2
Electrical Systems
Part-I
Basic Elements of Electrical Systems
The time domain expression relating voltage and current for the
resistor is given by Ohms law i-e
v R (t ) iR (t )R
VR ( s ) I R ( s ) R
Basic Elements of Electrical Systems
The time domain expression relating voltage and current for the
Capacitor is given as:
1
vc (t ) ic (t )dt
C
The Laplace transform of the above equation (assuming there is no
charge stored in the capacitor) is
1
Vc ( s ) Ic (s)
Cs
Basic Elements of Electrical Systems
The time domain expression relating voltage and current for the
inductor is given as:
diL (t )
v L (t ) L
dt
VL ( s ) LsI L ( s )
Voltage, Current, Charge Relationship for Capacitor,
Resistor, and Inductor.
Component Symbol V-I Relation I-V Relation
v R (t )
Resistor v R (t ) iR (t )R iR (t )
R
1 dvc (t )
Capacitor vc (t ) ic (t )dt ic (t ) C
C dt
diL (t ) 1
Inductor v L (t ) L iL (t ) v L (t )dt
dt L
Voltage, Current, Charge Relationship for Capacitor,
Resistor, and Inductor.
Transform Impedance (Resistor)
iR(t) IR(S)
+ +
Transformation
vR(t) ZR = R VR(S)
- -
Transform Impedance (Inductor)
IL(S)
iL(t)
+ +
ic(t) Ic(S)
+ +
- -
Equivalent Transform Impedance (Series)
ZT Z R Z L Z C
C
1 R
Z T R Ls
Cs
Equivalent Transform Impedance (Parallel)
L
1 1 1 1
ZT Z R Z L ZC C
1 1 1 1
ZT R Ls 1 R
Cs
Equivalent Transform Impedance
Find out equivalent transform impedance of following
arrangement.
L2
L2
R1 R2
Kirchhoffs Law
1. Apply Kirchhoffs law (Node or Loop Law) and write the differential
equations for the circuit.
1
vi ( t ) i( t ) R i( t )dt
C
1
vo ( t ) i(t )dt
C
Example # 1
1 1
vi ( t ) i( t ) R i( t )dt vo ( t ) i(t )dt
C C
Taking Laplace transform of both equations, considering initial
conditions to zero.
1 1
Vi ( s ) I ( s )R I (s) Vo ( s ) I (s)
Cs Cs
1
Vi ( s ) I ( s )( R ) CsVo ( s ) I ( s )
Cs
Example # 1
1
Vi ( s ) I ( s )( R ) CsVo ( s ) I ( s )
Cs
Substitute I(s) in equation on left
1
Vi ( s ) CsVo ( s )( R )
Cs
Vo ( s ) 1
Vi ( s ) 1
Cs( R )
Cs
Vo ( s ) 1
Vi ( s ) 1 RCs
Example # 1
Vo ( s ) 1
Vi ( s ) 1 RCs
1
1 RCs 0 s
RC
Example-2: Obtain the transfer function of the RC Circuit.
The equations of this RC circuits are;
1/
= ()/() =
1 + 1/
1
= ()/() =
+ 1
Example # 3
Design an Electrical system that would place a pole at -3 if added to
another system.
Vo ( s ) 1
Vi ( s ) 1 RCs vi( t) i(t) C v2(t)
1
1 RCs 0 s
RC
Therefore,
1
3 if R 1 M and C 333 pF
RC
Example # 4: Find the transfer function G(S) of the
following two port network.
Z
Vi(s) I(s) C Vo(s)
Example # 4
L
Z
1 1 1
Z R Ls
RLs
Z
R Ls
Example # 4
RLs
Z
RL Ls
Z
1 1
Vi ( s ) I ( s )Z I (s) Vo ( s ) I (s)
Cs Cs
Vo ( s ) 1
Vi ( s ) ZCs 1
Example-5: Obtain the transfer function of the given RLC Circuit.
(a)
(b)
(d)
The transfer function, T = Eo(s)/Ei(s), of this RLC circuit can be obtain
as;
Taking the I(s) common in equation (c), will get equation (e),
Divide equation (d) by (e),
Finally, Multiply and divided by CS.
2. Apply the voltage or current divider rule to find the output voltage.
The transfer function, Eo(s)/Ei(s), can be obtain by applying the voltage-divider rule,
hence
Example-7: Obtain the transfer function of cascaded
elements using Kirchhoff's law.
Consider the system shown below. Assume that ei is the input and eo is the output.
The capacitances C1 and C2 are not charged initially.
It will be shown that the second stage of the circuit (R2C2 portion) produces a
loading effect on the first stage (R1C1 portion).
Example-7: Continue.
The equations for this system are;
(a)
(b)
(c)
Taking the Laplace transforms of Equations (a), (b) and (c), using zero initial
conditions, we obtain
(d)
(e)
(e)
Example-7: Continue.
Eliminating I1(s) from Equations (d) and (e) and writing Ei(s) in terms
of I2(s), we find the transfer function between Eo(s) and Ei(s) to be
Example-8: repeat example-7 using the Impedance Approach.
Obtain the transfer function Eo(s)/Ei(s) by use of the complex impedance approach.
(Capacitors C1 and C2 are not charged initially.)
(a) (b)
R
Vin C Vout
L
Example # 10: Find transfer function Vout(s)/Vin(s) of the following
electrical network using Kirchhoff's law and verify the result using
impedance approach.
C1
R
Vin C3 Vout
L
C2
Electronic Systems
Part-II
Operational Amplifiers (Op-Amps)
Thus the circuit shown is an inverting amplifier. If R1 = R2 , then the op-amp circuit
shown acts as a sign inverter.
Non-inverting Amplifiers:
This equation gives the output voltage eo. Since eo and ei have the same signs, this
op-amp circuit is non-inverting.
Operational Amplifiers
Hence
(b)
(c)
(a)
(b)
(c)
v1
Example # 16: Find the transfer function of the following circuit.
v1
Example # 17: Find the transfer function of the following circuit and
draw the pole zero map.
100k
10k
Skill-Assessment
PROBLEM: If Z1(s) is the impedance of a 10 F capacitor, and Z2(s) is the impedance of
a 100 k resistor, find the transfer function, G(s) = Vo(s)/Vi(s), if these components are
used with
Figure: (a)
Figure: (b)
ANSWER: Skill-Assessment