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You are on page 1of 55

)

Lecture 1: Introduction

**Muhammad Arif, PhD
**

m.arif@faculty.muet.edu.pk

https://sites.google.com/site/mdotarif/teaching/bcs

Text Books

1. Control Systems Engineering, (6th Edition)

By: Norman S. Nise.

2. Modern Control Systems, (12th Edition)

By: Richard C. Dorf and Robert H. Bishop.

3. Schaum’s Outline of Feedback and Control Systems, (2nd Edition)

By: Joseph J. Distefano, Allen R. Stubberud, and Ivan J. Willaims.

Reference Books

1. Modern Control Engineering, (5th Edition)

By: Katsuhiko Ogata.

2. Basic Feedback Controls in Biomedicine.

By: Charles S. Lessard.

3. Feedback Control of Dynamic Systems, (6th Edition)

By: Gene Franklin, J.D. Powell, and Abbas Emami-Naeini

4. Feedback Systems: An Introduction for Scientists and Engineers, by Karl J.

Åström and Richard M. Murray.

5. Physiological Control Systems: Analysis, Simulation and Estimation, by:

Michael C. K. Khoo.

Marks Distribution

Theory Practical

Total Marks = 100 Total Marks = 50

** Sessional Marks = 20 Sessional Marks = 20
**

• Attendance = 10 marks • Attendance = 05 marks

• Class Tests/Quizzes = 10 marks • Case Study/Project = 15

marks

Final Exam Marks = 80 Final Exam Marks = 30

**Expectations from Students
**

• Full attendance is expected, except with prior-notified excuses in

written.

• On-time arrival.

• Active participation.

• Ask questions.

• Answer questions from instructor or students.

• Help each other in reviewing notes, and solving complex

problems.

• Promptly report/share problems/issues, including typos on slides,

or misspoken words from instructor.

• Cheating is a very serious offense. It will be dealt with in the most

severe manner allowable under University regulations. If caught

cheating, you can expect a failing grade and initiation of a

cheating case in the University system.

Course Outline Classical Control Modern Control • System Modelling • State Space Modelling • Transfer Function • Eigenvalue Analysis • Block Diagrams • Observability and Controllability • Signal Flow Graphs • Solution of State Equations (state Transition • System Analysis Matrix) • Time Domain Analysis (Test Signals) • State Space to Transfer Function • Frequency Domain Analysis • Transfer Function to State Space • Bode Plots • Direct Decomposition of Transfer Function • Nyquist Plots • Cascade Decomposition of Transfer • Nichol’s Chart Function • Parallel Decomposition of Transfer Function .

• Signal flow graphs. • Transient and steady state response of linear control systems. . • Eigen values and Eigen vectors. • Block diagrams models and reduction techniques. • Bode diagrams. and control system design using the Root Locus techniques. performance analysis. • Stability. • Nichol’s chart. • Gain and Phase margins. • Polar plots. • Closed-loop system stability analysis using the Routh-Hurwitz criteria. • Mathematical modeling of electrical and mechanical systems. • State-space representation and analysis. Course Outline • Open loop and close loop control systems. • Nyquist stability criterion.

Prerequisites For Classical Control Theory Differential Equations Laplace Transform Basic Physics Ordinary and Semi-logarithimic graph papers For Modern Control theory above & Linear Algebra Matrices .

or signal flow graphs. transfer function. • Determine the stability of a closed-loop control systems using the Routh-Hurwitz criteria. Objectives of BCS On completion of this module. • Compute and analyze the frequency response of control systems using Bode diagrams. • Explain advantages and drawbacks of open-loop and closed loop control systems. • Analyze the closed loop stability and performance of control systems based on open-loop transfer functions using the Root Locus technique. state space. • Obtain models of linear control systems in ordinary differential equation. students will be able to do the following . . • Simplify complex control system models using block diagram and signal flow graphs reduction techniques. • Obtain overall transfer function of a linear control system using either block diagram algebra. • Analyze the closed loop stability and performance of control systems based on open-loop transfer functions using the Polar plots and Nyquist stability criterion techniques. • Define the basic terminologies used in controls systems. • Explain the relationship between system output response and transfer function characteristics or pole/zero locations. or block diagram form.

or set of devices to manage. What is Control System? A system Controlling the operation of another system. command. A system that can regulate itself and another system. direct or regulate the behaviour of other device(s) or system(s). A control System is a device. .

The input and output relationship represents the cause-and-effect relationship of the process. Input Process Output . Definitions System – An interconnection of elements and devices for a desired purpose. Control System – An interconnection of components forming a system configuration that will provide a desired response. Process – The device. plant. or system under control.

Control – Control means measuring the value of controlled variable of the system and applying the manipulated variable to the system to correct or limit the deviation of the measured value from a desired value. Manipulated Variable– It is the quantity of the condition that is varied by the controller so as to affect the value of controlled variable. . Normally controlled variable is the output of the control system. Definitions Controlled Variable– It is the quantity or condition that is measured and Controlled.

it is called internal disturbance. . It is an unwanted input of the system. Definitions Manipulated Variable Input or Output Set point Controlle Process Or or r Controlled Variable reference Disturbances– A disturbance is a signal that tends to adversely affect the value of the system. While an external disturbance is generated outside the system. • If a disturbance is generated within the system.

Types of Control System Natural Control System Universe Human Body Manmade Control System Vehicles Aeroplanes .

C Human Body Temperature Control . Types of Control System Manual Control Systems Room Temperature regulation Via Electric Fan Water Level Control Automatic Control System Room Temperature regulation Via A.

