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Reported by:
Heziel F. Villaflor
Venus Jelonie Amores
Supervision has a medieval latin origins
and was defined originally as a process of
perusing or scanning a text for errors or
deviations from the original text (Smyth,
1991). Later became general
management, direction, control, and
oversight (Grumet, 1979).
In colonial New England, supervision of instruction
began as a process of external inspection: one or more
local citizens were appointed to inspect both what the
teachers were teaching and what the students were
Definition of Supervision

According to Glickman (1990) Supervision is

the glue that holds a successful school togethera
process by which some person or group of people is
responsible for providing a link between individual
teacher needs and organizational goals that
individuals within the school work in harmony toward
their vision of what the school should be.
Concepts of Supervision

1. General Supervision
refers to administrative aspects of
supervision or out-of-class supervision. Its
concerns with issues such as curriculum,
syllabus, and the overall management
structure of education both outside and
within the school.
2. Clinical Supervision
Morris Cogan (1973) defines clinical supervision as
The rationale and practice designed to improve the
teachers classroom performance. It takes its principal data
from the events of the classroom. The analysis of these
data and the leadership between teacher and supervision
for the basis of the program, procedures, and strategies
designed to improve the students learning by improving the
teachers classroom behavior
This concept is much more concrete, an in-class
support system, the crucial objective of which is to
deliver assistance, counseling and guidance by a
competent and skillful observer, all of the efforts
tending to improve instruction, a teachers
performance and professional growth, the final
impact being the improvement of student learning.
Other Models in Supervision

Jerry Gebhard (1984) presents an overview of

supervision in which he increases the number of
possible models to five, theyre as follows:

(1) Directive supervision the supervisor points and

guides the teacher to a teaching behavior that is ideal
to follow and assess the teachers complete control of
described behaviors.
(2) Alternative supervision- the supervisor
indicates some ideas without judging and has fair
views on any of the alternative.

(3) Collaborative supervision- the supervisor works

with the teachers and participates in any decisions
that are made.
(4) Non-directive supervision- the supervisor does
not share responsibility; he simply provides an
understanding response.

(5) creative model this model allows creativity for

the supervisor to use during supervision. The
supervisor may use combination of models or
combination of supervisory behaviors from
different model.
(If new teachers are trying to find out what to
teach), he uses directive approach. If they want to
know how to teach then he uses alternative
approach. If they want to know why they teach,
he may use non-directive approach. Application of
other approach that is not found in the models
presented can also be used.
Clinical Supervision Cycle

1. Pre-observation Conference
Gathering of information of the student
teachers intention, purpose and concerns. Setting
of the date for the observation, the class to be
observed and the concern of the teacher.
2. Observation
The teacher can view the actual teaching-learning
as planned in the pre-observation conference.

3. Post-Observation Conference
The supervisor will give feedback as the basis for
the improvement of teaching-learning. Find solutions for the
observations that need improvement.
4. Reflection
The student teacher will now write a learning journal
to help them create their plan for the next lesson and to
address the concerns that the student teacher faced.
Models of Instructional Supervision

1. Directive Supervision
results of the lesson are assigned by the
supervisors. The role of the supervisor is to direct
and reinforce the task which is intended to be
done. Usually, this model is use for novice
teachers who are having some difficulties in
2. Collaborative Supervision
The supervisor and the teacher negotiate the
plan of action. This promotes cooperation and
collegial learning where the supervisor and the
teacher learn from each other.
3. Non-Directive Supervision or Self-directive
this model is most appropriate for teachers who
are independent self-directed teachers who clearly
have greater knowledge and understanding of what
they want to do.
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