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Design of Machine Element

Manish Kr. Gupta

Completed Topics:

 Load
 Types of load
 Stress
 Types of stresses*
 Calculation of stress on different planes*
 Different between stress and pressure
 Definition of machine design
 Classification of machine design
 Design process/ procedure*

 Load is defined as the set of external forces acting on a
mechanism or engineering structure which arise from service
conditions in which the components work
 Common loads in engineering applications are tension and
 Tension:- Direct pull. Eg:Force present in lifting hoist
 Compression:- Direct push. Eg:- Force acting on the pillar of a
 Sign convention followed: Tensile forces are positive and
compressive negative.

Typical loading types are:  A) Dead/ Static load. Load exerted by a lorry on a bridge  C) Impact load or shock load.Load due to dynamic effect.Due to sudden blows  D) Fatigue or fluctuating or alternating loads: Magnitude and sign of the forces changing with time .Non fluctuating forces generally caused by gravity  B) Live load.Types of load:  There are a number of different ways in which load can be applied to a member.

Types of Stresses:  Tensile Stress  Compressive stress  Shear Stress  Torsional Stress  Thermal Stress  Crushing Stress .

Method of manufacturing the components and their assembly 6. Size. Forces acting on the elements 4.Different criteria for design (or) Factors influencing Machine design: 1. Device or mechanisms to be used 2. shape and space requirements 5. Materials 3. Maintenance and cost . Reliability and safety 7.

Materials: it is very important aspect of any design. Forces acting on the elements: different types of forces acting on different parts of machines. . 2. Four basic factors which are to be considered in selecting the material are availability. So in order to know the forces acting on the different parts. 3. cost. the free body diagram needs to be constructed. Sometimes a particular function can be achieved by a number of means or by using different mechanisms and the designer has to decide which one is most effective under the given circumstances.1. mechanical properties and manufacturing considerations. Device or mechanisms to be used: this is best judged by understanding the problems thoroughly. A wrong choice of material may lead to failure.

The probability that an element or a machine will not fail in its use is called reliability. 7. wear of elements. excessive heat generation and other such detrimental effects must be avoided. Reliability and safety: reliability is an important factor in any design. Often a regular maintenance schedule is maintain and a through check up of moving and loaded part is carried to avoid catastrophic failures. Good maintenance ensures good running condition of machine. . within the available facilities and at low cost.  Low friction and wear is maintained by proper lubrication. Maintenance and cost: maintenance and safety are often interlinked. Reliability lies between 0 to 1.4. shape and space requirements 5. Possible overloading.  High friction leads to increased loss of energy. And also machine must be designed to serve mankind not to harm it. Size. 6. Method of manufacturing the components and their assembly: care must be taken to ensure that the designed elements may be manufactured with ease. Wear of m/c parts leads to loss of materials and premature failure.

4. Recognize and analyze the design problems: design must perform well under expected and worst case conditions. compression. 3. torsion and bending. Productivity: the most elegant design is useless if it cannot be made efficiently. . Determination load conditions: Structures will be subjected to different types of load like tension. These loads must be calculated under service conditions. Strength: A machine part should not fail under the forces that acts on it. 2. Designers must and should familiar with the working condition and challenges of shop floor people.Design Consideration's: Several design consideration should be taken into account for economical and efficient design: 1. It should have sufficient strength to avoid failure either due to fracture or due to general yielding.

Manufacturability : manufacturability is the ease of fabrication and assembly. . it should not deflect or bend too much due to forces or moments that acts on it. 6.5. 7. The shape and material of machine part should be selected in such a way that it can be produced with minimum labour cost. Minimum dimension and weight: a m/c part should be sufficiently strong. 8.i. Wear resistance: wear is the main reason for putting the m/c part out of order. Wear also leads to the loss of accuracy of m/c tools.e. Rigidity: a machine component must be rigid . rigid and wear resistant and at the same time with minimum dimension and weight. It reduces useful life of component. Safety: the shape and dimensions of the m/c parts should ensures safety to the operator of the machine. 9.

dimension. 11. Maintainability: a m/c part should be maintainable. Maintainability is the ease with which a m/c part can be serviced or repaired. 12. grade and materials.10. Conformance to standards: a machine part should conform to the national or international standard covering its profile. Minimum life cycle cost: life cycle cost of the machine part is the total cost to be paid by the purchaser for purchasing the part and operating and maintaining it over its life span. .