Toaster. • Output has no effect on the control action. Electric Fan . No feedback – no correction of disturbances • In other words output is neither measured nor fed back. Types of Control System Open-Loop Control Systems utilize a controller or control actuator to obtain the desired response.Washing Machine. Input Output Controlle Process r Examples:.

• The performance of open loop system is severely affected by the presence of disturbances. for each reference input there is fixed operating condition. Types of Control System • Since in open loop control systems reference input is not compared with measured output. the accuracy of the system depends on calibration. or variation in operating/ environmental conditions. . • Therefore.

Iron .Refrigerator. Types of Control System Closed-Loop Control Systems utilizes feedback to compare the actual output to the desired output response. Input Controlle Output Comparator Process r Measurement Examples:.

Types of Control System Multivariable Control System Temp Controlle Outputs Humidity Comparator Process Pressure r Measurements .

e. r Feedback • Feedback can be positive or negative. error) as a means of control is called a feedback control system. Types of Control System Feedback Control System • A system that maintains a prescribed relationship between the output and some reference input by comparing them and using the difference (i. . Input + error Controlle Output Process .

velocity or acceleration. Types of Control System Servo System • A Servo System (or servomechanism) is a feedback control system in which the output is some mechanical position. Antenna Positioning System Modular Servo System (MS150) .

u(t) Process y(t) y(t ) 2u(t ) 1 y(t ) 3u(t ) 5 y=3*u(t)+5 y=-2*u(t)+1 35 5 30 0 25 -5 y(t) y(t) 20 -10 15 -15 10 -20 5 0 2 4 6 8 10 0 2 4 6 8 10 u(t) u(t) . Types of Control System Linear vs. Nonlinear Control System • A Control System in which output varies linearly with the input is called a linear control system.

06 0.1 0 0 0.3 0.04 0.2 0.08 Creep .4 Adhesion Coefficient 0. Adhesion Characteristics of Road 0. Types of Control System Linear vs. Nonlinear Control System • When the input and output has nonlinear relationship the system is said to be nonlinear.02 0.

3 the analyst purely for the simplicity of analysis and design.4 • Linear control systems are Adhesion Coefficient idealized models fabricated by 0. Nonlinear Control System • Linear control System Does not Adhesion Characteristics of Road exist in practice.1 a control system are limited to range in which system 0 components exhibit linear 0 0. 0.06 0. 0.02 0.2 • When the magnitude of signals in 0. Types of Control System Linear vs.08 Creep characteristics the system is essentially linear.04 0. .

Types of Control System Linear vs. °C Temperature 500°C Valve Position 0% 25% 100% % Open . Nonlinear Control System • Temperature control of petroleum product in a distillation column.

y(t ) 2u(t ) 3t . Types of Control System Time invariant vs. Time variant • When the characteristics of the system do not depend upon time itself then the system is said to time invariant control system. y(t ) 2u(t ) 1 • Time varying control system is a system in which one or more parameters vary with time.

Distributed Parameter • Control system that can be described by ordinary differential equations are lumped-parameter control systems. 2 x x x f1 f2 g 2 dy dz dz . Types of Control System Lumped parameter vs. d 2x dx M 2 C kx dt dt • Whereas the distributed parameter control systems are described by partial differential equations.

x(t) t • A discrete time control system involves one or more variables that are known only at discrete time intervals. Discrete Data System • In continuous data control system all system variables are function of a continuous time t. Types of Control System Continuous Data vs. X[n] n .

Types of Control System Deterministic vs. z(t) t . x(t) y(t) t t • If not. Stochastic Control System • A control System is deterministic if the response to input is predictable and repeatable. the control system is a stochastic control system.

Types of Control System Adaptive Control System The dynamic characteristics of most control systems are not constant for several reasons. . An adaptive control system is required when the changes in the system parameters are significant. The effect of small changes on the system parameters is attenuated in a feedback control system.

Types of Control System Learning Control System A control system that can learn from the environment it is operating is called a learning control system. .

Types of Control System Control Systems Natural Man-made Manual Automatic Open-loop Closed-loop Non-linear linear Non-linear linear Time variant Time invariant Time variant Time invariant .

Examples of Control Systems Water-level float regulator .

Examples of Control Systems .

Examples of Control Systems .

Examples of Control Systems .

Examples of Control Systems .

1930s Nyquist developed a method for analyzing the stability of controlled systems 1940s Frequency response methods made it possible to design linear closed-loop control systems 1950s Root-locus method due to Evans was fully developed 1960s State space methods.History 18th Century James Watt’s centrifugal governor for the speed control of a steam engine. economic and socio-economic systems ??????????????????????????????????? . biomedical. Present and on-going research fields. optimal control. Recent application of modern control theory includes such non-engineering systems such as biological. adaptive control and 1980s Learning controls are begun to investigated and developed. 1920s Minorsky worked on automatic controllers for steering ships.

Examples of Control Systems .

Examples of Modern Control Systems .

Examples of Modern Control Systems .

. (c) Typical direction- of-travel response.Examples of Modern Control Systems (a) Automobile steering control system. (b) The driver uses the difference between the actual and the desired direction of travel to generate a controlled adjustment of the steering wheel.

Examples of Control Systems .

Examples of Control Systems .

Examples of Modern Control Systems Open-loop & Closed-loop Models of Blood Glucose Control System .

Examples of Control Systems A Model of Heart Rate Control System .

Examples of Modern Control Systems .

Examples of Modern Control Systems .

Examples of Control Systems .

Examples of Control Systems .

Examples of Control Systems .

Examples of Modern Control Systems .

Examples of Modern Control Systems .

Examples of Modern Control Systems .

Examples of Modern Control Systems .

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