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What is Logic?

1. IT IS A SCIENCE AND ART OF


CORRECT THINKING OR
REASONING.
2. LOGIC AS A PHILOSOPHICAL
DISCIPLINE.

-that logic involves both


reciprocal process of theory and
practice.
-that logic is a tool in
understanding the many
philosophical questions in life.
WHY STUDY LOGIC?
COMMON SENSE
It is a key factor
for acting in our
real world
CHAPTER I
LANGUAGE
MEANING
DEFINITION
LANGUAGE AS A SIGN

Semiotics or Semiology is in the essence


the study of signs.

A sign is something which refers to


something other than itself.
ELEMENTS OF SIGNS
According to Ferdinand Sausurre:
1. signified refers to the thing-in-itself
2. signifier refers to the word or image
acoustic (sound), the material form which
the sign takes.
According to Charles Peirce:
1. object- anything that can be thought,
whether as a concept or thing.
2. representamen-the sign that denotes the
object.
3. interpretant-the meaning obtained by
decoding or interpreting the sign.
The Three Areas in Semiotics
1. Syntactics is also known as the
science of grammar.
2. Semantics is the relationships of sign
to what they stand for.
Example: The present queen of the
Philippines is corrupt.
3. Pragmatics is the study of the
meaning based on the relations of the
signs to the interpreter.
Example: langgam
TRUTH AND MEANING
1. TheBasic Function of Language
a. Descriptive function -the informative
meaning conveyed by the sentence can
be evaluated according to their truth-
values as either true or false.
Example: EDSA Revolution took place on
February 25, 1986. TRUE
Saddam Hussein was executed in America.
FALSE
b. Expressive Function of language
is identical with exclamatory
sentence. Truth and falsity has no
bearing under this function of
language.
c. Directive Function is similar to
ordinary imperative sentence. It is
not evaluated in its truth-values.
A sentence, in its declarative
grammatical form, may have several
functions as expressive, directive,
ceremonial, etc. What we are
concerned with logic is the usefulness
of a declarative sentence that is
informative in its function and no
other. Logic is all about matters of
truth or falsity. The use of declarative
sentence takes the lead in the study of
logic not because of its grammatical
form, but because it conveys
information as true or false.
Analytic and Synthetic Propositions
1. Analytic Propositions are those
whose predicate concept is contained
in its subject concept. In other
words, the predicate is equivalent to
the subject.
Examples: All Bachelors are
unmarried men. True
No bachelors are unmarried men.
False
2. Synthetic Propositions are those
whose predicate concept is not
contained in its subject concept.
The truth and falsity of the
proposition depends on the
relevant facts or information in the
real world.
Examples: Salt is inexpensive
mineral.
The criteria for Truth
1. Coherence Criterion of Truth
provides that coherence or
consistency is the requirement in
judging a proposition as true. In a
proposition, there are two facts
that are accepted as consistently
true. This test is applicable to
analytic propositions.
2. Correspondence Criterion for
Truth provides that
correspondence is the requirement
in judging the proposition as
either true or false. The Truth-
value of the proposition basically
rests on the conformity or
correspondence of our mind with
the reality. If it corresponds, the
judgment is true, if it does not, the
judgment is false. This test is
applicable to synthetic
propositions.