1MPa=10^6 Pa. this internal resistance force per unit area is called stress. HCS. Note: Mild steel .Stress:  When a material is subjected to an external force. Rubber . we use the the original cross section area of the specimen and it is known as conventional stress or Engineering stress. 1 Gpa=10^9Pa. 1 Terra Pascal=10^12 Pa  In engineering applications.which is more elastic …? . Glass .  Stress is second order Tensor. 1kPa=1000Pa. (It require both plane as well as direction to describe it position in which it is acting). a resisting force is set up within the component..  SI unit is N/m²(Pa).

Ratio of change of volume of the body to the original volume  Shear strain-Strain due to shear stress . there is some change of dimension of the body.a) Tensile strain b) Compressive strain c) Volumetric strain d) Shear strain  Tensile strain.Strain:  When a body is subjected to some external force. The ratio of change of dimension of the body to its original dimension is known as strain  Strain is a dimensionless quantity  Strain may be:.Ratio of decrease in length to original length of the body when it is subjected to a push force  Volumetric strain.Ratio of increase in length to original length of the body when it is subjected to a pull force  Compressive strain.


 Modulus of elasticity. when subjected to two equal and opposite forces which are acting tangentially across the resisting section as a result of which the body tends to shear off across that section  Modulus of rigidity.  Shear stress :.TYPES OF DIRECT STRESS  Direct stress may be normal stress or shear stress  Normal stress (σ) is the stress which acts in direction perpendicular to the area. Normal stress is further classified into tensile stress  Tensile stress is the stress induced in a body. Thermal stresses are set up in a body. when it is subjected to two equal and opposite pulls (tensile forces) as a result of which there is a tendency in increase in length  It acts normal to the area and pulls on the area. G= τ/φ= Shear stress/ shear strain.Stress Induced in a body. E=σ/e= Tensile Stress/Tensile strain.  Thermal stresses: are the stresses induced in a body due to change in temperature. when the temperature of the body is raised or lowered and the body is restricted from expanding or contracting .

Calculate the force needed punch a sheet of metal 5mm thick and 0. given that ultimate shear stress is 60Mpa. 2.Questions for practice: 1. Calculate the force required to shear a pin 8mm Diameter. Given that ultimate shear stress is 50Mpa. .8m wide.

unloaded dimensions when load is removed.ELASTICITY & ELASTIC LIMIT  The property of a body by virtue of which it undergoes deformation when subjected to an external force and regains its original configuration (size and shape) upon the removal of the deforming external force is called elasticity. .  The stress corresponding to the limiting value of external force upto and within which the deformation disappears completely upon the removal of external force is called elastic limit  A material is said to be elastic if it returns to its original.

. e =ΔL/L E=PL/A Δ L Note: As per Hooke’s law. Stress is proportional to strain upto proportionality limit but within elastic limit that comes after proportionality limit in stress-strain curve.HOOKE’S LAW & ELASTIC MODULI  Hooke’s law states that: “ When a body is loaded within elastic limit. the stress is proportional to strain developed” or “Within the elastic limit the ratio of stress applied to strain developed is a constant”  The constant is known as Modulus of elasticity or Elastic modulus or Young’s modulus  Mathematically within elastic limit. Stress/Strain=σ/e=E σ= P/A. E=210 x 10^9 N/m² (=210 GPa) for steel. Typically.


For most practical purposes it can be often assumed that limit of proportionality and elastic limits are the same  Beyond the elastic limits. but Hooke's law does not apply . D (Lower yield point) Points after which strain increases without correspondingly high increase in load or stress  E Ultimate or maximum tensile stress. Point where the necking starts  F Fracture point .  B Elastic limit. It is the limiting point for the condition that material behaves elastically. It is the point where the linear nature of the stress strain graph ceases.STRESS-STRAIN CURVE (TENSILE TEST)  A Limit of proportionality. there will be some permanent deformation or permanent set when the load is removed  C (Upper Yield point).

