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Presentation about Feature Detector in Computer Vision

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What is Local Feature?

2

What is Local Feature?

*Image pattern which differs from its immediate

neighborhood

*Tinne Tuytelaars and Krystian Mikolajczyk. "Local invariant feature detectors: a survey." Foundations and Trends in

Computer Graphics and Vision , vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 177-280, January 2008.

3

Intuition : Object Matching

4

Challenge : Diverse Scene Variation

Original Image

Projective Effect

Skew

Anisotropic Scaling

5

Level of Invariance

transformation :

Rotation

Scale

Affine

6

Feature Detection Properties

Repeatable

Same features from different images shows the same object

Distinctive

Rich variation in intensity pattern so that different image

structures can be told apart from each other

Locality

Detected features should be local, which is less sensitive to

occlusion and viewpoint changes

7

Feature Detection Properties

Quantity

Numbers of detected features should be sufficiently large

Accuracy

Features should be accurately localized, both in location,

scale and shape

Efficiency

Detection time should be reasonable, preferably allowing

time-critical application

8

Example of Local Features

Edge

Corner

Blob

a) Edge feature b) Corner feature

Affine covariant

region

http://kr.mathworks.com/products/computer-vision/features.html

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Rotation Invariant Descriptor

Build histogram of gradient angle, choose the peak

invariant

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Affine Covariant Feature Description

Map all region to a patch with constant radius (for scale

invariance)

Rotate the ellipses main axis to horizontal

Scale horizontally so the area becomes a circle

Credits : T. Tuytelaars

11

Distribution Based Descriptor

spatial intensity pattern

Gradient orientation

Pixel intensities

Histogram of Integral Image response, SURF descriptor

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Binary Descriptor

changes

High dimensionality

Time complexity

Memory consumption

General Equation

13

Binary Descriptor

Binary descriptors varying in terms of

Orientation compensation

Sampling pattern

Sampling pairs

Matching:

Hamming distance (SUM of XOR) instead of Euclidean

Pros

Very Fast and low memory consumption

Robust for illumination changes

Cons

Less distinctive

14

Local Feature Descriptors

1. SIFT

2. SURF

3. FAST

4. BRIEF

5. LIOP

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SIFT Scale Space Detection

Simulating scale changes

separated by constant factor k

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SIFT Scale Space Detection

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SIFT Scale Space Detection

adjacent scales

smaller than all 26 pixels

expensive

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SIFT - Orientation Check

keypoints.

keypoint

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SIFT

Result of Detected SIFT Features

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SURF

structure (called Fast Hessian)

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SURF

structure

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SURF

filter response maps by

convolving with filter of

increasing size.

according to the size (scale

normalization).

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SURF

horizontal and vertical direction for neighborhood of

size 6s. Dominant orientation estimated by sum of all

responses within a sliding orientation window.

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SURF

horizontal and vertical direction, each neighbourhood

of size 20x20 taken around keypoint divided into 4x4

subregions. Vector from each subregions is formed like:

= ( , , || , ||)

and || are high

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SURF

Result of Detected SURF Features

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FAST

the corner candidate p.

circle of 16 pixels which are all brighter than (Ip + th) or (Ip th)

*th=threshold

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FAST

number of non-corners. If 1(north) and 9(south) are too

brighter or darker, then checks 5(east) and 13(west).

three states:

d,

Sp->x = , < < +

, +

higher than (Ip + th) or lower than (Ip th).

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FAST Non Maxima Suppression

Detected points may be adjacent one to another

compute score function V instead

Some possibility of V :

1. Maximum value of n for which p is still corner

the contiguous arc and the center pixel

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FAST Non Maxima Suppression

V values

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FAST

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BRIEF

Binary distributions are used as feature point descriptor since

their dimensionality can be reduced.

BRIEF method requires a pre-smoothed image as initiation.

Select a set (Nd(x,y)) of locations pairs randomly and store it in x

and y vectors from smoothed image patch.

Binary comparison using pixel intensity is done on these set of

locations.

Ex. A pair of match pixels in Nd, p and q are compared ((p,q) Nd).

If I(p) < I(q), result is 1, otherwise 0.

Dimension of locations pairs can be 128, 256, 512.

32

BRIEF Sampling Pairs

Different approaches to

choosing test locations:

GI: Locations of p and q are distributed over the

patch

distribution.

origin and q from Gaussian centered around xi.

locations of coarse polar grid

grid.

33

LIOP

into subregions called ordinal bins.

among the intensities of its neighboring sample points.

34

LIOP

Firstly, smooth image with Gaussian

filter to reduce noise.

fixed parameter.

ascending order into ordinal bins.

localize feature position and

estimate the affine shape including

its neighborhood.

35

LIOP

Let P be the vectors of all possible permutation in N dimension.

= {(, , , )}

The vectors in the same partition have the same order relationship.

Map each partition into index table for all possible permutation

To obtain rotation invariant sampling, first point is sampled along radial direction and

the rest N-1 is sampled in anti-clockwise direction.

Each transformed pixels classified in same bins by the intensity order and rotation

invariant sampling.

36

LIOP

in this figure:

37

Conclusion

Detector descriptor combination obtain different result

intensity, edge, etc)

The choice of detector and descriptor should be adjusted with the scene content

(structured, textured, etc)

scene content

38

References

Tuytelaars, T., & Mikolajczyk, K. (2008). Local invariant feature detectors: a survey. Foundations and

Trends in Computer Graphics and Vision, 3(3), 177-280.

Lowe, D. G. (1999). Object recognition from local scale-invariant features. InComputer vision, 1999. The

proceedings of the seventh IEEE international conference on (Vol. 2, pp. 1150-1157). Ieee.

Bay, H., Tuytelaars, T., & Van Gool, L. (2006). Surf: Speeded up robust features. In Computer visionECCV

2006 (pp. 404-417). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

Rosten, E., & Drummond, T. (2006). Machine learning for high-speed corner detection. In Computer

VisionECCV 2006 (pp. 430-443). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

Calonder, M., Lepetit, V., Strecha, C., & Fua, P. (2010). Brief: Binary robust independent elementary

features. Computer VisionECCV 2010, 778-792.

Wang, Z., Fan, B., & Wu, F. (2011, November). Local intensity order pattern for feature description.

In Computer Vision (ICCV), 2011 IEEE International Conference on (pp. 603-610). IEEE.

http://docs.opencv.org/3.0-

beta/doc/py_tutorials/py_feature2d/py_features_meaning/py_features_meaning.html#features-

meaning

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