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EE 306

TRANSFORMERS

Instructor:
Dr. Mahamed Shwehdi

Done By:
Ahmad Saleh Al-Owied
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Transformers

Very large three-phase network transformer.

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Transformer
electromagnetic device (mutual induction)
1. components:
-- 2 adjacent coils
-- coils not physically connected to each other

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Transformer (cont.)
2. operation:
a) AC in primary coil produces D B
b) Secondary coil receives a D in I & V
S
N

S
N

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Transformers

Wye / Wye connection

IA Ia
A a
VAB VAN Van Vab

B VBN N n Vcn b
VCN Vbn

C c

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Transformers
Transformer Three-phase network supplies a
Supply load through a transformer.
Load
Network
Y-Y

Vnet_AN VAN Van Vload_an


Xnet Xtr_s
A
Ia a
IA
n
Equivalent circuit of the wye-wye
N

Supply Network Transformer Load

Xnet Xtr_s Single-phase equivalent circuit for phase


A of the three-phase wye-wye
IA Ia transformer system
Vnet_AN VAN Van Vload_an

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Wye / Delta connection

IA Ia
A a
a Iac
VAB VAN Vab
Ib
Iba c
VCA B VBN VCN b Vca
N Icb
b Vbc
VBC Ic
C c

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Transformers
VAN
Transformer
A IA Iba a Ia

AC
VAN Vab Iab
VBN VAB Vab
VCA IB Icb Vca Ib
B b
Ica
Iac
AC
VBN Vbc Ibc
VCN VBC Vbc

C IC Iac c Ic

AC Load
VCN Vca
Supply N

Wye-delta connected transformer

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Transformers

Rtr_p Xtr_p Xtr_s Rtr_s


spe
T

IA Ia
Rc Xm VAN Van Vs_an
Vp_AN

Y-D

Single-phase equivalent circuit of a wye-delta transformer.

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Delta / Wye connection

IA Ia
A Vbn
a
IAB
VAB Vab
IB n Van Ib
VCA B ICA Vcn b Vca
VBC Ic Vbc
IBC
IC c
C

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Delta / Delta connection
IA Ia

A a
IAB Iba
VAB Vab
B ICA Iac
b

c
C

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Transformers
Three-phase Transformer Relations

Transformer Primary and Secondary Voltage Phase Windings Placed on the Same
Phase Shift*
Connection Relation Leg

Wye-Wye VAN is in phase with Van Zero A and a

Wye-Delta VAN is in phase with Vab 30 A and ab

Delta-Wye VAB is in phase with Van 30 AB and a

Delta-Delta VAB is in phase with Vab Zero AB and ab

* Note: Phase shift lead between line-to-line voltages, VAB and Vab, and line-to-neutral voltages, VAN and Van, and line
currents, IA and Ia.

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Transformer Turns Ratio
ratio of the # of turns in the NS
secondary coil to the # of turns in TR
NP
the primary coil
numerical factor indicating relative change in
PD across a transformer
TR > 1 = V (step up)
TR < 1 = V (step down)

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Transformer Law
(change in voltage in a transformer)
D in V is directly proportional to the ratio of the
# of turns in the secondary to the # of turns in
the primary
Formula:
N S VS NS secondary coil turns
= NP primary coil turns
NP VP VS secondary voltage
VP primary voltage

direct relationship

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Transformer Current
Current in a transformer will be inversely
proportional to the TR of the transformer
formula: N S IP IP primary coil current
= IS secondary coil current
NP IS
I vs. V = inverse relationship
VS IP
=
VP IS

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Types of Transformers
Based on TURNS RATIO
1. step-up
turns ratio > 1
VS > VP
IS < IP

2. step-down
turns ratio < 1
VS < VP
IS > IP

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Transformer Types (cont.)
Based on STRUCTURE OF COILS
1. air core
-- inside area of coil is
empty
-- inefficient induction
2. open core
-- ferromagnetic
material inside coils
-- B = induction

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Transformer Types (cont.)
3. closed core
-- ferromagnetic ends
connected
-- B induction
4. shell
-- lazy square eight
-- overlap of coils on
same ferromagnetic
core

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