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Ordinary Propositions

Guidelines in translating ordinary propositions

into their standard form:
1. The Singular propositions
Singular propositions are those that have subject
terms that are single individuals
There is no group or class being specified in the
subject term. In order to assign a class, we have to
treat singular propositions as universal ones.
Ex. Pres. Noynoy is the brother of Kris Aquino.
This man is not a perfect guy.
2. Indefinite propositions
-are those propositions that have no
definite sign of quantity attached to the
subject. In instances wherein no explicit
quantifier is used, one must determine the
quantity from the context or from the
sense of the statement, and provide the
correct quantifier.
Ex. Lions are carnivorous animals.
All Lions are carnivorous animals. A
Lions are not vegetarian animals.
No lions are vegetarian animals. E
3. The Propositions with Adjectives
There are many categorical propositions having
the grammatical predicate in adjectives
instead of nouns. We must take note that terms
used in the proposition must denote a class of
objects to be properly quantified as universal
or particular. Thus, it would be proper to
couple adjectives with nouns
Ex. Some roses are red.
Some roses are red flowers. I
4. The Propositions with Non-standard Verbs
The structure of a standard form categorical
proposition requires the use of a verb to be or
copula as a standard verb. All other verbs are
considered as non-standard. To do the translation,
we must first identify the verb-phrases and change
them into noun-phrases in order to designate group
or class.
Ex. Lea Salonga performs the Miss Saigon.
Lea Salonga is the performer of the Miss Saigon.
5. The Affirmative propositions with Non-Standard
Quantifiers refer to the term signifying the
quantity or number of objects represented by a
subject term. In a standard affirmative
categorical proposition, there are only two
quantifiers: all and some.
There are ordinary propositions that do not have
quantifiers classified as non-standard (each,
every, everyone, etc.)
Ex. Every student is a learner.
All students are learners.

A. Not attached to indefinite

When the word not is attached to the
indefinite pronouns (i.e. every, to not
every), the statement becomes a
particular negative proposition.
Ex. Not every student participates in the
Some students are not participants of the
B. The relative pronouns
The relative pronouns whoever, and whatever,
can have their equivalent quantifier all which
should be coupled with their relative words
persons, places, and objects respectively.
Ex. Whoever is corrupt is dishonest.
All persons that is corrupt is dishonest.
Whatever is material will decay.
All Material things are things that would decay.
Wherever there is peace, there is love.
All places where there is peace are places where
there is love.
C. The articles a, an, and the
The articles a, an, and the can also be used to indicate the
quantity of the propositions. With these articles written before
the subject terms, the propositions maybe considered as either
universal or particular depending upon the meaning asserted in
the sentences.
Ex. A Filipino is an Asian.
All Filipinos are Asian.
A Filipino is hospitable.
Some Filipinos are hospitable persons.

D. The Pronoun there are

The pronoun there are is always used with plural noun so that in
the translation, the proposition becomes particular.
Ex. There are good researches.
Some researches are good studies.
6.The Negative Propositions without
Standard Quantifiers

The indefinite pronouns nothing,

none, or no one are non-
standard quantifier no under the
negative universal propositions.
Ex. None of the damned is happy.
No person who is damned is happy.
Nothing beautiful is ugly.
No beautiful things are ugly things.
7. The Compound Statements
Compound statements are multiple
statements which are composed of two or
more single statements. A compound
statement can be translated into single
statement. One statement serves as the
subject term and the other serves as the
predicate term.
Ex. If an animal has four legs, then it is not a
No four-legged animals are birds.
If it is a mouse, then, it is a mammal.
All mice are mammals.
8. The Exceptive Propositions
The Exceptive propositions are
also known as compound or
multiple propositions for they
make two assertions rather than
Ex. All except women will
It means two things:
1. All non-women are persons who
will be vaccinated. A
2. No women are persons who will
be vaccinated. E
9. The Exclusive Propositions
The exclusive propositions are
those that have subject terms
preceded by the words only and
none but.
To translate, these three things
must be observed: 1.) drop the cue
words, 2.) reverse the order of the
subject and predicate terms, and
3.) add the quantifier all
Ex. Only men are priests.
All priests are men.