTAL LOADS ON PARAPETS AND
S BALUSTRADES
& -LOADING EFFECTS DUE TO IMPACT AND VIBRATION

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U IMPOSED LOADS ON FLOORS
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DUE TO USE AND OCCUPANCY
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R Floors shall be investigated for both the
A uniformly distributed load ( UDL ) and the
corresponding concentrated load
L specified in Table 1 and designed For the
most adverse effects
S UNIFORMLY DISTRIBUTED LOADS
Y Required Live Loads. The live loads
used in the design of buildings and other
S structures shall be the maximum loads
T expected by the intended use or
occupancy, but shall in no case be less
E than the minimum uniformly distributed
M unit
S CONCENTRATED LOADS Floors, roofs, and
other similar surfaces shall be designed
& to support safely the uniformly distributed
D live loads.

E SIMPLIFIED FORM OF TABLE 2 IN IS 875 PART 2, Denoting Minimum live load


on types of floors
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C IMPOSED LOADS ON ROOFS
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U On flat roofs, sloping roofs and
R curved roofs, the imposed
A loads due to use or
L occupancy of the buildings Sloping Roof
and the geometry of the
S types of roofs shall be as
Y given in Table 2.
Roofs of buildings used for
S promenade or incidental to
T assembly purposes shall be
E designed for the appropriate
M imposed floor loads given in
Table 1 for the occupancy.
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S Curved Roof
Flat Roof
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T Types of Roof Uniformly Minimu
R Other factors of Imposed Distributed Load m
U loads on Roofs (Measured on Imposed
C Plan) Loads
T Snow load/wind load.
U Loadspositioning,
Doe to Rain - On surfaces whose Flat, Sloping, Curved
shape and drainage
R systems are such as to make including 10 degrees
accumulation of rainwater possible!
A loads due to such accumulation of i) Access Provided 1.5 kN/m 3.75 kN
L Dust Load - In areas prone to settlement
water.

S of dust on roofs ( example, steel ii) Access not provided 0.75kN/m 1.9 kN
plants, cement plants ), provision for
Y dust load equivalent to probable
Sloping Roof (slope greater 0.02kN/m for 0.4kN/m
thickness of accumulation of dust
S may be made. than 10) every degree
T Imposed loads for the roof as given in
Table 2 shall be considered increase in slope
E separately and the more critical of
M the two shall be adopted in the
design. Curved roof (slope greater (0.75 0.52) 0.4kN/m
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than 10) kN/m
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VARTIKA
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R LOADS DUE TO IMPACT VIBRATION
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Impact Allowance for Lifts, Hoists and Machinery
T The imposed loads specified shall be assumed to include
U adequate allowance for ordinary impact conditions.
However, for structures carrying loads which induce
R impact or vibration, as far as possible, calculations LIFTS
A shall be made for increase in the imposed load, due to AHU
impact or vibration.
L The impact factor shall not be less than 20 percent which
S is the amount allowable for light machinery.
Overloading Factors in Crane Supporting Structures- For
Y all ladle cranes and charging cranes, where there is
S possibility of overloading from production
considerations, an overloading factor of 10 percent of
T the maximum wheel loading shall be taken.
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SRISHTI
G SUSHANT SCHOOL OF ART AND SUGANDH
VARTIKA
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T IMPOSED HORIZONTAL LOADS ON PARAPETS AND BALUSTRADES
These are expressed as horizontal forces acting at handrail or coping level. These loads shall be considered to act
R vertically also but net simultaneously with the horizontal forces.
U The values given in Table 3 are minimum values and where values for actual loadings are available, they shall be
used instead.
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VARTIKA
N ARCHITECTURE, GURGAON, HARYANA YASHPRIYA
ZORAWAR
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(WIND LOADS)
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SRISHTI
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VARTIKA
N ARCHITECTURE, GURGAON, HARYANA YASHPRIYA
ZORAWAR
STRUCTURES I LOADS I 2016

INTRODUCTION:

Wind is essentially the large scale


horizontal movement of free air. It plays
an important role in the design of all
structures because it exerts loads in
buildings.

