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Chapter 4

The Rock Cycle
H.W. pg. 93 ques. 1-4
A rock is a mixture of
minerals, rock
fragments, volcanic
glass, organic matter,
and other natural
All rocks slowly change
through time, and the
model that we use to
show this slow change
is called the rock cycle.
Discovery of the Rock Cycle
James Hutton
recognized that rocks
undergo changes in
Rock Cycle
As you can see the
rock cycle shows 3
different types of rock:
1) Sedimentary
2) Metamorphic
3) Igneous
Also you see that all 3
types can be formed in
a number of ways.
This shows that any rock
can change into any of
the three major rock
Rock Cycle
Within the rock cycle rocks can be weathered
to small rock and mineral grains.
These grains could then be carried away by
wind, water, or ice.
This is what we call erosion. This does not
mean that the minerals and chemical elements
that make up rock are destroyed.
The elements that make up rocks are not
destroyed they are just redistributed in other
Igneous Rock
Section 4-2 H.W. pg. 97 questions 1-4

Igneous rock forms when magma cools and

At certain within the Earth, the temperature
and pressure are just right for rocks to melt and
form magma.
Magma can be located at depths of 150km below
the Earths surface. The temperature of this
magma can range between 650- 1,200oC,
depending on their chemical compositions and
pressures exerted on them.
Igneous Rock
The reason that these rocks melt is because of heat
that is formed in the Earths interior.
The heat comes from the decay of radioactive
material inside the Earth.
Another source of this heat is actually heat that is left
over from the formation of the planet, which was
originally molten.
Since magma is less dense than the surrounding rocks
it is forced upward toward the surface, like in a
When magma reaches the Earths surface and flows
from volcanoes it is then called lava
Igneous Rock
So magma is melted rock material composed of
common elements and fluids.
As magma cools atoms and compounds rearrange
themselves into new crystals called mineral grains.
And rocks form as these mineral grains grow
So rocks that form from magma below the Earths
surface are called intrusive.
These intrusive rocks stay underground until the land
above them are removed, either by erosion of by
physical means, and exposed to the surface.
Igneous Rock
Intrusive rocks form
at deep depths of the
Earth. This causes the
rocks to cool very
Slowly cooled magma
will then produce very
large mineral grains that
we can see, within the
intrusive rocks.
Igneous Rock
Extrusive igneous rocks
are formed by the cooling of
lava on the surface of the
When lava cools on the
surface it could be exposed
to water and air. This
causes the lava to cool
quickly and does not allow
large mineral grains to form.
Therefore extrusive igneous
rock looks fine grained.
Classifying Igneous Rock
Besides intrusive and extrusively forming. The
type of igneous rock also depends on the
magma from which it forms.
An igneous rock can form from basaltic,
andesitic, or granitic, magma.
The type of magma that rocks form from
determines important chemical and physical
properties of that rock.
These include mineral composition, density,
color, and melting point.
Basaltic Rock
These are dense dark colored igneous rock that
form from magma that is rich in magnesium
and iron, and lack in silica.
The iron and magnesium give these rocks the
dark color.
This basaltic magma flows, largely from the
mountains in Hawaii, which explains the black
color of Hawaiis beaches.
Basaltic Rock
Granitic Rock
These are light colored igneous rock that have
a lower density than basaltic rocks.
Granitic magma has more silica and less iron
and magnesium then basaltic magma
Andesitic Rock
This type of magma has a
chemical composition that
is between basaltic and
granitic rock, when dealing
with silica, magnesium and
It has more iron and
magnesium than granitic
and less silica than granitic.
Usually found in volcanoes
along the Pacific Coast.
Metamorphic Rock
Section 4-3 H.W. pg 102 ques. 1-4
Rocks that have changed because of changes in
temperature and pressure or the presence of hot,
watery fluids are called Metamorphic Rock.
These changes can be in the form of the rock or in its
composition or both.
Metamorphic rocks can form from igneous,
sedimentary or from other metamorphic rocks.
Ex: When you add heat and pressure to granite, the
mineral grains are flattened and a metamorphic rock
called gneiss is formed.
Granite & Gneiss
How heat and Pressure effect rocks.
