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You are on page 1of 52

Series Circuits

Two elements in a series

Connected at a single point

No other current-carrying connections at this point

2

Series Circuit

A series circuit is constructed by connecting

various elements in series

3

Series Resistors

The total resistance of a series configuration is

the sum of the resistance levels.

The R T R

more 1 R2 R

resistors 3 add

we R4 in...series,

RN the

greater the resistance (no matter what their

value)

The largest resistor in a series combination

will have the most impact on the total

resistance

4

Series Resistors

5

What circuits are used in a house?

Parallel or series?

6

Parallel Circuits

Elements in parallel

When they have exactly two nodes in common

Elements between nodes

Any device like voltage sources, resistors, light

bulbs, etc.

Elements connected in parallel

Same voltage across them

7

Parallel Circuits

8

Parallel Circuits

9

Resistors in Parallel

Voltage across all parallel elements in a circuit

will be the same

Total resistance of resistors in parallel will

always be less than resistance of smallest

resistor

10

Parallel Resistors

For resistors in parallel, the total resistance is

determined from

of RT rather than for RT.

Once the right side of the equation has been

determined, it is necessary to divide the result

into 1 to determine the total resistance

11

Parallel Resistors

The total resistance of any number of parallel

resistors can be determined using

1

RT

1 1 1 1

...

R1 R2 R3 RN

less than the value of the smallest resistor.

12

Voltage Sources in Parallel

should never be connected in parallel

When two equal voltage sources are

connected in parallel

Each source supplies half the required current

13

Voltage Sources in Parallel

If two unequal sources are connected

Large currents can occur and cause damage

14

The Series-Parallel Network

Branch

Part of a circuit that can be simplified into two

terminals

Components between these two terminals

Resistors, voltage sources, or other elements

To analyze a circuit

Identify elements in series and elements in

parallel

15

The Series-Parallel Network

16

The Series-Parallel Network

In this circuit

R2, R3, and R4 are in parallel

This parallel combination

Series with R1 and R5

17

The Series-Parallel Network

In this circuit

R3 and R4 are in

parallel

Combination is in

series with R2

Entire combination

is in parallel with R1

18

The Series-Parallel Network

19

Analysis of Series-Parallel Circuits

Rules for analyzing series and parallel circuits

still apply

Same current occurs through all series

elements

20

Analysis of Series-Parallel Circuits

Same voltage occurs across all parallel

elements

KVL and KCL apply for all circuits

Whether they are series, parallel, or series-

parallel

21

Analysis of Series-Parallel Circuits

Redraw complicated circuits showing the

source at the left-hand side

Label all nodes

22

Analysis of Series-Parallel Circuits

Develop a strategy

Best to begin analysis with components most

distant from the source

Simplify recognizable combinations of

components

23

Analysis of Series-Parallel Circuits

Determine equivalent resistance RT

Solve for the total current

Label polarities of voltage drops on all

components

24

Analysis of Series-Parallel Circuits

Calculate how currents and voltages split

between elements in a circuit

Verify your answer by taking a different

approach (when feasible)

25

Analysis of Series-Parallel Circuits

Voltages

Use Ohms Law or Voltage Divider Rule

Currents

Use Ohms Law or Current Divider Rule

26

Analysis of Parallel Circuits

Voltage across all branches is the same as the

source voltage

Determine current through each branch using

Ohms Law

Find the total current using Kirchhoffs Current

Law

27

Analysis of Parallel Circuits

To calculate the power dissipated by each

resistor, use either VI, I2R, or V2/R

Total power consumed is the sum of the

individual powers

Compare with IT2RT

28

Analysis of Series-Parallel Circuits

29

Kirchhoffs Current Law (KCL)

leaving a node is equal to zero

I 0

30

Kirchhoffs Current Law (KCL)

Currents entering the node are taken to be positive,

leaving are taken to be negative

Sum of currents entering a node is equal to the sum

of currents leaving the node

I I

in out

31

Kirchhoffs Current Law (KCL)

An analogy:

When water flows in a pipe, the amount of water

entering a point is the amount leaving that point

32

Current Divider Rule

Allows us to determine how the current

flowing into a node is split between the

various parallel resistors

33

Current Divider Rule

I x R x I y Ry

Gx

I x I y

Gy

Ry

Ix Iy

Rx

34

Current Divider Rule

For only two resistors in parallel:

R1R 2

RT

R1 R 2

I T RT

I1

R1

R2

I1 IT

R1 R 2

35

Current Divider Rule

RT

Ix IT

Rx

36

Current Divider Rule

If current enters a parallel network with a

number of equal resistors, current will split

equally between resistors

In a parallel network, the smallest value

resistor will have the largest current

Largest resistor will have the least current

37

Current Divider Rule

Most of the current will follow the path of

least resistance

For parallel elements of different values,

the current will split with a ratio equal to

the inverse of their resistor values

38

Kirchhoffs Voltage Law (KVL)

The algebraic summation of voltage rises and

voltage drops around a closed loop is equal to

zero

39

Kirchhoffs Voltage Law

40

Kirchhoffs Voltage Law (KVL)

Another way of stating KVL is:

Summation of voltage rises is equal to the

summation of voltage drops around a closed loop

V1 + V2 + V3 + + Vn = ET

41

The Voltage Divider Rule

Voltage applied to a series circuit

Will be dropped across all the resistors in

proportion to the magnitude of the individual

resistors

42

The Voltage Divider Rule

Voltage across a resistor in a series circuit is

equal to the total applied voltage times value

of that resistor divided by the total resistance

of the series circuit

Rx

Vx E

RT

43

Voltage Divider Rule Application

If a single resistor is very large compared to

the other series resistors, the voltage across

that resistor will be the source voltage

If the resistor is very small, the voltage across

it will be essentially zero

44

Voltage Divider Rule Application

If a resistor is more than 100 times larger than

another resistor

Smaller resistor can be neglected

45

Applications: Parallel

Car system

The electrical system on a car is essentially a

parallel system.

46

47

Applications: Parallel

House wiring

Except in some very special circumstances the

basic wiring of a house is done in a parallel

configuration.

Each parallel branch, however, can have a

combination of parallel and series elements.

Each branch receives a full 240 V, with the

current determined by the applied load.

48

Applications: Series

Holiday lights

Holiday lights are connected in series if one wire

enters and leaves the casing.

If one of the filaments burns out or is broken, all

of the lights go out unless a fuse link is used.

A fuse link is a soft conducting metal with a coating on

it that breaks down if the bulb burn out, causing the

bulb to be by-passed, thus only one bulb goes out.

49

Applications: Series

Microwave oven

A series circuit can be very useful in the

design of safety equipment.

In a microwave, it is very dangerous if the

oven door is not closed or sealed properly.

Microwaves use a series circuit with magnetic

switches on the door to ensure that the door is

properly closed.

Magnetic switches are switches where the

magnet draws a magnetic conducting bar

between two conductors to complete the

circuit. 50

Applications: Series

51

References

Electricity and Electronics by Gerrish, Dugger and

Roberts, 10th edition, 2009, GW Publisher

Robbins, W. C. Miller, 4th edition, 2006, Thomson

Delmar Learning

edition, 2007, Prentice Hall

52

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