2% of strain. For such metals design stress called PROOF stress is calculated using offset method. Proof stress is taken at 0. therefore yield stress is Unknown. the yield point cannot be clearly defined during tension test.  Generally. Copper.  Malleability  Ductility  ALLOWABLE LOAD / ALLOWABLE STRESS Max load that a structural member/machine component will be allowed to carry under normal conditions of utilization is considerably smaller than the ultimate load .  In some ductile materials such as Aluminum.Special Cases:  Yield strength or Yield stress is the material property defined as the stress at which a material begins to deform plastically whereas yield point is the point where nonlinear (elastic + plastic) deformation begins.

.2% plastic deformation occurs while returning to its original shape.Proof Stress: It is that point where 0.

Common Terms related to stress-strain Curve: 1. Resilience 2. Modulas of Toughness . Proof resilience 3. Toughness 4.

.Resilience:(Strain Energy)  Ability of a material to absorb energy in the elastic region when it is strained Or  It is the ability of a material to regain its original shape on removal of applied load is called Resilience.

Modulus of resilience  When stress reaches proportional limit. strain-energy-energy density is called modulus of resilience  A material’s resilience represents its ability to absorb energy without any permanent damage. σpl pl σpl2 ur = = 2 2E .

. indicates the strain-energy density of material before it fractures.  Shaded area under stress-strain diagram is the modulus of toughness.Modulus of toughness  Modulus of toughness ut.

Factor of safety = Maximum stress/ Working or design stress  In case of ductile materials e. Factor of safety covers uncertainties in forces or loads. .  Mathematically. the factor of safety is based upon the yield point stress. In such cases. Therefore. as the ratio of the maximum stress to the working stress. in general.  Importance/ Significance: The structure should be able to withstand the variations in unexpected loading up to some extent. cast iron. Factor of safety = Yield point stress/ Working or design stress  In case of brittle materials e. the yield point is not well defined as for ductile materials.g. mild steel. the factor of safety for brittle materials is based on ultimate stress.  The above relations for factor of safety are for static loading.Factor of safety  It is defined. Factor of safety = Ultimate stress/ Working or design stress  This relation may also be used for ductile materials. where the yield point is clearly defined.g.

or yield strength or endurance strength. Material strength includes ultimate strength.Factor Of Safety: (FOS)  Factor of safety is defined as the ratio of material strength and allowable stress.  For brittle materials having static load.  Factor of safety= Ultimate stress/Permissible stress (allowable stress) . factor of safety is the ratio of yield strength and design stress.  For fatigue load. factor of safety is the ratio of ultimate stress and design stress. factor of safety is the ratio of endurance limit and design stress.  For ductile materials having static load.

etc. Metals and their alloys.  The ferrous metals are those which have the iron as their main constituent. aluminum. aluminum. tin. Non-metals. copper. plastic. such as copper. brass. . such as iron.  The engineering materials are mainly classified as: 1. wrought iron and steel. zinc.  The metals may be further classified as: (a) Ferrous metals and (b) Non-ferrous metals. etc. such as cast iron.Classification of Engineering Materials  The knowledge of materials and their properties is of great significance for a design engineer. steel. 2. rubber. etc.  The non-ferrous metals are those which have a metal other than iron as their main constituent. such as glass.

Selection of Materials  The following factors should be considered while selecting the material: 1. brittleness. chemical and mechanical properties. electric and thermal conductivity.  The physical properties of the metals include.  These mechanical properties of the metal include strength. density. and melting point. size and shape. 2. creep and hardness. . Suitability of the materials for the working conditions in service. and 3. which determine the utility of the material. stiffness. resilience. The cost of the materials. color. plasticity.  The important properties. are physical. malleability. toughness. ductility. Availability of the materials. elasticity.

Sulphur.1%.  A Carbon steel is defined as a steel which has its properties mainly due to its carbon content and does not contain more than 0. But for general application purpose.15 to 0. Mild steel. High carbon steel (HCS)-0. maximum of 1.5% Carbon .5% is allowed.g.  Types of Steel: 1.80% Carbon 4. Medium carbon Steel (MCS)-0. silicon.Steel  It is an alloy of iron and carbon. Low carbon Steel(LCS)-0.  Other elements e.45% Carbon 3. phosphorus and manganese are also present In lesser amount to impart certain desired properties to it.80 to 1.5% of Silicon and 1.Upto 0.5% of Manganese.45 to 0.15% Carbon 2. with carbon content up to a maximum of 2.