Causes of wind:

Wind is caused by wind moving from high


pressure to low pressure. Since, the earth
is rotating, the air doesnt flow from high
to low but is deflected to the right( in the
Northern Hemisphere to the left in the
Southern hemisphere so that the wind
mostly flows in the low and high pressure
areas.

SRISHTI
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VARTIKA
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STRUCTURES I LOADS I 2016

Characteristics of Wind Load


Depends upon:
velocity and density of the air

height above ground level

shape and aspect ratio of the building

topography of the surrounding ground surface

angle of wind attack

solidity ratio or openings in the building


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Determination of Wind Loads as per


IS 875 (Part 3) EXAMPLE:

To find: k1,k2,k3,design wind pressure


Length of the building=50M
Span=20M
Design wind speed Wind speed=50M/SEC
Terrain-OPEN
Building Class B
Vz=Vbk1k2k3 Clear Height at 8M at the eaves of GUWAHATI

Vz=Vb K1K2K3
Vb=50M/SEC
V b = Basic wind speed K1=1 (general building)
K2=1.03 (Terrain Category 1, Class B)
k 1 = Probability factor or risk coefficient K3=1 ( Open Terrain)
k 2 = Terrain and height factor Vz= 1X 0.3X 1X 50
=51.5M/SEC
k 3 = Topography factor
DESIGN WIND PRESSURE=0.6(Vz)2
=0.6X51.5X51.5
=1591.35 N/M2

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Basic wind speed :

IS 875 (Part 3) gives the basic wind


speeds having a return period of 50
years(Over a period of many years, the
average number of years between
repeat occurrence of events having an
intensity that is equal to or greater than
a specified value. ) and at a height of 10
m above ground level.

Entire country is divided into six wind


zones.
Basic wind speeds in m/s (Based on
50yr return period )
For some important cities, basic wind
speed is given in Appendix A of the code

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STRUCTURES I LOADS I 2016

Probability factor / Risk Coefficient (k 1 )

Basic wind speed is based on a 50yr return period.

There is always a probability (howsoever small) that basic wind speed may be
exceeded in a storm of exceptional violence; the greater the number of years
over which there will be exposure to wind, the greater is the probability.

The factor k1 is based on statistical concepts, which take account of the degree
of reliability required, and period of time during which there will be exposure to
wind i.e. life of the structure.

IS 875 gives values of k1 for different classes of buildings.

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For some important structures (nuclear power plants, satellite communication


towers etc.) code gives a formula to calculate the value of k1.

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Terrain and Height Factor (k 2 )


Four terrain categories have been considered by the code depending on
the surroundings of structure.
Category 1 : Exposed open terrain with few or no obstructions Avg.
height of surrounding objects is 1.5 m. Eg. Open sea coasts, flat treeless
plains.
Category 2 : Open terrain with well scattered obstructions with height
b/w 1.5 10 m. Eg. includes airfields, open parklands etc.
Category 3 : Terrain with numerous closely spaced obstructions having
the size of building-structures up to 10 m Eg. Towns and industrial areas,
full or partially developed
Category 4 : Terrain with numerous large high closely spaced
obstructions. Eg. Large city centres

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STRUCTURES I LOADS I 2016

Buildings have been divided into 3 classes


Class A : Structures having maximum dimension (greatest horizontal or
vertical dimension) less than 20 m.

Class B : Maximum dimension b/w 20 50 m.

Class C : Maximum dimension greater than 50 m.

IS 875 gives the values of k 2 at different heights for the above four
categories and different classes of buildings.
Wind profile does not develop fully at the start of the terrain. Height of
development increases with the upward distance or fetch distance.

For structures of height greater than the developed height velocity profile
can be determined from the method described in Appendix B of the code. SRISHTI
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Topography Factor (k 3 )
Vb does not take into account the local topography features such as
hills, valleys etc.

Topography features affect the wind speeds.


