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Review of Basic DC Analysis

Series Circuits
Two elements in a series
Connected at a single point
No other current-carrying connections at this point

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Series Circuit
A series circuit is constructed by connecting
various elements in series

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Series Resistors
The total resistance of a series configuration is
the sum of the resistance levels.

The R T R
more 1 R2 R
resistors 3 add
we R4 in...series,
RN the
greater the resistance (no matter what their
value)
The largest resistor in a series combination
will have the most impact on the total
resistance

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Series Resistors

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What circuits are used in a house?

Parallel or series?

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Parallel Circuits

Elements in parallel
When they have exactly two nodes in common
Elements between nodes
Any device like voltage sources, resistors, light
bulbs, etc.
Elements connected in parallel
Same voltage across them

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Parallel Circuits

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Parallel Circuits

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Resistors in Parallel
Voltage across all parallel elements in a circuit
will be the same
Total resistance of resistors in parallel will
always be less than resistance of smallest
resistor

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Parallel Resistors
For resistors in parallel, the total resistance is
determined from

Note that the equation is for the reciprocal


of RT rather than for RT.
Once the right side of the equation has been
determined, it is necessary to divide the result
into 1 to determine the total resistance
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Parallel Resistors
The total resistance of any number of parallel
resistors can be determined using
1
RT
1 1 1 1
...
R1 R2 R3 RN

The total resistance of parallel resistors is always


less than the value of the smallest resistor.

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Voltage Sources in Parallel

Voltage sources with different potentials


should never be connected in parallel
When two equal voltage sources are
connected in parallel
Each source supplies half the required current

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Voltage Sources in Parallel

Jump starting automobiles


If two unequal sources are connected
Large currents can occur and cause damage

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The Series-Parallel Network
Branch
Part of a circuit that can be simplified into two
terminals
Components between these two terminals
Resistors, voltage sources, or other elements
To analyze a circuit
Identify elements in series and elements in
parallel

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The Series-Parallel Network

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The Series-Parallel Network
In this circuit
R2, R3, and R4 are in parallel
This parallel combination
Series with R1 and R5

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The Series-Parallel Network

In this circuit
R3 and R4 are in
parallel
Combination is in
series with R2
Entire combination
is in parallel with R1

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The Series-Parallel Network

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Analysis of Series-Parallel Circuits
Rules for analyzing series and parallel circuits
still apply
Same current occurs through all series
elements

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Analysis of Series-Parallel Circuits
Same voltage occurs across all parallel
elements
KVL and KCL apply for all circuits
Whether they are series, parallel, or series-
parallel

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Analysis of Series-Parallel Circuits
Redraw complicated circuits showing the
source at the left-hand side
Label all nodes

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Analysis of Series-Parallel Circuits
Develop a strategy
Best to begin analysis with components most
distant from the source
Simplify recognizable combinations of
components

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Analysis of Series-Parallel Circuits
Determine equivalent resistance RT
Solve for the total current
Label polarities of voltage drops on all
components

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Analysis of Series-Parallel Circuits
Calculate how currents and voltages split
between elements in a circuit
Verify your answer by taking a different
approach (when feasible)

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Analysis of Series-Parallel Circuits

Voltages
Use Ohms Law or Voltage Divider Rule
Currents
Use Ohms Law or Current Divider Rule

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Analysis of Parallel Circuits
Voltage across all branches is the same as the
source voltage
Determine current through each branch using
Ohms Law
Find the total current using Kirchhoffs Current
Law

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Analysis of Parallel Circuits
To calculate the power dissipated by each
resistor, use either VI, I2R, or V2/R
Total power consumed is the sum of the
individual powers
Compare with IT2RT

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Analysis of Series-Parallel Circuits

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Kirchhoffs Current Law (KCL)

The algebraic sum of the currents entering and


leaving a node is equal to zero

I 0

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Kirchhoffs Current Law (KCL)
Currents entering the node are taken to be positive,
leaving are taken to be negative
Sum of currents entering a node is equal to the sum
of currents leaving the node

I I
in out

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Kirchhoffs Current Law (KCL)
An analogy:
When water flows in a pipe, the amount of water
entering a point is the amount leaving that point

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Current Divider Rule
Allows us to determine how the current
flowing into a node is split between the
various parallel resistors

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Current Divider Rule

I x R x I y Ry
Gx
I x I y
Gy
Ry
Ix Iy
Rx

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Current Divider Rule
For only two resistors in parallel:

R1R 2
RT
R1 R 2
I T RT
I1
R1
R2
I1 IT
R1 R 2
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Current Divider Rule
RT
Ix IT
Rx

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Current Divider Rule
If current enters a parallel network with a
number of equal resistors, current will split
equally between resistors
In a parallel network, the smallest value
resistor will have the largest current
Largest resistor will have the least current

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Current Divider Rule
Most of the current will follow the path of
least resistance
For parallel elements of different values,
the current will split with a ratio equal to
the inverse of their resistor values

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Kirchhoffs Voltage Law (KVL)
The algebraic summation of voltage rises and
voltage drops around a closed loop is equal to
zero

V=0 for a closed loop

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Kirchhoffs Voltage Law

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Kirchhoffs Voltage Law (KVL)
Another way of stating KVL is:
Summation of voltage rises is equal to the
summation of voltage drops around a closed loop

Erises = Vdrops for a closed loop

V1 + V2 + V3 + + Vn = ET

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The Voltage Divider Rule
Voltage applied to a series circuit
Will be dropped across all the resistors in
proportion to the magnitude of the individual
resistors

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The Voltage Divider Rule
Voltage across a resistor in a series circuit is
equal to the total applied voltage times value
of that resistor divided by the total resistance
of the series circuit

Rx
Vx E
RT

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Voltage Divider Rule Application
If a single resistor is very large compared to
the other series resistors, the voltage across
that resistor will be the source voltage
If the resistor is very small, the voltage across
it will be essentially zero

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Voltage Divider Rule Application
If a resistor is more than 100 times larger than
another resistor
Smaller resistor can be neglected

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Applications: Parallel
Car system
The electrical system on a car is essentially a
parallel system.

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Applications: Parallel
House wiring
Except in some very special circumstances the
basic wiring of a house is done in a parallel
configuration.
Each parallel branch, however, can have a
combination of parallel and series elements.
Each branch receives a full 240 V, with the
current determined by the applied load.

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Applications: Series
Holiday lights
Holiday lights are connected in series if one wire
enters and leaves the casing.
If one of the filaments burns out or is broken, all
of the lights go out unless a fuse link is used.
A fuse link is a soft conducting metal with a coating on
it that breaks down if the bulb burn out, causing the
bulb to be by-passed, thus only one bulb goes out.

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Applications: Series
Microwave oven
A series circuit can be very useful in the
design of safety equipment.
In a microwave, it is very dangerous if the
oven door is not closed or sealed properly.
Microwaves use a series circuit with magnetic
switches on the door to ensure that the door is
properly closed.
Magnetic switches are switches where the
magnet draws a magnetic conducting bar
between two conductors to complete the
circuit. 50
Applications: Series

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References
Electricity and Electronics by Gerrish, Dugger and
Roberts, 10th edition, 2009, GW Publisher

Circuit Analysis: Theory and Practice by A. H.


Robbins, W. C. Miller, 4th edition, 2006, Thomson
Delmar Learning

Introductory Circuit Analysis by R. L. Boylestad, 11th


edition, 2007, Prentice Hall

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