 Example: Fe 290-minimum tensile strength of 290 N/mm2 .  Example: Fe 620 and Fe E 460 means as ???????? . these steels are designated by a symbol ‘Fe’ or ‘Fe E’ depending on whether the steel has been specified on the basis of minimum tensile strength or yield strength.  Steels Designated on the Basis of Mechanical Properties  According to Indian standard IS:1570 (Part–I). steels are designated on the following two basis: (a) On the basis of mechanical properties.Designation of Steel  According to Indian standard *[IS: 1762 (Part-I)–1974].1978 (Reaffirmed 1993). and (b) On the basis of chemical composition. Fe E 220-yield strength of 220 N/mm2. followed by the figure indicating the minimum tensile strength or yield stress in N/mm2.

 For example: 20C8 means a carbon steel containing 0. IS : 1570 (Part II/Sec I)-1979 (Reaffirmed 1991). Steels Designated on the Basis of Chemical Composition  According to Indian standard. and (c) Figure indicating 10 times the average percentage of manganese content.75 per cent rounded off to 0.  Try these: 50 C 12 and 65 C 9…?????????? .15 to 0. (b) Letter ‘C’.8 per cent on an average) manganese.2 per cent on average) carbon and 0. the carbon steels are designated in the following order : (a) Figure indicating 100 times the average percentage of carbon content.90 per cent (0. The figure after multiplying shall be rounded off to the nearest integer.60 to 0.25 per cent (0.

1% to 6.WM 400.67%. Malleable CI  Designation of CI: 1. Blackheart and Pearlitic Malleable CI are designated as WM. The whiteheart. BM.  The carbon in Cast Iron is present in the form of Free carbon or Graphite and Combined carbon or Cementite. Chilled CI 4. PM 550. 2. But for general application.1% to 5% carbon is acceptable .SG 400/22…????? .  Types of Cast Iron: 1. FG (Grey CI) followed by a figure indicating the minimum tensile strength in Mpa or N/mm2.Whiteheart Malleable CI with 350Mpa as Min. only upto 2. 4. Try These: BM 400. BM 300. PM and are followed by a figure indicating the minimum tensile strength in Mpa or N/mm2. 3. Grey CI 2.Cast Iron and its Designation  It is an alloy of Iron and Carbon in which maximum carbon lies between 2.SG 800/2 .Tensile strength. PM 700. White CI 3. For Example: WM 350.

Weight  Non-ferrous: 1. Lead 4. Tin . Gun metal 5. Ease of Fabrication 2. Resistance to corrosion 3. Copper 3. Electrical and Thermal Conductivity 4.Non Ferrous Material:  Properties: 1. Aluminum 2.

06 5. R20 Series= =1.12 4.03 . R80 Series= =1. R10 Series ==1.26 3. Each series has its own series factor.58 2. 12%. Dimensions of the component and volume or weight of the product.  The size of products generally includes different parameters like power transmitting capacity. Many times the designer has to specify the size of the product.26%.R40 and R80 Series which increases in steps of 58%.R10. speed.Preferred Number:   In engg design. Load carrying capacity. R40 Series= =1.  Basic Series: 1.  The system is based on the use of Geometric Progression to develop a set of Numbers.R20. R5 Series ==1.  There are five basic series denoted as R5. 6%and 3%resp.







Referring R10 Series. Solution: Rules: Take the First Number as 1. This procedure is continued until the complete series is built up.Question for Practice  Let a manufacturer of lifting tackles who wants to introduce nine different models of capacities ranging from 15 to 100KN. what are the different model of lifting tackle will be available. The nearest numbers are rounded to nearest digit.Mutiply with the series factor to get the second number .The Second number is again Multiplied by a series factor to get a third number. .

 But even then there will be small variations. If the variations are within certain limits.  The characteristics include materials. method of testing. a lot of time is required. .  A little consideration will show that in order to maintain the sizes of the part within a close degree of accuracy. dimensions and shape of the component. all parts of equivalent size will be equally fit for operating in machines and Mechanisms. Interchangeability:  It is normally employed for the mass production of identical items within the prescribed limits of sizes. Standardization and Interchangeability of M/C elements:  Standardization is defined as obligatory norms to which various characteristics of products should conform. packing and storing of product.