Accelerated near the summits and decelerated in the valleys

Design Wind Pressure:


Design wind pressure
p d = 0.6 Vz2 where
p d = design wind pressure
V z = design wind speed
Note : In cyclone prone regions, design wind speed is increased by a certain factor to
account for drastic increase in wind speed during cyclone.

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STRUCTURES I LOADS I 2016

Wind Pressure on Roofs


Pressure acts normal to the element

F = (Cpe - Cpi ) A pd where

F = net wind force on the element


A = surface area of the element
pd = design wind pressure
Cpe = external pressure coefficient
Cpi = internal pressure coefficient

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STRUCTURES I LOADS I 2016

Linked-Hybrid Structural
system analysis :
Completion Date: Spring 2009
Area: 220,000sqm(2,368,060sq ft)
Primary Use: Towers 1-8: Residential, Tower9: Hotel
Other Use: Retail, Office, Public Space
Owner/Developer: Modern Green Development Co.Ltd.
Architect: Steven Holl Architects
Associate Architect: Beijing Capital Engineering Architecture Design
Co,Ltd Structural Engineer: Guy Nordenson and Associates, China
Academy of Building Research
MEP: Transsolar ClimateEngineering, Beijing Capital Engineering
Architecture Design Co,Ltd, Cosentini Associates
Contractor: Beijing Construction Engineering Group

2 systems to resist lateral load:

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STRUCTURES I LOADS I 2016

1.Core of concrete shear walls & crossed shear walls


The rectangular tube can be viewed as 4 shear walls. They can increase the stiffness of
the structure obviously. Thus, it stabilizes the building mainly with regard to horizontal
forces like wind and earthquake.

2. perimeter concrete moment frame


In the area of the (inevitable) openings, special
reinforcement is required. Normal high rise buildings can
be fully stabilized by the reinforced concrete core. For
higher ones, one makes also use of the faade.
In this case, the perimeter concrete moment frame is the
second way to resist lateral load.

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STRUCTURES I LOADS I 2016

The frame is a grid of uniform dimension interspersed with diagonal members. These diagonals
occur on an ad hoc basis where required for building cantilevers, overhangs and overall stiffness.
These bracing members were added around the perimeter of the towers to increase torsional
rigidity.

Due to its complex form, Linked hybrid have very DIAGONAL BRACING
complicated force transfer system. In order to solve
the problem of force transformation in buildings high
rise part, the design of structure adopted the space
trusses transform system, installing diagonal bracing
in appropriate structural section. Mainly in two
situation:
1. integral transform trusses with diagonal bracing
over big openings
2. double-side overhanging integral transform
trusses with diagonal bracing in corner openings
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Overhanging and diagonal bracing


Diagonal bracing played an important role in
overhanging structure, they take the tension
force and the moment produced by
overhanging gravity loads. with this diagonal
bracing, these overturning force transfer from
overhanging to main building. the core tube
and shear wall increased the stiffness of
building andd the capacity of main building to
resist these moment.

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VARTIKA
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(SNOW LOADS)
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SRISHTI
G SUSHANT SCHOOL OF ART AND SUGANDH
VARTIKA
N ARCHITECTURE, GURGAON, HARYANA YASHPRIYA
ZORAWAR
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Introduction
U Snow loads are prevalent in
C Mountainous regions.
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U Snow loads on roofs vary as a
R function of the characteristic
A snow load on the ground,
L climate (including
S temperature and wind speed
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S during the winter), roof shape,
T roofing material, and from
E one winter to another.
M
S IS 857, Part 4, provides
& guidance for the roofing
D system of India, according to
E snow loads.
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Snow Load and Calculation
U Snow Load (S):
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T S = s
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Where,
A S- Snow load
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S - Shape Coefficient
Y s- Ground snow load in Pa (pascal) (1 pa = 1N/m2 )
S
T Ground snow load(s) :
E
M Depends on combination of maximum depth of
S undisturbed aggregate cumulative snow-fall and its
&
D
average density.
E The characteristic of snow load is different for different
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Shape Coefficient ()
C In ideal conditions,
T
U snowfall would cover
R the ground uniformly;
A
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therefore the snow
S load would be uniform.
Y Since this is rare, and
S only found in places
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E having shelter by tree
M cover or buildings on all
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sides. In this case, the
D shape coefficient is
E considered unity.
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VARTIKA
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S Mostly, snowfall is accompanied by winds; this leads to
T redistribution of snow and varied snow loads.
R Since there isnt a method to determine shape coefficient from
U
C the data statistics, it has been given a nominal value. The
T calculations are as follows:
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T - The angle of
R the roof.
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C As the angle of
T the roof changes,
U the values of
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A differs
L accordingly.
S The following
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table, derives the
T various methods
E to calculate Shape
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S coefficient ()
& with differing
D values of the
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S angle of the roof
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VARTIKA
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VARTIKA
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Shape coefficient for
Simple Curved Roofs

