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STM Quality

Limited

Measurement Systems
Analysis

TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT

M.S.A.
©©ABSL Power Solutions
STM Quality Limited 2007

STM Quality Outline and Objectives Limited  Introduce Measurement Systems  Assess Measurement Systems Performance  Understand Measurement System Variation © STM Quality Limited .

states: • Statistical studies shall be conducted to analyse the variation present in the results of each type of measuring and test equipment system.S. STM Quality Requirements for M. Limited • TS16949 Clause 7. © STM Quality Limited .6. This requirement shall apply to measurement systems referenced in the control plan.A. The analytical methods and acceptance criteria used shall conform to those in customer reference manuals on measurement systems analysis.1. Other analytical methods and acceptance criteria may be used if approved by the customer.

STM Quality Process Control Limited A Typical Process People Methods Identifying Material PROCESS Product Improvement Equipment Opportunities Environment Input Process / System Output Accurate Measurement using Measurement System Analysis © STM Quality Limited .

STM Quality New Process Acceptance Limited  Observed Process  Production Gauge Variation Variation  Actual Process Variation © STM Quality Limited .

Reproducibility © STM Quality Limited . Assessing STM Quality Measurement Systems Limited  Location variation – Bias – Stability  Width variation – Linearity – Repeatability.

STM Quality Determining and Assessing Bias Limited  Bias is the difference between Observed the observed average of Average Value measurement and the reference value. also known as the accepted reference value or master value. Bias  The reference value. A reference Value value can be determined by averaging several measurements with a higher level of measuring equipment. is a value that serves as an agreed-upon reference for the Reference measured values. © STM Quality Limited .

STM Quality Determining and Assessing Stability Limited Time  Stability (or drift) is the total variation in the measurements obtained with a measurement system • on the same master or part when measuring a single characteristic • over an extended time period Reference Value © STM Quality Limited .

STM Quality Determining and Assessing Linearity Limited  Linearity is the difference in the bias values through the expected operating range of the gauge. Reference Observed Reference Value Observed Average Value Value Average Value Smaller Larger Bias Bias 50mm 200mm © STM Quality Limited .

STM Quality Determining Repeatability Limited  Repeatability is the variation in measurements obtained • By one appraiser • with one measurement instrument • when used several times • while measuring the identical characteristic • on the same part Repeatability © STM Quality Limited .

STM Quality Determining Reproducibility Limited  Reproducibility is the variation in the average of the measurements made • by different appraisers • using the same measuring instrument • when measuring the identical characteristic Reproducibility • on the same part © STM Quality Limited .

• 3 trials. • The operator is not properly trained in how to use and read the gauge.  If reproducibility is large compared to repeatability then. Preparing For A STM Quality Measurement System Study Limited  Variable Gauge Study (Average and Range Method) The average and range method of gauge study breaks the gauge error into repeatability and reproducibility. • Graduations on the gauge are not clear. • 10 parts. Study of the results can provide information concerning the causes of the measurement error. Optimum conditions: • 3 operators. © STM Quality Limited .

Determining and Assessing STM Quality Repeatability and Reproducibility Limited  There are three methods:  Range Method.  Average and Range Method.  Analysis of Variation Method (ANOVA). © STM Quality Limited .

4) © STM Quality Limited .  Gauge R&R = 99%-area under the normal distribution curve (2*2.576*variation). Determining and Assessing STM Quality Repeatability and Reproducibility Limited Range Method  Gives a quick approximation of measurement variability. (not sufficient for PPAP and QS-9000 clause 4.  Each appraiser measures each part once.  Evaluate the range at each part.  Estimate the variation between the measurement results over the average Range (R/d2).  Conducted with 2 appraisers and 5 parts.11. It does not decompose the variability into repeatability and reproducability.

norm.)  Total VariationTV² = (R&R)² + PV² (99%.  Evaluation graphical or numerical. distr. distr.)  Part Variation PV (99%.norm. Determining and Assessing STM Quality Repeatability and Reproducibility Limited Average and Range Method  Evaluates Repeatability and Reproducibility separately.  Each appraiser measures each part three time in a random order.  Conducted typically with three appraisers and 10 parts.norm.)  AV (appraiser variation) (99%. distr.norm. distr. distr.  EV (equipment variation) (99%.)  R&R (R&R)² = EV² + AV² (99%.norm.) © STM Quality Limited .

Determining and Assessing STM Quality Repeatability and Reproducibility Limited Analysis of Variation Method  Evaluates Repeatability and Reproducibility separately.)  AV (appraiser variation) (99%. distr. distr.  Evaluation graphical or numerical. reproducibility and interaction (I)  R&R (R&R)² = EV² + AV²+I² (99%.  Conducted typically with three appraisers and 10 parts.)  Total Variation TV² = (R&R)² + PV² (99%.  Evaluates Interaction between appraiser and part. distr. distr.norm.norm.norm.) © STM Quality Limited .)  Part Variation PV (99%.)  R&R (repeatability.norm.  EV (equipment variation) (99%.  Each appraiser measures each part three time in a random order. distr.norm.

Determining and Assessing STM Quality Repeatability and Reproducibility Limited  If repeatability is large compared to reproducibility.  Calibrations on the gauge dial are not clear.  A fixture of some sort may be needed to help the appraiser use the gauge more consistently.  If reproducibility is large compared to repeatability.  There is excessive part variation.  The gauge should be redesigned to be more rigid. © STM Quality Limited .  The clamping or location for gauging needs to be improved. the reasons may be:  The instrument needs maintenance. then possible causes could be:  The appraiser needs to be better trained in how to use and read the gauge instrument.