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# Biomedical Control Systems (BCS)

## Lecture 4: Mathematical Modeling of

Electrical Systems

## Muhammad Arif, PhD

m.arif@faculty.muet.edu.pk
https://sites.google.com/site/mdotarif/teaching/bcs
Lecture Outline

## Part-I: Electrical System

Basic Elements of Electrical Systems
Equations for Basic Elements
Examples

## Part-II: Electronic System

Operational Amplifiers
Inverting vs. Non-inverting
Examples

2
Electrical Systems
Part-I
Basic Elements of Electrical Systems

The time domain expression relating voltage and current for the
resistor is given by Ohms law i-e

v R (t ) iR (t )R

## The Laplace transform of the above equation is

VR ( s ) I R ( s ) R
Basic Elements of Electrical Systems

The time domain expression relating voltage and current for the
Capacitor is given as:
1
vc (t ) ic (t )dt
C
The Laplace transform of the above equation (assuming there is no
charge stored in the capacitor) is
1
Vc ( s ) Ic (s)
Cs
Basic Elements of Electrical Systems

The time domain expression relating voltage and current for the
inductor is given as:
diL (t )
v L (t ) L
dt

## The Laplace transform of the above equation (assuming there is no

energy stored in inductor) is

VL ( s ) LsI L ( s )
Voltage, Current, Charge Relationship for Capacitor,
Resistor, and Inductor.
Component Symbol V-I Relation I-V Relation
v R (t )
Resistor v R (t ) iR (t )R iR (t )
R

1 dvc (t )
Capacitor vc (t ) ic (t )dt ic (t ) C
C dt

diL (t ) 1
Inductor v L (t ) L iL (t ) v L (t )dt
dt L
Voltage, Current, Charge Relationship for Capacitor,
Resistor, and Inductor.
Transform Impedance (Resistor)

iR(t) IR(S)
+ +
Transformation
vR(t) ZR = R VR(S)

- -
Transform Impedance (Inductor)

IL(S)
iL(t)
+ +

## vL(t) ZL=LS VL(S)

LiL(0)
-
-
Transform Impedance (Capacitor)

ic(t) Ic(S)
+ +

## vc(t) ZC(S)=1/CS Vc(S)

- -
Equivalent Transform Impedance (Series)

## Consider following arrangement, find out equivalent transform

impedance.

ZT Z R Z L Z C
C

1 R
Z T R Ls
Cs
Equivalent Transform Impedance (Parallel)

L
1 1 1 1

ZT Z R Z L ZC C

1 1 1 1

ZT R Ls 1 R
Cs
Equivalent Transform Impedance
Find out equivalent transform impedance of following
arrangement.
L2

L2
R1 R2
Kirchhoffs Law

## Basic laws governing electrical circuits are Kirchhoffs current law

and voltage law.
Kirchhoffs current law (node law) states that the algebraic sum of
all currents entering and leaving a node is zero.
Kirchhoffs voltage law (loop or mesh law) states that at any given
instant the algebraic sum of the voltages around any loop in an
electrical circuit is zero.
A mathematical model of an electrical circuit can be obtained by
applying one or both of Kirchhoffs laws to it.
Method-I (Kirchhoff's Law or Differential Equation Approach):
Three Steps to get the Transfer Function of Electrical System

1. Apply Kirchhoffs law (Node or Loop Law) and write the differential
equations for the circuit.

## 3. Finally solve the equations for the transfer function.

Example # 1
The two-port network shown in the following figure has vi(t) as the
input voltage and vo(t) as the output voltage. Find the transfer function
Vo(s)/Vi(s) of the network.

## vi( t) i(t) C vo(t)

1
vi ( t ) i( t ) R i( t )dt
C
1
vo ( t ) i(t )dt
C
Example # 1
1 1
vi ( t ) i( t ) R i( t )dt vo ( t ) i(t )dt
C C
Taking Laplace transform of both equations, considering initial
conditions to zero.
1 1
Vi ( s ) I ( s )R I (s) Vo ( s ) I (s)
Cs Cs

## Re-arrange both equations as:

1
Vi ( s ) I ( s )( R ) CsVo ( s ) I ( s )
Cs
Example # 1
1
Vi ( s ) I ( s )( R ) CsVo ( s ) I ( s )
Cs
Substitute I(s) in equation on left

1
Vi ( s ) CsVo ( s )( R )
Cs

Vo ( s ) 1

Vi ( s ) 1
Cs( R )
Cs

Vo ( s ) 1

Vi ( s ) 1 RCs
Example # 1

Vo ( s ) 1

Vi ( s ) 1 RCs

## The system has one pole at

1
1 RCs 0 s
RC
Example-2: Obtain the transfer function of the RC Circuit.
The equations of this RC circuits are;

## The above Equations give a mathematical

model of the RC circuit.