2. Basic size-It is the size of a part to which all limits of variation (i. and the other in which one enters is known as Hole.e Tolerance) are applied on order to arrive at final dimensioning of the mating parts. The allowance may be positive or negative. Limits of sizes-The largest permissible size for a dimension of the part is called upper. high or Maximum Limit whereas the smallest size of the part is known as lower or Minimum Limit. 3.  When a assembly is made of two parts. Fits and Tolerances. then the allowance is negative. It is the difference between the basic dimensions of the mating parts. Allowance. the parts which enters into others is known as Shafts. When the shaft size is less then hole size then allowance is positive and when the shaft size is greater than the hole size.Limits. The nominal or basic size of a part is often the same. .  Important Terms Related to Limits: 1.

 Tolerance. When the tolerance is allowed on both sides of the nominal size. It is the difference between the upper limit and lower limit of a dimension.S. it is the maximum permissible variation in a dimension. When all the tolerance is allowed on one side of the nominal size.  Generally. then it is said to be bilateral system of tolerance limit.  As per I. In other words. there are 18 grade of tolerance. then it is said to be unilateral system of tolerance . . the unilateral system is used in industry. The tolerance may be unilateral or bilateral.



It is the algebraic difference between the maximum size and the basic size. Tolerance zone. It is the zone between the maximum and minimum limit size.  Lower deviation. It is the algebraic difference between the minimum size and Basic size. .  Upper deviation.

either the upper or lower deviation which is nearest one to zero line or basic size of either a Hole or shaft. . This is the deviation. Fundamental deviation.



 The clearance is the amount by which the actual size of the shaft is less than the
actual size of the mating hole in an assembly. In other words ,Clearance is the
difference between the sizes of the hole and the shaft before assembly. The
difference must be positive.
 The interference is the amount by which the actual size of a shaft is larger than
the actual finished size of the mating hole in an assembly. In other words, the
interference is the arithmetical difference between the sizes of the hole and the
shaft, before assembly. The difference must be negative.

 The degree of tightness or looseness between the two mating parts is known Fits.

 Types of fits:

1. Clearance fit- In this type of fit, the size limits for mating parts are so selected that
clearance between them always occur, as shown in Fig. (a). In a clearance fit, the
tolerance zone of the hole is entirely above the tolerance zone of the shaft.

 In a clearance fit, the difference between the minimum size of the hole and the maximum
size of the shaft is known as minimum clearance whereas the difference between the
maximum size of the hole and minimum size of the shaft is called maximum clearance as
shown in Fig.(a).

 The clearance fits may be slide fit, easy sliding fit, running fit, slack running fit and loose
running fit.


as shown in Fig. whereas the difference between the minimum size of the hole and the maximum size of the shaft is called maximum interference. (b). In this type of fit.  The interference fits may be shrink fit.In an interference fit.2. Interference fit. the tolerance zone of the hole is entirely below the tolerance zone of the shaft. as shown in Fig. the size limits for the mating parts are so selected that interference between them always occur. (b). the difference between the maximum size of the hole and the minimum size of the shaft is known as minimum interference. heavy drive fit and light drive fit. .  In an interference fit.


. (c). Transition fit.  The transition fits may be force fit. as shown in Fig. the size limits for the mating parts are so selected that either a clearance or interference may occur depending upon the actual size of the mating parts. In a transition fit. In this type of fit. the tolerance zones of hole and shaft overlap. tight fit and push fit.


as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. This is because the holes are usually produced and finished by standard tooling like drill. etc. Then the limit system is said to be on a shaft basis. then the limit system is said to be on a hole basis. when the upper deviation of the shaft is zero) and different fits are obtained by varying the hole size. Hole basis system. when the lower deviation of the hole is zero) and different fits are obtained by varying the shaft size.e.. On the other hand. the size of the shaft(which is to go into the hole) can be easily adjusted and is obtained by turning or grinding operations.Basis of Limit System  The following are two bases of limit system: 1. Note: It may be noted that from the manufacturing point of view. (a). When the hole is kept as a constant member (i.(b). whose size is not adjustable easily. 2. When the shaft is kept as a constant member (i. . reamers.e. Hole basis system is preferred. Shaft basis system.


00 mm Shaft : 24.95 mm Find the hole tolerance. Problem-1: The dimensions of the mating parts.97 mm 25. shaft tolerance and allowance. Problem- . according to basic hole system.02 mm 24. are given as Hole : 25.


fundamental deviations and limits of sizes for the shaft designated as 40 H8 / f7. Problem-2: Calculate the tolerances. .