Case 1 the value of 1


is 0.8
Case 2 the value of
2=0.3+10(h/l)

Restrictions:
2 < 2.3
= 0 if >60
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Shape Coefficient for Multilevel Roofs
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VARTIKA
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Another Formula for Multilevel Roof
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VARTIKA
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VARTIKA
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Shape Coefficient for Complex
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Multilevel Roofs
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M L2 = 2h1 : L3 = 2h3 : 1 = 0.8
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Restrictions
E 5m < L2 < 15m
S 5m < L3 < 15m
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T Roofs with Local Projections and
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Obstructions
T
U 2= kh/s
R Where
A
L h is in metres
S s in kilopascals
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S 1 = 0.8
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L =2h
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& Restrictions
D 0.8 < 2 < 2.0
E
S 5m < L < 15m
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SRISHTI
G SUSHANT SCHOOL OF ART AND SUGANDH
VARTIKA
N ARCHITECTURE, GURGAON, HARYANA YASHPRIYA
ZORAWAR
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S PART 5
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(SPECIAL LOADS)
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SRISHTI
G SUSHANT SCHOOL OF ART AND SUGANDH
VARTIKA
N ARCHITECTURE, GURGAON, HARYANA YASHPRIYA
ZORAWAR
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IS 875 (PART 5) - SPECIAL LOADS AND
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C LOAD COMBINATIONS
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R This code deals with some special loads and load effects which
A are caused by:
L
S temperature changes
Y soil and hydrostatic pressures
S
T internally generating stresses in the building (due to creep,
E shrinkage, differential settlement, etc)
M
S structural safety during construction (accidental loads, etc.)
&
D other loads
E This part also deals with guide on load combinations.
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SRISHTI
G SUSHANT SCHOOL OF ART AND SUGANDH
VARTIKA
N ARCHITECTURE, GURGAON, HARYANA YASHPRIYA
ZORAWAR
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1. TEMPERATURE EFFECTS
Expansion and contraction due to change in temperature or the materials of
C a structure shall be considered in design.
T
U Provision shall be made either to relieve stress which can be done by
expansion or contraction joints in accordance with IS : 3414-1968- or
R designing of the structure to carry additional stresses due to temperature
A effects or appropriate to the problem.
L The difference (due to the condition of exposure and the rate at which the
S materials composing the structure absorb or radiate heat) in temperature
Y variations of the material and air should be given due consideration.
S The structural analysis takes into account:- (a) changes of the mean (through
T the section) temperature in relation to the initial temperature, these are
E liable to differ as between one structural element and another in buildings or
M structures
S (b) the temperature gradient to the section.
&
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VARTIKA
N ARCHITECTURE, GURGAON, HARYANA YASHPRIYA
ZORAWAR
S The absolute maximum and minimum temperature which may be expected in
T different locations of the country are indicated in fig. 1 and 2 respectively. These
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U figures may be used for guidance in assessing the maximum variations or
C temperature. These values show the air temperatures in shade.
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SRISHTI
G SUSHANT SCHOOL OF ART AND SUGANDH
f.1 Chart showing highest maximum temperature f.2 Chart showing lowest minimum
VARTIKA temp.
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2. HYDROSTATIC AND SOIL
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PRESSURE
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R In the design of structures or parts of structures below ground level such
A as retaining walls and other walls in basement floors, the pressure exerted
L by soil or water or both shall be duly accounted for on the basis of