## The Laplace transform of these equation are;

Block diagrams of these equations are;

## Combining the above two blocks we get

The transfer function T of this unit feedback system or RC circuit is;

1/
= ()/() =
1 + 1/

1
= ()/() =
+ 1
Example # 3
Design an Electrical system that would place a pole at -3 if added to
another system.

Vo ( s ) 1

Vi ( s ) 1 RCs vi( t) i(t) C v2(t)

## System has one pole at

1
1 RCs 0 s
RC
Therefore,
1
3 if R 1 M and C 333 pF
RC
Example # 4: Find the transfer function G(S) of the
following two port network.

## vi(t) i(t) C vo(t)

Example # 4
Simplify network by replacing multiple components with their
equivalent transform impedance.

Z
Vi(s) I(s) C Vo(s)
Example # 4

L
Z

1 1 1

Z ZR ZL

1 1 1

Z R Ls

RLs
Z
R Ls
Example # 4
RLs
Z
RL Ls
Z

## Vi(s) I(s) C Vo(s)

1 1
Vi ( s ) I ( s )Z I (s) Vo ( s ) I (s)
Cs Cs

Vo ( s ) 1

Vi ( s ) ZCs 1
Example-5: Obtain the transfer function of the given RLC Circuit.

## Applying Kirchhoffs voltage law to the

system, we obtain the following equations:

(a)

(b)

## A transfer-function model of the circuit can be obtained by taking the

Laplace transforms of Equations (a) and (b) with the assumption of zero
initial condition, we obtain
(c)

(d)
The transfer function, T = Eo(s)/Ei(s), of this RLC circuit can be obtain
as;

Taking the I(s) common in equation (c), will get equation (e),
Divide equation (d) by (e),
Finally, Multiply and divided by CS.

## Hence, the transfer function, T = Eo(s)/Ei(s), of the RLC

circuit after simplification is
Voltage Divider Rule
Consider the series circuit shown below. Assume that the voltages
ei and eo are the input and output of the circuit, respectively.

## Then the transfer function of this circuit is

Complex Impedance Approach to get Transfer Function
In deriving transfer functions for electrical circuits, it is convenient
to write the Laplace-transformed equations directly, without writing
the differential equations.
Remember that the impedance approach is valid only if the initial
conditions involved are all zeros.
Since the transfer function requires zero initial conditions, the
impedance approach can be applied to obtain the transfer function
of the electrical circuit.
This approach greatly simplifies the derivation of transfer functions
of electrical circuits.
Method-II (Complex Impedance Approach):
Three Steps to get the Transfer Function of Electrical System

## 1. The first step is to transform the circuit into the equivalent

impedance form.

2. Apply the voltage or current divider rule to find the output voltage.

## 3. Finally solve the equations for the transfer function.

Example-6: repeat example-5 and obtain the TF using
the Impedance Approach.
The first step is to transform this RLC circuit into the equivalent impedance form,

The transfer function, Eo(s)/Ei(s), can be obtain by applying the voltage-divider rule,
hence
Example-7: Obtain the transfer function of cascaded
elements using Kirchhoff's law.

Consider the system shown below. Assume that ei is the input and eo is the output.
The capacitances C1 and C2 are not charged initially.
It will be shown that the second stage of the circuit (R2C2 portion) produces a
loading effect on the first stage (R1C1 portion).
Example-7: Continue.
The equations for this system are;

(a)

(b)

(c)

Taking the Laplace transforms of Equations (a), (b) and (c), using zero initial
conditions, we obtain
(d)

(e)

(e)
Example-7: Continue.

Eliminating I1(s) from Equations (d) and (e) and writing Ei(s) in terms
of I2(s), we find the transfer function between Eo(s) and Ei(s) to be
Example-8: repeat example-7 using the Impedance Approach.
Obtain the transfer function Eo(s)/Ei(s) by use of the complex impedance approach.
(Capacitors C1 and C2 are not charged initially.)