Rocks beneath the Earths surface are under great
pressure from the rock layers above them. Also,
temperature increases as the depth of the Earth
In some areas under the Earths surface the Temp and
pressure is just right to allow rock to melt and magma
to form.
In other areas, melting doesnt occur but some
mineral grains change by dissolving and
recrystallizing, in the presence of liquids.
How heat and Pressure effect rocks.
Depending on the amount of pressure and
temperature applied, one type of rock can
change into several different metamorphic
rocks, and every metamorphic rock can come
from several different parent rocks.
Ex: The sedamentary rock shale will change
into slate.
As you increase pressure slate turns into
phyllite, then schist and then eventually gneiss.
How heat and Pressure effect rocks.
How heat and Pressure effect rocks.
Lastly, schist can also form basalt.
How Hot Fluids Effect Rocks
Some fluids can move through rock. These
fluids are usually hot and mostly water with
dissolved elements, CO2 and compounds.
When these fluids pass through rocks they
react chemically with the rock to change its
This occurs a lot when rock surrounds a hot
magma body and the fluids from the magma
react with the surrounding rock.
How to Classify Metamorphic Rock
Metamorphic rocks can form from igneous,
sedimentary, or other metamorphic rocks
through their interaction with heat pressure and
hot fluids.
We classify these rocks by their composition
and texture.
First is Foliated rocks. A metamorphic rock
is said to have foliated texture when mineral
grains in the rock line up in parallel layers.
Metamorphic foliated rock
Two examples of
foliated rocks are slate
and gneiss.
Metamorphic foliated rock
Slate forms from a Sedimentary rock called
The minerals in shale arrange into layers when
they are exposed to heat and pressure. This
allows slate to separate easily along these
foliation layers.
The pressure is so great during this change that
the minerals in slate get pressed so tightly that
water cannot pass through it, making it
virtually water tight.
This unique property makes slate the optimal
rock for the use of patios and paving around
Metamorphic foliated rock
Gneiss, another foliated
rock, forms when granite is
changed. The foliation in
gneiss shows up as
alternating light and dark
This is because during the
transformation from granite
to gneiss the light atoms of
quartz and feldspar are
separated from the darker
atoms of mica.
Non Foliated metamorphic Rock
In non foliated metamorphic rock layering does not
occur. The mineral grains grow and rearrange but do
not form layers.
This produces a non foliated texture.
An example is when sandstone, a sedimentary rock
composed of mostly quartz grains, is exposed to heat
and pressure.
The quartz grains here grow in size and become
interlocking like a jigsaw puzzle.
The resulting rock is called quartzite.
Non Foliated metamorphic Rock
Non Foliated metamorphic Rock
Another example of non foliated metamorphic rock is
Marble forms from the sedimentary rock limestone,
which is rich with the mineral calcite.
Marble that is a different color than white is due to
the presence of other minerals besides calcite that is
Hornblende gives marble a black or greenish color
And hematite gives marble a reddish color.
Non Foliated metamorphic Rock
Sedimentary Rock
Section 4-4 H.W. Pg 109 ques. 1-5
Igneous rocks are the most common rocks on Earth.
However we dont see them a lot because they are
mostly beneath the Earths surface.
75% of the rocks that are exposed at the surface are
sedimentary rocks.
Sediments are loose materials such as rock fragments,
mineral grains, and bits and pieces of shell that have
been moved by wind, water, or ice
These sediments come from already existing rock that
were weathered or eroded.
Sedimentary rock forms when these sediments are
pressed together by great pressure, or when minerals
form in solution.
Stacked Rocks
Sedimentary rocks often form in layers. The
older layers are on the bottom layers because
they were deposited first.
Sometimes these layers can be disturbed by the
forces of nature. This will sometimes overturn
the layered sedimentary rock and the oldest
will no longer be on the bottom.
Classifying Sedimentary Rocks
The sediments that form sedimentary rocks can
be almost anything that is found in nature.
Sediments can come from weathered or eroded
igneous, metamorphic, sedimentary rocks.
And the composition of sedimentary rocks
depends on the composition of the sediments
that formed that rock.
Like the other rocks we spoke of, sedimentary
rocks are classified by their composition and
are classified as: detrital, chemical, or
Detrital Sedimentary Rock
Detrital means to wear away in Latin, and are
made from broken fragments of other rocks.