established theories. Due allowance shall be made for possible surcharge
S from stationary or moving loads. When a portion or whole of the soil is
Y below the free water surface, the lateral earth pressure shall be evaluated
S for weight of soil diminished by buoyancy and the full hydrostatic
T pressure.
E All foundation slabs and other footings subjected to water pressure shall
M be designed to resist a uniformly distributed uplift equal to the full
S hydrostatic pressure. Checking of overturning of foundation under
& submerged condition shall be done considering buoyant weight of
D foundation.
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SRISHTI
G SUSHANT SCHOOL OF ART AND SUGANDH
VARTIKA
N ARCHITECTURE, GURGAON, HARYANA YASHPRIYA
ZORAWAR
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R While determining the lateral soil pressure on column like structural
U members, such as pillars which rest in sloping soils, the width of the member
C
T shall be taken as follows. (fig. 3)
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E Safe guarding of structures and structural
M members against over-turning and horizontal
S sliding shall be verified. Imposed loads having
& favorable effect shall be disregarded for the
D purpose. Due consideration shall be given to the
E possibility of soil being permanently or
S
I temporarily removed.
SRISHTI
G SUSHANT SCHOOL OF ART AND SUGANDH
Fig.3 VARTIKA
N ARCHITECTURE, GURGAON, HARYANA YASHPRIYA
ZORAWAR
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R 3. FATIGUE
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T Fatigue cracks are usually initiated at points of high stress concentration and
U propagate if loading is continuous. These stress concentrations may be caused
R by or associated with holes (such as bolt or rivet holes in steel structures), welds
A including stray or fusions in steel structures, defects in materials, and local and
L general changes in geometry of members.
S Suitable steps like reduction of permissible stresses shall be taken to avoid
Y critical vibrations due to wind, earthquake and other causes. Sudden changes of
S
T shape of a member or part of a member, especially in regions of tensile stress
E and/or local secondary bending, shall be avoided. Allowance for fatigue shall be
M made for combinations of stresses due to dead load and imposed load.
S Each element of the structure shall be designed for the number of stress
& cycles of each magnitude to which it is estimated that the element is liable to
D be subjected during the expected life of the structure. The number of cycles of
E each magnitude shall be estimated in the light of available data regarding the
S
I probable frequency of occurrence of each type of loading.
SRISHTI
G SUSHANT SCHOOL OF ART AND SUGANDH
VARTIKA
N ARCHITECTURE, GURGAON, HARYANA YASHPRIYA
ZORAWAR
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R 4. STRUCTURAL SAFETY DURING
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R The occurrence of accidental loads with a significant value, is unlikely on a
A given structure over the period of time under consideration, and also in
L most cases is of short duration.
S The occurrence of an accidental load could in many cases be expected to
Y cause severe consequences unless special measures are taken: The
S accidental loads arising out of human action include the following:
T
E a) Impacts and collisions, b) Explosions, and c) Fire.
M The above stated loads are not a consequence of normal use and that they
S are undesired, and that extensive efforts are made to avoid them. As a
& result, the provability of occurrence of an accidental load is small whereas
D the consequences may be severe.
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SRISHTI
G SUSHANT SCHOOL OF ART AND SUGANDH
VARTIKA
N ARCHITECTURE, GURGAON, HARYANA YASHPRIYA
ZORAWAR
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Impacts And Collisions
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A During an impact, the kinetic impact energy has to be absorbed by the
L vehicle hitting the structure and by the structure itself. In an accurate
S analysis, the probability of occurrence of an impact with a certain energy
Y and the deformation characteristics of the object hitting the structure and
S the structure itself at .the actual place must be consider- ed. Impact
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E energies for dropped objects should be based on the actual loading
