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# Chapter 1

Introduction to
Statistics

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WHAT IS STATISTICS?

Definition
Statistics is the science of planning studies and
experiments; obtaining data; and then
organizing, summarizing, presenting, analyzing,
interpreting, and drawing conclusions based on
the data.

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Inferential Statistics 3 . TYPES OF STATISTICS 1. Descriptive Statistics 2.

That is. The data could be collected from either a population or a sample but the results help us organize and describe data. TYPES OF STATISTICS Descriptive statistics includes statistical procedures that we use to describe the population we are studying. the results cannot be generalized to any larger group. 4 . Descriptive statistics can only be used to describe the group that is being studying.

5 . TYPES OF STATISTICS Inferential statistics is concerned with making predictions or inferences about a population from observations and analyses of a sample. That is. we can take the results of an analysis using a sample and can generalize it to the larger population that the sample represents. however. it is imperative that the sample is representative of the group to which it is being generalized. In order to do this.

groups. – Example: A parameter could be their average salary. our population would likely be defined as every university student who graduated within the past one year from any university across the Malaysia. objects. • A parameter is a numerical value that states something about the entire population being studied. – For example. 8/28/2017 Footer Text 6 . or events that the researcher is studying. if we were studying employment patterns of recent Malaysia university graduates. Population • A population is the total set of individuals.

groups. 8/28/2017 Footer Text 7 . • A statistic is a numerical value that states something about a sample. or events. that is selected from the population. • Instead of surveying every recent university graduate in Malaysia. Sample • A sample is a relatively small subset of people. • Example: The average salary of 100 students would be a statistic. we could instead select a sample of recent graduates. objects. which would then be used to generalize the findings to the larger population. which would cost a great deal of time and money.

A subcollection of members drawn from a larger group. C. A collection of observations. D. The complete collection of all elements. B. . A collection of methods for planning studies and experiments.The population is A.

8/28/2017 Footer Text 9 . height. Variables. weight. • Data (singular): The value of the variable associated with one element of a population or sample. or a symbol. a word. • Data (plural): The set of values collected for the variable from each of the elements belonging to the sample. cost and gender. • Experiment: A planned activity whose results yield a set of data. This value may be a number. data & experiment • Variable: A characteristic about each individual element of a population or sample. • Example: temperature.

are meaningful for data resulting from a quantitative variable. Quantitative. Variable: A variable that categorizes or describes an element of a population. such as addition and averaging. are not meaningful for data resulting from a qualitative variable. or Numerical. . • Note: Arithmetic operations such as addition and averaging. • Note: Arithmetic operations. or Categorical. or Attribute. Types of variables Two kinds of variables: Qualitative. Variable: A variable that quantifies an element of a population.

(quantitative) 4. (quantitative) 2. The length of time to complete a mathematics homework assignment. 1. (qualitative) 3. (qualitative) . The amount of gasoline pumped by the next 10 customers at the SHELL pump station. The state in which each truck is registered when stopped and inspected at a weigh station. Example Identify each of the following examples as attribute qualitative (categorical) or quantitative (numerical) variables. The color of the baseball cap worn by each of 20 students.

(i. it’s a number & it can be any value). it’s a number but it only comes in certain values) 2.. Continuous .e. Two Types of Quantitative Variables 1. (i.If the Q variable forms an entire interval along the number line.. 12 .If the Q variable is a set of isolated points on the number line.e. Discrete .

Continuous 2) Type of pen? qualitative 3) Number of pens in box? Quantitative. Example Identify of the following as qualitative/categorical or quantitative. If quantitative. Continuous 6) Color of pen’s ink? Qualitative 13 . continuous or discrete? 1) Length of a pen? Quantitative. Discrete 4) Maker of pen? Qualitative 5) Flow of ink in ml/sec? Quantitative.

A sample is any subset of that population. The population is the age of all faculty members at the college. The experiment would be the method used to select the ages forming the sample and determining the actual age of each faculty member in the sample.Example: A college dean is interested in learning about the average age of faculty. The variable is the “age” of each faculty member. The parameter of interest is the “average” age of all faculty at the college. . For example. we might select 10 faculty members and determine their age. The statistic is the “average” age for all faculty in the sample. One data would be the age of a specific faculty member. The data would be the set of values in the sample. Identify the basic terms in this situation.

Levels of Measurement .

The Levels of Measurement • Nominal • Ordinal • Interval • Ratio .

Why Is Level of Measurement Important? • Helps you decide what statistical analysis is appropriate on the values that were assigned • Helps you decide how to interpret the data from that variable .

• The value does not imply any ordering of the cases. • Even though player 32 has higher number than player 19. for example. Nominal Measurement • The values “name” the attribute uniquely. you can’t say from the data that he’s greater than or more than the other. jersey numbers in football. .

for example. Ordinal Measurement When attributes can be rank-ordered… • Distances between attributes do not have any meaning. 4=college degree. 3=some college..S. 2=H. degree.S.S.. 5=post college Is the distance from 0 to 1 the same as 3 to 4? . 1=some H. code Educational Attainment as 0=less than H.

Interval Measurement When distance between attributes has meaning. for example. temperature (in Fahrenheit) -- distance from 30-40 is same as distance from 70-80 • Note that ratios don’t make any sense -. .80 degrees is not twice as hot as 40 degrees (although the attribute values are).

..we had twice as many clients in this period as we did in the previous six months. . for example. Ratio Measurement • Has an absolute zero that is meaningful • Can construct a meaningful ratio (fraction). number of clients in past six months • It is meaningful to say that “.

a. The study analyzed the impact of vending machines and institution policies on student food consumption. Class rank (Freshman. Senior). Number of days per week a student eats lunch. Ratio b. Ratio 1-22 . Sophomore. Determine the level of measurement of the following variables considered in the study. A total of 1088 students in 20 institutions were surveyed. EXAMPLE Determining the Level of Measurement of a Variable A study was conducted to assess student eating patterns in high institutions in Malaysia. Number of snack and soft drink vending machines. Junior. Nominal c. Whether or not the institution has a closed campus policy during lunch. Ordinal d.

The Hierarchy of Levels Ratio Absolute zero Interval Distance is meaningful Ordinal Attributes can be ordered Nominal Attributes are only named. weakest .

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