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# Electric Training Center- Nepco

Prepared By : Eng. Ahmad Abu-Ghazal
 Introduction
 Theory of Transformers
 Classification of transformers
 Transmission transformer parts
 Assembly of a transmission transformer.
 Definition of Transformer : It is static electric
machine, used to transform electric power from
one circuit to another without changing the
frequency .
 Ideal transformer
 Practical transformer
 3-phase transformers
 Vector groups in 3-Φ transformers
 Imaginary representation of transformer with
zero losses and 100% efficiency.
 The winding resistance is represented by R1& R2 .
 The leakage reactance is represented by X1& X2.
 Eddy current losses is represented by Rc.
 Hysteresis losses is represented by Xm.
 It can be three single phase transformers connected
together, or three winding wound on one core.
 what is the difference ?
 There is many ways to connect
the windings.
 Y- Δ is used for step-down
transformer.
 Δ-Y is used for step-up
transformer.
 The polarity of the windings determines the
phase shirt in the transformer.
 Single phase example:
 There is many possible connections for the winding of the
3-Φ.
 The phase shift between primary and secondary voltages is
depends on the connection, and if the primary and secondary
winding have same connection, there is no phase shift exists.
 The Importance of vector groups comes when two
transformers are connected in parallel, their phase shifts
must be identical; if not, a short circuit will occur when the
transformers are energized.
 Possible connections for star winding:
 Possible connections for delta winding:
 Winding connection designations:

◦ First Symbol: for High Voltage: Always capital letters.
D=Delta, S=Star, Z=Interconnected star, N=Neutral
◦ Second Symbol: for Low voltage: Always Small letters.
d=Delta, s=Star, z=Interconnected star, n=Neutral.
◦ Third Symbol: Phase displacement expressed as the clock hour number
(1,6,11).
Phase displacement = clock hour number * 30
1= 30 degree lag
11 = 30 degree lead

 The vector for the high voltage winding is taken as the
reference vector.
 Possible vector groups:
Phase Connection
Shift (Deg)
0 Yy0 Dd0 Dz0
30 lag Yd1 Dy1 Yz1
60 lag Dd2 Dz2
120 lag Dd4 Dz4
150 lag Yd5 Dy5 Yz5
180 lag Yy6 Dd6 Dz6
150 lead Yd7 Dy7 Yz7
120 lead Dd8 Dz8
60 lead Dd10 Dz10
30 lead Yd11 Dy11 Yz11
 The transformers are classified mainly on:
1. The basis of their use.
2. The basis of type of supply.
3. The transformation ratio.
4. The basis of cooling employed.
1. Transmission transformers.
2. Distribution transformers.
3. Earthing transformers.
4. Instrumentation transformers
◦ Current transformers
◦ Voltage transformers
1. Single-phase transformers.
2. Three-phase transformers.
1. Step-up transformers.
2. Step-down transformers.
 Dry type transformers:
◦ Air Natural (AN)
◦ Air Blast
 Oil immersed transformers:
◦ Oil Natural Air Natural (ONAN)
◦ Oil Natural Air Forced (ONAF)
◦ Oil Forced Air Forced (OFAF)
◦ Oil Forced Water Forced (OFWF)
 Other types of transformers ?
 What is the difference between transmission
and distribution transformers?
 Main parts found in the power transformer :
◦ Core
◦ Windings
◦ Transformer oil
◦ Transformer main tank
◦ Tap changer
◦ Conservator tank
◦ Cooling Radiator
◦ Transformer name plate
 provides a low reluctance path to the flow of magnetic flux.
 used to support the windings in the transformer.
 It is made up of laminated soft iron core in order to reduce
eddy current loss.
 It must be grounded.
 Changes the transformer turns ratio to
regulate the voltage on the secondary side.
 Where it is connected.
 Two types; on-load and off-load.
 Arcing horns are conductors used to protect
insulators on high voltage electric power
transmission systems from damage during
flashover.
 Over voltages on transmission lines, due to
lightning strikes, or electrical faults, can cause
arcs across insulators (flashovers) that can
damage them.
 The horns encourage the flashover to occur
between themselves rather than across of the
surface of the insulator they protect.
 Horns are normally paired on either side of the
insulator, one connected to the high voltage part
and the other to ground.
 The main purposes of the transformer oil:
◦ Cooling the transformer parts
◦ Isolation medium between energized transformer
parts.
 Oil cooling types:
1. ONAN - Oil Natural Air Natural
2. ONAF - Oil Natural Air Forced
3. OFAF - Oil Forced Air Forced
4. OFAN- Oil Forced Air Natural
5. ONWF-Oil Natural Water Forced
6. OFWF- Oil Forced Water Forced
1. It is protect the core and the windings.
2. Holds the terminals of the transformer.
3. contains the oil.
4. Holds the cooling radiators.
 it connected to the main tank and provides
adequate space for expansion of oil inside
the transformer due to heat that produced
during the loading of the transformer.
 Filled by 30%.
 Physical protection device.
 Depends on the gases that generated in the
transformer during over heating.
 Gives two signals; alarm and trip.
 When a fault occurred the gases start to go
up towards the conservator tank.
 When they arrive the Buchholz Relay, they rise
into the top chamber.
 As the gases build up in the relay and the oil
level becomes lower than the upper float, a
contact closed and sends an alarm massege.
 If the oil level drops below the lower float,
another contact closed and send trip massage
and open the transformer breaker.
 The air is enters and leave the transformer
throw the breather.
 It contains silica gel, to remove
air moisture.
 Operate if the internal pressure reach 30% of
setting.
 Oil temp. meter.
 H.v temp. meter.
 L.v temp. meter.