M capacity and lifting height.
S Common sources of impact are:
&
a) vehicles; b) dropped objects from cranes, forklifts, etc; c) cranes out of
D
E control, crane failures; and d) flying fragments.
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SRISHTI
G SUSHANT SCHOOL OF ART AND SUGANDH
VARTIKA
N ARCHITECTURE, GURGAON, HARYANA YASHPRIYA
ZORAWAR
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R Explosions
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T Explosions may cause impulsive loading on a structure. The following
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R types of explosions are particularly relevant:
A a) Internal gas explosions which may be caused by leakage of gas piping
L (including piping outside the room), evaporation from volatile liquids or
S unintentional evaporation from surface material (for example, fire)
Y b) Internal dust explosions
S
T c) Boiler failure
E d) External gas cloud explosions
M e) External explosions of high-explosives (TNT, dynamite).
S
& Gas explosion may be caused, for example, by leaks in gas pipes (inclusive
D of pipes outside the room), evaporation from volatile liquids or
E unintentional evaporation of gas from wall sheathings (for example,
S caused by fire) in closed rooms.
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SRISHTI
G SUSHANT SCHOOL OF ART AND SUGANDH
VARTIKA
N ARCHITECTURE, GURGAON, HARYANA YASHPRIYA
ZORAWAR
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R Fire
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T Possible extraordinary loads during a fire may be considered as accidental
U actions. Examples are loads from people along escape routes and loads on
R another structure from structure failing because of a fire.
A The thermal effect during fire may be determined from one of the
L following methods:
S a) Time-temperature curve and the required fire resistance ( minutes ),
Y
S or
T b) Energy balance method
E If the thermal effect during fire is determined from energy balance
M
method, the fire load is taken to be: Q = 12 tb
S
& where q = fire action ( KJ per metre cube floor ), and tb = required fire
D resistance (minutes)
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SRISHTI
G SUSHANT SCHOOL OF ART AND SUGANDH
VARTIKA
N ARCHITECTURE, GURGAON, HARYANA YASHPRIYA
ZORAWAR
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R 5. OTHER LOADS AND LOAD
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COMBINATIONS
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A Other loads not included in the present code such as special loads due to
L technical process, moisture and shrinkage effects, etc, should be taken
S into account where stipulated by building design codes or established in
Y accordance with the performance requirement of the structure.
S
T A judicious combination of the loads (specified in Parts 1 to 4 of this
E standard and earthquake), keeping in view the probability of:
M a) their acting together, and
S
& b) their disposition in relation to other loads and severity of stresses or
D deformations caused by combinations of the various loads is necessary
E to ensure the required safety and economy in the design of a structure.
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SRISHTI
G SUSHANT SCHOOL OF ART AND SUGANDH
VARTIKA
N ARCHITECTURE, GURGAON, HARYANA YASHPRIYA
ZORAWAR
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R The various loads should be combined in accordance with the stipulations
U in the relevant design codes. In the absence of such recommendations,
C the following loading combinations, whichever combination produces the
T most unfavorable effect in the building, foundation or structural member
U
R concerned may be adopted (as a general guidance). It should also be
A recognized in load combinations that the simultaneous occurrence of
L maximum values of wind, earthquake, imposed and snow loads is not
S likely.
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S a) DL , b) DL+IL c) DL+WL d) DL+EL e) DL+TL f) DL+IL+WL g) DL+IL+EL
T
E h) DL+IL+TL j) DL+WL+TL k) DL+EL+TL m) DL+IL+WL+TL n) DL+IL+EL+TL
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& DL = dead load, IL = imposed load, WL = wind load, EL = earthquake load,
D TL = temperature load
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SRISHTI
G SUSHANT SCHOOL OF ART AND SUGANDH
VARTIKA
N ARCHITECTURE, GURGAON, HARYANA YASHPRIYA
ZORAWAR