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com http://onlinemetallurgy.Muhammad Umair Bukhari Engr.bukhari@gmail.umair.com .

 T-T-T diagram is plotted for different length of times and temperature  These curves gives us the information of transformation for different phases  With the help of T-T-T diagram we can control the phase transformation by changing the conditions .

 The left side of C- shape curve is Austenitic region  The right side of C- shape curve contain three regions • Pearlite • Pearlite+Bainite • Bainite .

 The left line of C-shape curve shows the start of phase transformation  The right line shows the end of transformation  The dotted line is theoretically determined line shows 50% transformation .

The region below Ms is martensitic region Ms shows start and Mf shows end of Martensite transformation .

 Martensitic crystal structure is Body centered tetragonal (BCT)  It is the intermediate structure of Fcc and Bcc  It forms due to the realignment of atoms from austenitic structure to martensitic structure .

 Atoms arrange themselves to move towards stability from higher temperature to lower temperature  Only realignment is occur but there is no diffusion  There is no concentration change in parent and product phase .

 Due to the realignment of atoms the lattice smmetry is different from the parent phase .

 At 300oc the bainite and martensite are formed along curve 3  As temperature decreases the bainite formation rate is lowers  At 160oC for 20min the 50% martensite and austenite are formed .

 Mf line which shows the end of martensite transformation  But 100% martensite can’t be formed even theoretically at absolute zero  At room temperature there is 3% retaine austenite .

 The reason is the retained autenite  As the little amount of austanite is remain it is difficult to transform  That’s why Mf lline is showed dotted .

•Regular arrangements of atoms in a crystal is called order. •Order of atoms in crystals are mostly at room temperature .

 Irregular arrangements of atoms in a crystal is called disorder .  Disorder mostly occurs at elevated temperature. .

 In most substitutional solid solutions two kinds of atoms A and B are arranged more or less random on the atomic sites of the lattice.  In solution of this type of a change in temperature is to Increase or decrease of a thermal vibrations. .  If the ordered solution is heated above Tc the atomic arrangement becomes more or less random again and the solution is said to be disordered.

. The gold and copper atoms of AuCu3 above a critical temperature of about 390’C are arranged more or less random on the atomistic sites of FCC lattice as shown in following figure.  Below the critical temperature the gold atoms in a perfectly ordered alloy occupy only the corner position of the unit cube and the copper atoms on the face centered cubic as shown in following figure.

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. When the periodic arrangement of A and B atoms persists over longer range distance in a crystal than it is called a long range order.