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 Mechanical Working of metal is plastic deformation performed to change the
dimensions, properties and surface condition with the help of mechanical

 Depending upon temperature it may be Hot Working or Cold Working.

 Plastic deformation takes place due to deformation by slip and deformation by
twin formation

 During plastic deformation, Metal is said to flow  Grain shape is changed.

 At high temperature , New grains start growing at the location of internal stress.

 Recrystalization: Process of formation of new grains and corresponding
temperature is known as Recrystalization temperature ( Which differentiate the
hot working and cold working )

 Hot Working ( Mechanical working of metals above the recrystalization
temperature and Below the melting point of metal)

Introduction  Cold Working ( Mechanical working of metals below the recrystalization temperature ) .

Forging)  Stress required during elastic deformation is lower than plastic deformation. . Plastic Deformation  External force  Stress in the material  Results in deformation Elastic Deformation : Stress is below the elastic limit Body regains its original shape on removal of external force Plastic Deformation : Stress is above the elastic limit  Material can be deformed permanently and shaped as per the requirement  Plastic Deformation can be done through (Forming Rolling Drawing.

Nature of Stress applied :  Non –Uniform tri-axial stresses are favorable for plastic deformation  In Extrusion . Rolling. Upsetting and Die forging  This types of stresses used. Factors affecting plastic deformation 1.  Stain rate is directly proportional to the speed of deformation 4. 3. Strain Rate:  It increases overall deformation stress and tool wear . Strain Rate:  Deformation of material in unit time. 2. Temperature:  Plasticity is higher in between Recrystalization temperature and Melting Point temperature.

Von Mise’s Maximum distortion energy criteria. . Tresca’s Maximum shear stress criteria 2.  It concerns about the limit of elasticity in a material under any possible combination of stresses.  In plastic deformation. 1. Yield Criteria  Deformation takes place under complex state of stress. Yield criteria must have to consider the stress which are responsible for plastic flow.

. Work Hardening  It is the phenomenon by which metals become harder and stronger during mechanical working (During Plastic deformation).  After initial work hardening . More and More stress required to further deform material.