(a) (b)

## The circuit shown in Figure (a) can be

redrawn as that shown in Figure (b), which (c)
can be further modified to Figure (c).
Example-8: Continue.
In the system shown in Figure 310(b) the current I
is divided into two currents I1 and I2 . Noting that
Example-8: Continue.

## Substituting Z1 = R1, Z2 = 1/(C1S), Z3 = R2 , and Z4 = 1/(C2S) into this last equation,

we get
Example # 9: Find transfer function Vout(s)/Vin(s) of the following
electrical network using Kirchhoff's law and verify the result
using impedance approach.

R
Vin C Vout
L
Example # 10: Find transfer function Vout(s)/Vin(s) of the following
electrical network using Kirchhoff's law and verify the result using
impedance approach.

C1

R
Vin C3 Vout
L
C2
Electronic Systems
Part-II
Operational Amplifiers (Op-Amps)

## It is a common practice to choose the ground as 0 volt and measure the

input voltages e1 and e2 relative to the ground.
The input e1 to the minus terminal of the amplifier is inverted.
The input e2 to the plus terminal is not inverted.
The total input to the amplifier thus becomes e2 - e1 .
Ideal vs. Real Operational Amplifiers
In the ideal op amp, no current flows into the input terminals.
The output voltage is not affected by the load connected to the output terminal.
In other words, the input impedance is infinity and the output impedance is zero.
In an actual op amp, a very small (almost negligible) current flows into an input
terminal and the output cannot be loaded too much.
The op amp amplifies the difference in voltages e1 and e2 .
Such an amplifier is commonly called a differential amplifier.
Since the gain, K, of the op amp is very high, it is necessary to have a negative
feedback from the output to the input to make the amplifier stable.
The feedback is made from the output to the inverted input so that the feedback is a
negative feedback.
Inverting Amplifier:

## Since only a negligible current flows into

the amplifier, the current i1 must be equal
to current i2 . Thus;

## Since , hence we have;

Thus the circuit shown is an inverting amplifier. If R1 = R2 , then the op-amp circuit
shown acts as a sign inverter.
Non-inverting Amplifiers:

## where K is the differential gain of the amplifier.

From this equation, we get

This equation gives the output voltage eo. Since eo and ei have the same signs, this
op-amp circuit is non-inverting.
Operational Amplifiers

## Transfer Function of Non-Inverting Amplifier

Vout Z2

Vin Z1 Vout Z2
1
Vin Z1
Example-11: Obtain the Transfer Function of the given inverting amplifier.

## Noting that the current flowing into the

amplifier is negligible, we have;

Hence

## Hence the transfer function of this

inverting amplifier is;

## Taking the Laplace transform, we get

Obtaining the TF using Impedance Approach
Example-12: repeat example-11 and obtain the transfer
function by Impedance Approach.
The complex impedances Z1(s) and Z2(s)
for this circuit are;

## The transfer function Eo(s)/Ei(s) is, therefore,

obtained as
Example-13: Find the transfer function, Vo(s)/Vi(s).
The transfer function of the inverting amplifier
circuit is given by
(a)

## Since the admittances of parallel components

add, Z1(s) is the reciprocal of the sum of the
admittances, or

(b)

(c)

## The TF can be obtain by putting the values of

Z1(s) and Z2(s) from eq (b) and (c) in eq (a).

## Hence the transfer function after simplification is

Example-14: Find the transfer function, Vo(s)/Vi(s).
The transfer function of the non-inverting amplifier
circuit is given by

(a)

(b)

(c)

## We find each of the impedance functions, Z1(s) and

Z2(s), and then substitute them into TF equation (a) of
non-inverting amplifier. Thus
Example # 15: Find the transfer function of the following circuit.

v1
Example # 16: Find the transfer function of the following circuit.

v1
Example # 17: Find the transfer function of the following circuit and
draw the pole zero map.

100k

10k
Skill-Assessment
PROBLEM: If Z1(s) is the impedance of a 10 F capacitor, and Z2(s) is the impedance of
a 100 k resistor, find the transfer function, G(s) = Vo(s)/Vi(s), if these components are
used with

## 1) An inverting operational amplifier as shown in Figure (a).

2) A non-inverting amplifier as shown in Figure (b).

Figure: (a)
Figure: (b)
ANSWER: Skill-Assessment

## 1) G(s) = - s for an inverting operational amplifier.

2) G(s) = s + 1 for a non-inverting operational amplifier.