These broken fragments are compacted together by
pressure and cemented together to form solid rock.
These broken fragments of rocks can form in a
number of ways. One way is by weathering and
When rock is exposed to air, water, or ice it is
unstable and breaks down chemically and
This process, which breaks down rocks into smaller
pieces, is called weathering and the actual movement
of these smaller pieces is called erosion.
Detrital Sedimentary Rock
H.W. pg 114 questions 1-10
Compaction is also a part of sedimentary rock
Erosion moves sediments to a new location,
where they will be deposited. Now layer upon
layer of sediment builds up.
Pressure from all of the built up layers pushes
down on the lower layers causing the small
fragments to form solid rock. This process is
called compaction.
Detrital Sedimentary Rock
If the fragments are large, like the size of pebbles or
sand, pressure alone cant make the solid rock form.
When water moves through soil and rock, it picks up
materials released from minerals during weathering.
This dissolved mineral solution then moves between
the large loose rock sediments and cements them
Cementation, usually occurs when minerals such as
quartz, calcite, and hematite are deposited between
These minerals act as natural cement and hold
sediments together like glue, and forming detrital
sedimentary rock.
Detrital Sedimentary Rock
Detrital rocks have a granular texture, kind of like
granulated sugar. And they are named according to
the shapes and sizes of the sediments that form them.
Ex: The Sedimentary rocks, conglomerate and breccia
both form from large sediments.
If the sediments are rounded, the rock is called
conglomerate. If the sediments are sharp then the rock
is called breccia.
The roundness of sediment particles depends on how
far they have been moved by wind or water.
Materials Found in Sedimentary
H.W. pg 114 ques. 11-20
The gravel sized sediments in conglomerate and
breccia are often composed of quartz and feldspar.
These 2 minerals (quartz, feldspar) can be found in
gneiss, granite, and limestone.
The natural cement that holds the sediments in
sedimentary rock together are usually quartz and
Sandstone if formed from smaller particles than
conglomerate and breccia, but they are made from
types of quartz and feldspar that are more resistant to
Chemical Sedimentary Rock
This is the second type of
sedimentary rock, and it is
formed when dissolved
minerals come out of
Like our saltwater example,
mineral deposits can form
sediments and rocks when
sea or lake water
An example of chemical
sedimentary rock is
Chemical sedimentary
rocks do not form from
pieces of preexisting rocks.
Chemical Sedimentary Rock
Limestone- this is composed
mostly of Calcium Carbonate
CaCO3. And forms when
calcium carbonate comes out of
solution as calcite and its many
crystals grow together to form
Limestone is 50% calcite and is
usually deposited on the bottom
of lakes or shallow seas.
A lot of the United States
bedrock is made of limestone.
And that is due to the fact that
seas covered much of the
country for millions of years.
Chemical Sedimentary Rock
Rock Salt- When water is
very rich in dissolved salt ,
it often deposits the mineral
Halite deposits can range in
thickness from a few meters
to more than 400m.
Companies mine these
deposits because it is used
as a very important
Its used in the making of
glass, paper, soap, and some
dairy products. Also, its
processed and used as table
Organic Sedimentary Rock
Rocks that are made of the remains of once-
living things are called organic sedimentary
The most common of this type of this rock
would be fossil rich limestone.
The difference between regular limestone and
fossil rich limestone is that fossil rich
limestone contains some remnant of once
living ocean organisms, instead of just calcite.
Ex: muscles, clams, coral, snails. They have
shells made from calcium carbonate. When
these shells cement together they form fossil
rich limestone.
Fossil rich limestone
If a rock is completely
made of shell fragments
that you can see, the
rock is called coquina.
Organic sedimentary rock
Chalk- is another organic sedimentary rock
that is made of microscopic shells.
When you write with naturally occurring chalk
you a crushing and smearing the calcite-shells
remains of a once living organism.
Coal- is another useful organic sedimentary
rock. It forms when dead plants are buried
under other sediments in swamps.
Microorganisms feed off of and change these
plant materials, and they are compacted over
millions of years to eventually form coal.
H.W. pg 116 questions 1-17
Test on chapter 3 in one